Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 33 out of 47

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.8 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts, fruits, vegetables; cattle

Exports: NA
commodities: garments
partners : NA

Imports: NA
commodities: food, construction equipment and materials, petroleum
products
partners : US, Japan

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Northern Mariana Islands:Communications

Telephones: 13,618 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : NA
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3

Radios: 15,350 (1987 est.)

Television broadcast stations: none
note: there are 2 cable TV stations

Televisions: 10,650 (1993 est.)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 362 km (1991 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Saipan, Tinian

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

NORWAY

@Norway:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 324,220 sq km
land: 307,860 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,515 km
border countries: Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413
km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093
km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 10 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current;
colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken
by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented
by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Glittertinden 2,472 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel,
iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 27%
other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution; acid rain damaging
forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air
pollution from vehicle emissions

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off
its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes
and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest
coastlines in world; Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land
boundary with Russia

@Norway:People

Population: 4,399,993 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 440,621; female 417,331)
15-64 years : 65% (male 1,446,739; female 1,399,291)
65 years and over: 16% (male 289,426; female 406,585) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.47% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.25 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.22 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.09 years
male: 75.29 years
female: 81.07 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami) 20,000

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant
and Roman Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)

Languages: Norwegian (official)
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1976 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Norway:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge

Data code: NO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke);
Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og
Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland,
Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence: 26 October 1905 (from Sweden)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common
law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature
when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent
Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Thorbjoern JAGLAND (since 25
October 1996)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the king with the approval of the
Parliament
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch; following
parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of
a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the king
with the approval of the Parliament

Legislative branch: modified unicameral Parliament or Storting which,
for certain purposes, divides itself into two chambers (165 seats;
members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 13 September 1993 (next to be held NA September
1997)
election results : percent of vote by party - Labor 37.1%, Center
Party 18.5%, Conservatives 15.6%, Christian People's 8.4%, Socialist
Left 7.9%, Progress 6%, Left Party 3.6%, Red Electoral Alliance 1.2%;
seats by party - Labor 67, Center Party 32, Conservatives 18,
Christian People's 13, Socialist Left 13, Progress 10, Left Party 1,
Red Electoral Alliance 1, unawarded 10
note : for certain purposes, the Parliament divides itself into two
chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or
Lagting

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett, justices appointed by
the king

Political parties and leaders: Labor Party [Thorbjorn JAGLAND];
Conservative Party [Jan PETERSEN]; Center Party [Anne ENGER
LAHNSTEIN]; Christian People's Party [Valgerd HAUGLAND]; Socialist
Left [Erik SOLHEIM]; Norwegian Communist [Kare Andre NILSEN]; Progress
Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Liberal [Odd Einar DORUM]; Left Party; Red
Electoral Alliance [Erling FOLKVORD]

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR,
NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN,
UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMOP, UNPREDEP,
UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tom-Erik VRAALSON
chancