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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Data code: PM

Government type: constitutional republic

National capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui,
Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from
Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES Gonzalez Revilla
(since 1 September 1994); First Vice President Tomas Gabriel
ALTAMIRANO DUQUE (since 1 September 1994); Second Vice President
Felipe Alejandro VIRZI Lopez (since 1 September 1994); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government : President Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES Gonzalez
Revilla (since 1 September 1994); First Vice President Tomas Gabriel
ALTAMIRANO DUQUE (since 1 September 1994); Second Vice President
Felipe Alejandro VIRZI Lopez (since 1 September 1994); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 8 May 1994 (next
to be held 9 May 1999)
election results: Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES elected president; percent
of vote - Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES (PRD) 33%, Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER
(PA) 29%, Ruben BLADES (MPE) 17%, Ruben Dario CARLES (MOLIRENA) 16%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections : last held 8 May 1994 (next to be held 9 May 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRD
32, PS 4, PALA 1, PA 14, MPE 6, MOLIRENA 4, PLA 3, PRC 3, PL 2, PDC 1,
UDI 1, MORENA 1
note: legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a
plurality basis while districts located in more populous towns and
cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based
formula

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
nine judges appointed for 10-year terms; five superior courts; three
courts of appeal

Political parties and leaders:
governing coalition : Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Gerardo
GONZALEZ; Liberal Republican Party (PLR), Rodolfo CHIARI; Labor Party
(PALA), Carlos Lopez GUEVARA
other parties: Solidarity Party (PS), Samuel LEWIS GALINDO;
Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), Ramon MORALES
Quijano; Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCALONA; Arnulfista
Party (PA), Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER; Christian Democratic Party
(PDC), Ruben AROSEMENA; Liberal Party (PL), Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta;
Papa Egoro Movement (MPE), Gloria YOUNG; Civic Renewal Party (PRC),
Tomas HERRERA; National Unity Mission Party (MUN), Jose Manuel
PAREDES; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jacinto CARDENAS;
National Renovation Movement (MORENA), Pedro VALLERINO

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Council of Organized
Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP);
Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE); National Civic
Crusade; Chamber of Commerce; Panamanian Industrialists Society (SIP);
Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama (CTRP)

International organization participation: AG (associate), CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo Gonzalez MORGAN
chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407
consulate(s) general : Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Tampa

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William John HUGHES
embassy: Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5
mailing address : American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002
telephone: [507] 227-1377
FAX: [507] 227-1964

Flag description: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top
quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the
center and plain red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side)
and white with a red five-pointed star in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: Because of its key geographic location, Panama's
economy is service-based, heavily weighted toward banking, commerce,
and tourism. Panama's former protectionist policies have taken their
toll, and the economy has been sluggish the last two years, with GDP
growth at 1.9% in 1995 and 1.5% in 1996. Although tourism and the
Panama Canal posted growth in 1996, most sectors remained stagnant,
and some, like the Colon Free Zone, banana and shrimp exports, and
construction, were down from 1995. Although the PEREZ BALLADARES
administration has advanced an economic reform program designed to
liberalize the trade regime, attract foreign investment, privatize
state-owned enterprises, institute fiscal reform, and encourage
job-creation through labor code reform, the positive effects of this
program have not yet been felt at the macroeconomic level. In 1996,
the government concluded a Brady-type plan to restructure the
country's commercial debt - one of the highest in the world in per
capita terms - allowing it to reenter international financial markets.
Panama also completed all requirements to join the World Trade
Organization (WTrO) and is awaiting legislative ratification to become
a full member.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $14 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry : 16%
services: 74% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.3% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 1.015 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: government and community services 31.8%, agriculture,
hunting, and fishing 26.8%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16.4%,
manufacturing and mining 9.4%, construction 3.2%, transportation and
communications 6.2%, finance, insurance, and real estate 4.3%
note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

Unemployment rate: 14% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $1.86 billion
expenditures: $1.86 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: construction, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and
other construction materials, sugar milling

Industrial production growth rate: 0.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.1405 billion kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3.519 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,069 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane,
vegetables; livestock; fishing (shrimp)

Exports:
total value: $570 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: bananas 43%, shrimp 11%, sugar 4%, clothing 5%, coffee 2%
partners: US 39%, EU, Central America and Caribbean

Imports:
total value: $2.512 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: capital goods 21%, crude oil 11%, foodstuffs 9%, consumer
goods, chemicals
partners: US 40%, EU, Central America and Caribbean, Japan

Debt - external: $5.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $58 million (1993)

Currency: 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Panama:Communications

Telephones: 273,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic and international facilities well developed
domestic: NA
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave
System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 564,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 23

Televisions: 420,000 (1992 est.)

@Panama:Transportation

Railways:
total : 355 km
broad gauge: 76 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 279 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 10,792 km
paved : 3,615 km
unpaved: 7,177 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama
Canal

Pipelines: crude oil 130 km

Ports and harbors: Balboa, Cristobal, Coco Solo, Vacamonte

Merchant marine:
total: 4,062 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 80,120,443
GRT/122,668,194 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1,051, cargo 1,049, chemical tanker 172,
combination bulk 65, combination ore/oil 21, container 353, liquefied
gas tanker 169, livestock carrier 8, multifunction large-load carrier
4, oil tanker 529, passenger 35, passenger-cargo 10, railcar carrier
1, refrigerated cargo 293, roll-on/roll-off cargo 90, short-sea
passenger 38, specialized tanker 12, vehicle carrier 162
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 76 countries
among which are Japan 1,240, Greece 361, Hong Kong 301, South Korea
226, Taiwan 212, China 168, Singapore 132, US 127, Switzerland 76, and
UK 65 (1996 est.)

Airports: 97 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 80
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m : 59 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 17 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Panamanian Public Forces (PPF; includes the
National Police, National Maritime Service, National Air Service, and
Institutional Protective Service); Judicial Technical Police; note -
the Constitution prohibits armed forces

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 719,467 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 493,819 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $78 million (1995); note - for
police and security forces

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major cocaine transshipment point and major drug
money-laundering center; minor producer of coca leaf; active
eradication program
______________________________________________________________________

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

@Papua New Guinea:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern
half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South
Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 147 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water : 9,980 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 820 km
border countries : Indonesia 820 km

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf : 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast
monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil,
fisheries

Land use:
arable land : 0.1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 92.9%
other : 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Rim of
Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe
earthquakes; mud slides

Environment - current issues: rain forest subject to deforestation as
a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution
from mining projects

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of
world's largest swamps along southwest coast

@Papua New Guinea:People

Population: 4,496,221 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 40% (male 921,227; female 874,290)
15-64 years: 57% (male 1,338,483; female 1,229,180)
65 years and over: 3% (male 61,082; female 71,959) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.28% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 32.65 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.83 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.65 years
male: 56.78 years
female: 58.56 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.36 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean

Ethnic groups: Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%,
Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%,
Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant
sects 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%

Languages: English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu
spoken in Papua region
note: 715 indigenous languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 72.2%
male: 81%
female: 62.7% (1995 est.)

@Papua New Guinea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG

Data code: PP

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Port Moresby

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu,
Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang,
Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern,
Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New
Britain

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Constitution: 16 September 1975

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Wiwa KOROWI (since 11 November
1991)
head of government : Acting Prime Minister John GIHENO (since 27 March
1997); Acting Deputy Prime Minister Andrew BAING (since 27 March
1997); note - John GIHENO and Andrew BAING assumed the respective
posts of acting prime minister and acting deputy prime minister after
Prime Minister Sir Julius CHAN (in office since 30 August 1994) and
Deputy Prime Minister Chris HAIVETA (in office since 7 September 1994)
were required to step down during an inquiry into the government's
hiring of mercenaries to assist the Papua New Guinea Defense Forces
against Bougainville rebels; the inquiry is scheduled to conclude on
30 May 1997
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general
on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the National Executive Council; prime minister and deputy
prime minister appointed by the governor general for up to five years
on the basis of majority support in National Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament - sometimes
referred to as the House of Assembly (109 seats - 89 elected from open
electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13-26 June 1992 (next to be held 14-28 June 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Pangu Party 24, PDM 17, PPP 10, PAP 10, independents 30, others 18;
note - association with political parties is fluid

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the
governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council
after consultation with the minister responsible for justice, other
judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission

Political parties and leaders: Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu
Party), Chris HAIVETA; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Roy YAKI;
People's Action Party (PAP), Ted DIRO; People's Progress Party (PPP),
Sir Julius CHAN; Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS; People's
United Party (PUP), David UNASI; National Party (NP), Mathias IJAPE;
United Party (UP), Paul TORATO; Papua Party (PP), Galeva KWARARA;
National Alliance (NA), Sir Michael SOMARE; Movement For Greater
Autonomy, Stephen POKAWIN; Black Action Party (BAP), John WAIKO;
League for National Advancement (LNA), Thomas PELIKA

International organization participation: ACP, APEC, AsDB, C, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nagora Y. BOGAN
chancery: 3rd floor, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20009
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
FAX : [1] (202) 745-3679

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arma Jane KARAER
embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby
mailing address: P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby
telephone : [675] 321-1455
FAX: [675] 321-3423

Flag description: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the
upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered;
the lower triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the
Southern Cross constellation centered

Economy

Economy - overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural
resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain
and the high cost of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture
provides a subsistence livelihood for the bulk of the population.
Mineral deposits, including oil, copper, and gold, account for 72% of
export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and development aid
under World Bank auspices have helped sustain the economy. In 1995,
Port Moresby reached agreement with the IMF and World Bank on a
structural adjustment program, of which the first phase was
successfully completed in 1996. A second phase structural adjustment
loan will be negotiated in 1997. The structural adjustment program
includes liberalization of trade and investment policies, sustainable
development of the forestry sector, improvement of government planning
capacity and better delivery of public services. New gold and oil
projects are under development and planned to begin production in 1997
and 1998 respectively.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 27%
industry: 42%
services: 31%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.941 million
by occupation: agriculture 64% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.35 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production,
wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil
production; construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 252,000 kW (1992)

Electricity - production: 1.71 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 382 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea,
rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables; poultry, pork

Exports:
total value: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: gold, copper ore, oil, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa,
lobster
partners : Australia, Japan, US, Singapore, New Zealand

Imports:
total value: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
food, fuels, chemicals
partners : Australia, Japan, UK, New Zealand, Netherlands

Debt - external: $3.2 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $291 million (1993); $240 million bilateral aid from
Australia (FY96/97 est.); $4.1 million ODA from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 kina (K) = 100 toea

Exchange rates: kina (K) per US$1 - 0.7451 (December 1996), 0.7588
(1996), 0.7835 (1995), 0.9950 (1994), 1.0221 (1993), 1.0367 (1992);
note - the government floated the kina on 10 October 1994

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Papua New Guinea:Communications

Telephones: 63,212 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: services are adequate and being improved; facilities
provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical
radio, and international radio communication services
domestic: mostly radiotelephone
international: submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio
communication service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 298,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 10,000 (1992 est.)

@Papua New Guinea:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 19,400 km
paved: 660 km
unpaved: 18,740 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 10,940 km

Ports and harbors: Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,614 GRT/29,643 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 3, combination ore/oil 5, container 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 451 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 387
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 370 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 64
1,524 to 2,437 m : 12
914 to 1,523 m: 52 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (includes Ground,
Naval, and Air Forces, and Special Forces Unit)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,174,591 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 653,179 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $63 million (1997); note -
includes $12 million to cover leftover 1996 expenditures

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

PARACEL ISLANDS

@Paracel Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of small islands and reefs in the
South China Sea, about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to
the northern Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 16 30 N, 112 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total : NA sq km
land: NA sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 518 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Rocky Island 14 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

@Paracel Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are scattered Chinese garrisons

@Paracel Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Paracel Islands

Data code: PF

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Paracel Islands:Communications

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Paracel Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and
Duncan Island being expanded

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (on Woody Island) (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: occupied by China

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and
Vietnam
______________________________________________________________________

PARAGUAY

@Paraguay:Geography

Location: Central South America, northeast of Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 S, 58 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 406,750 sq km
land: 397,300 sq km
water: 9,450 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries:
total: 3,920 km
border countries: Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions,
becoming semiarid in the far west

Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran
Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the
river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m
highest point: Cerro San Rafael 850 m

Natural resources: hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 55%
forests and woodland : 32%
other: 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: local flooding in southeast (early September to
June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

Environment - current issues: deforestation (an estimated 2 million
hectares of forest land have been lost from 1958-85); water pollution;
inadequate means for waste disposal present health risks for many
urban residents

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and
Brazil

@Paraguay:People

Population: 5,651,634 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 1,163,416; female 1,113,654)
15-64 years: 56% (male 1,571,685; female 1,564,757)
65 years and over: 4% (male 109,547; female 128,575) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.62% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 30.47 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.24 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population : 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.1 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 75.68 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.08 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, white plus
Amerindian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite and other Protestant
denominations

Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.1%
male: 93.5%
female : 90.6% (1995 est.)

@Paraguay:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay

Data code: PA

Government type: republic

National capital: Asuncion

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion,
Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion,
Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente
Hayes, San Pedro

Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)

Constitution: promulgated 20 June 1992

Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes;
judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does
not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 60

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Juan Carlos WASMOSY (since 15 August 1993)
and Vice President Roberto Angel SEIFART (since 15 August 1993); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Carlos WASMOSY (since 15 August
1993) and Vice President Roberto Angel SEIFART (since 15 August 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet : Council of Ministers nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 9 May 1993 (next
to be held NA May 1998)
election results: Juan Carlos WASMOSY elected president; percent of
vote - Juan Carlos WASMOSY 40.09%, Domingo LAINO 32.06%, Guillermo
CABALLERO VARGAS 23.04%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the
Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of
Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held
10 May 1998); Chamber of Deputies - last held 9 May 1993 (next to be
held NA May 1998)
election results : Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
NA; seats by party - Colorado Party 20, PLRA 17, EN 8; Chamber of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Colorado
Party 38, PLRA 33, EN 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
judges appointed on the proposal of the Counsel of Magistrates
(Consejo de la Magistratura)

Political parties and leaders: Colorado Party, Luis Maria ARGANA,
president; Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), Domingo LAINO;
National Encounter (EN), Carlos FILIZZOLA; Christian Democratic Party
(PDC), Miguel MONTANER; Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Victor
SANCHEZ Villagra; Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo Richer

Political pressure groups and leaders: Unitary Workers Central (CUT);
Roman Catholic Church; National Workers Central (CNT); Paraguayan
Workers Confederation (CPT)

International organization participation: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
Mercosur, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Jorge G. PRIETO CONTI
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general : Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert E. SERVICE
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728

Flag description: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in
that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at
the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star
within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all
within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the
seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the
words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA
DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

Economy

Economy - overview: Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large
informal sector. The informal sector features both reexport of
imported consumer goods (electronics, whiskeys, perfumes, cigarettes,
and office equipment) to neighboring countries as well as by the
activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors.
The formal sector is largely oriented toward services, but a large
percentage of the population derive their living from agricultural
activity, often on a subsistence basis. The formal economy has grown
an average of 3% to 4% over the past five years. However, population
has increased at 3% a year over the same period, leaving per capita
income nearly stagnant. The WASMOSY government has continued to pursue
its economic reform agenda - with mixed success - in close
coordination with its partners in Mercosur (Southern Cone Common
Market). Paraguay's ongoing integration into Mercosur offers potential
for investment and growth. Although GDP grew by only about 1.5% in
1996, it is expected to grow at a higher rate in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $17.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26.3%
industry: 20.7%
services: 53% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8.2% (December 1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.8 million (1995 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 45%

Unemployment rate: 5.3% (urban) (1995)

Budget:
revenues : $1.25 billion (1995 est.)
expenditures: $1.66 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing,
textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 1.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 6,927,500 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 41.625 billion kWh (1995)
note: exported about 37.9 million kW of electricity

Electricity - consumption per capita: 616 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat,
tobacco, cassava (tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs,
milk; timber

Exports:
total value: $819.5 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cotton, soybeans, timber, vegetable oils, meat products,
coffee, tung oil
partners: EU 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%

Imports:
total value: $2.871 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, raw materials,
fuels
partners : Brazil 30%, EU 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $38 million (1993)

Currency: 1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: guaranies (G) per US$ - 2,139.1 (January 1997),
2,063.8 (1996), 1,970.4 (1995), 1,911.5 (1994), 1,744.3 (1993),
1,500.3 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Paraguay:Communications

Telephones: 88,730 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: meager telephone service; principal switching center
is Asuncion
domestic: fair microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 40, FM 0, shortwave 7

Radios: 775,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 370,000 (1992 est.)

@Paraguay:Transportation

Railways:
total: 971 km
standard gauge: 441 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge : 60 km 1.000-m gauge
other gauge: 470 km various gauges (privately owned)

Highways:
total : 28,900 km
paved: 2,717 km
unpaved: 26,183 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,100 km

Ports and harbors: Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion

Merchant marine:
total : 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,379 GRT/32,510 DWT
ships by type: cargo 14, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 3,
roll-on/roll-off 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 725 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 436
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 427 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 289
1,524 to 2,437 m : 22
914 to 1,523 m: 267 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines), Air
Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,380,775 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,001,316 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 61,382 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $94 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.6% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of the boundary with Brazil,
just west of Salto del Guaira (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, has
not been precisely delimited

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; transshipment country for Bolivian cocaine headed for Europe
and the US
______________________________________________________________________

PERU

@Peru:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean,
between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 1,285,220 sq km
land : 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 6,940 km
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km,
Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : 200 nm
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in
center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron
ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use:
arable land : 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild
volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes
of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air
pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from
municipal and mining wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
navigable lake, with Bolivia

@Peru:People

Population: 25,573,924 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 4,693,504; female 4,532,607)
15-64 years : 59% (male 7,658,718; female 7,551,588)
65 years and over: 5% (male 519,294; female 618,213) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 27.26 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.14 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.55 years
male : 67.38 years
female: 71.82 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white)
37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.7%
male: 94.5%
female: 83% (1995 est.)

@Peru:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru

Data code: PE

Government type: republic

National capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia
constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho,
Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La
Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco,
Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions
(regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous
economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been
constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto),
Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from
Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from
Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los
Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui
(from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from
Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin),
Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed
by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge
with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the
central government and organizational and political difficulties, the
regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993
constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993
constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal
governments

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28
July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since
28 July 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
note: Prime Minister Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu (since 3 April 1996) does
not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the
president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: President FUJIMORI reelected; percent of vote -
Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%, Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes
CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%

Legislative branch: unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress or
Congresso Constituyente Democratico (120 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - C90/NM 52.1%, UPP 14%, 11
other parties 33.9%; seats by party, when installed on 28 July 1995 -
C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3,
Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, MIA 1, FRENATRACA 1, FREPAP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Change 90-New Majority (C90/NM),
Alberto FUJIMORI; Union for Peru (UPP), Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR;
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Agustin MANTILLA
Campos; Independent Moralizing Front (FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega;
Democratic Coordinator (CODE) - Pais Posible, Jose BARBA Caballero and
Alejandro TOLEDO; Popular Action Party (AP), Juan DIAZ Leon; Popular
Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Renovation Party, Rafael REY
Rey; Civic Works Movement (OBRAS), Ricardo BELMONT; United Left (IU),
Agustin HAYA de la TORRE; Independent Agrarian Movement (MIA), Rolando
SALVATERRIE; Peru 2000-National Front of Workers and Peasants
(FRENATRACA), Roger CACARES; Popular Agricultural Front (FREPAP),
Ezequiel ATAUCUSI

Political pressure groups and leaders: leftist guerrilla groups
include Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned); Tupac Amaru
Revolutionary Movement, Nestor CERPA and Victor POLAY (imprisoned)

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA Mendoza
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone : [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Dennis C. JETT
embassy: Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17, Monterrico, Lima
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO
AA 34031
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side),
white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the
coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the
source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins,
all framed by a green wreath

Economy

Economy - overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly
market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the
mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s,
the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output,
and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank
support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An
austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government
took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly
contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late
that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as
the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly
price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991
dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a
financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991,
although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By
working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and
arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March
1993. In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual
El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch, but the
economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to
7% in 1993, about 13% in 1994, and 6.8% in 1995. Growth slowed to
about 2.8% in 1996 as the government adopted tight fiscal and monetary
policy to reduce the current account deficit and meet its IMF targets.
Capital inflows surged to record levels in early 1997 despite the MRTA
hostage crisis.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $92 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 42%
services: 45% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 11.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 7.6 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing,
construction, transport, services

Unemployment rate: 8.2%; extensive underemployment (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $8.5 billion
expenditures: $9.3 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing,
food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal
fabrication

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 4,520,200 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 16.04 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 519 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat,
potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, red meats, dairy products, wool;
fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Exports:
total value : $6 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts,
lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
partners: US 19%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany (1995)

Imports:
total value : $7.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum,
iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: US 21%, Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil
(1995)

Debt - external: $23.4 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $363 million (1993)

Currency: 1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.630 (January 1997), 2.453
(1996), 2.253 (1995), 2.195 (1994), 1.988 (1993), 1.246 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Peru:Communications

Telephones: 779,306 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: adequate for most requirements
domestic : nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic
satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 273, FM 0, shortwave 144

Radios: 5.7 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 140

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Peru:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,041 km
standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 315 km 0.914-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 71,400 km
paved: 7,783 km
unpaved : 63,617 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208
km of Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto
Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa,
Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches
of the Amazon and its tributaries

Merchant marine:
total : 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,767 GRT/91,395 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7 (1996 est.)

Airports: 212 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 128
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m : 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 88 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 84
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 59 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del
Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza
Aerea del Peru), National Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 6,591,276 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,446,428 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 259,868 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $998 million (1996); note - may
not include off-budget purchases related to military modernization
program

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador
are in dispute

Illicit drugs: still world's largest coca leaf producer with some
94,400 hectares under cultivation in 1996, even though down 18% from
1995; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine
base; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for
processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports
of finished cocaine are increasing
______________________________________________________________________

PHILIPPINES

@Philippines:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea
and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 122 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 300,000 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from
coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed
polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April);
southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point : Mount Apo 2,954 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold,
salt, copper

Land use:
arable land : 19%
permanent crops: 12%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 15,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and
struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active
volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: uncontrolled deforestation in watershed
areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing
pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding
grounds

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Philippines:People

Population: 76,103,564 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 38% (male 14,677,291; female 14,203,376)
15-64 years: 59% (male 21,994,106; female 22,553,425)
65 years and over: 3% (male 1,198,079; female 1,477,287) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.13% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 28.97 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.59 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population : 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 66.13 years
male: 63.35 years
female: 69.05 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.62 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine

Ethnic groups: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%,
other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and
other 3%

Languages: Pilipino (official, based on Tagalog), English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.6%
male : 95%
female: 94.3% (1995 est.)

@Philippines:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas

Data code: RP

Government type: republic

National capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra,
Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique,
Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*,
Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon,
Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*,
Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin,
Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*,
Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del
Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General
Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo,
Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna,
Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union,
Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*,
Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental,
Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros
Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva
Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*,
Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto
Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*,
Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in
Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South
Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del
Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*,
Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*,
Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992) and
Vice President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS (since 30 June 1992)
and Vice President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30 June 1992); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the
Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1992 (next
to be held NA May 1998)
election results: Fidel Valdes RAMOS elected president; percent of
vote - Fidel Valdes RAMOS 23.6% (a narrow plurality)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the
Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years;
members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House
of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (204 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - an
additional 50 members may be appointed by the president)
elections : Senate - last held 8 May 1995 (next to be held NA May
1998); House of Representatives - elections last held 8 May 1995 (next
to be held NA May 1998)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - LDP 14, Lakas/NUCD 5, NPC 2, LP 1, PRP 1, independent 1; House
of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Lakas/NUCD 129, LDP 29, NPC (opposition) 25, LP 6, PDP 3, KBL/NPC 1,
results pending 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed for four-year
terms by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar
Council

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Filipino Struggle (Laban ng
Demokratikong Pilipino, LDP), Edgardo ANGARA; People Power-National
Union of Christian Democrats (Lakas ng EDSA-NUCD or Lakas-NUCD), Raul
MANGLAPUS, president, and Jose DE VENECIA, secretary general; Liberal
Party (LP), Raul DAZA; National People's Coalition (NPC), Eduardo
COJUANGCO; People's Reform Party (PRP), Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO; New
Society Movement (Kilusan Bagong Lipunan, KBL), Imelda MARCOS;
Nacionalista Party (NP), Salvador H. LAUREL, president; Filipino
Democratic Party (Partido Demokratikong Philipinas or PDP), Jose
COJUANGCO, is part of the ruling coalition with the LDP

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Chaves RABE
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles,
New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s): San Jose (Saipan)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Thomas C. HUBBARD
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita Manila 1000
mailing address: APO AP 96440
telephone: [63] (2) 521-71-16
FAX: [63] (2) 522-43-61

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red
with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the
center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each
containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle
is a small yellow five-pointed star

Economy

Economy - overview: The Philippine economy, primarily a mixture of
agriculture and light industry, continued its fourth year of recovery
in 1996, led by growth in exports and investments. Officials have
targeted 7.1%-7.8% growth for 1997 after achieving an estimated 5.5%
growth in 1996. The government is continuing its economic reforms to
enable the Philippines to move closer to the development of the newly
industrialized countries of East Asia. The strategy includes improving
infrastructure, overhauling the tax system to bolster government
revenues, and moving toward further deregulation and privatization of
the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $194.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 32%
services: 46% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 29.13 million (1996 est.)
by occupation : agriculture 43.4%, services 22.6%, government services
17.9%, industry and commerce 16.1% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 8.6% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $18.4 billion
expenditures : $16.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food
processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 7.64 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 25.22 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 326 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas,
pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish catch of 2 million metric
tons annually

Exports:
total value : $20.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: electronics, textiles, coconut products,
telecommunications equipment, fruit, fish
partners: US 36%, Japan 16%, Singapore 5%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 5% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $33.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: crude petroleum, telecommunications equipment,
electronics, plastics, cars, textiles
partners: Japan 22%, US 18%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Taiwan 5%, South Korea
5% Singapore 4% (1995)

Debt - external: $42.7 billion (June 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $934 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 26.36 (May 1997),
26.216 (1996), 25.714 (1995), 26.417 (1994), 27.120 (1993), 25.512
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Philippines:Communications

Telephones: 1.8 million (1996)

Telephone system: good international radiotelephone and submarine
cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations
international: submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan,
and Japan; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2
Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 261, FM 55, shortwave 0

Radios: 9.03 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 29

Televisions: 7.6 million (1996)

@Philippines:Transportation

Railways:
total : 499 km
narrow gauge: 499 km 1.067-m gauge (1993)

Highways:
total: 182,000 km (1994 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note : probably less than 30,000 km are designated arterial roads and
not all of these are all-weather roads

Waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m)
vessels

Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km

Ports and harbors: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras
Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa,
San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga

Merchant marine:
total: 523 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,614,831 GRT/12,246,321
DWT
ships by type : bulk 223, cargo 124, chemical tanker 3, combination
bulk 9, container 8, liquefied gas tanker 9, livestock carrier 11, oil
tanker 45, passenger 3, passenger-cargo 13, refrigerated cargo 18,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 14, short-sea passenger 23, vehicle carrier 20
note: a flag of convenience registry; Japan owns 24 ships, Hong Kong
4, UK 2, Denmark 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Singapore 1, and Taiwan 1
(1996 est.)

Airports: 234 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 168
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 103 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 66
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 63 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps),
Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 19,231,427 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 13,574,133 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 782,064 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.3 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.7% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: involved in a complex dispute over the
Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; claims Malaysian state of Sabah

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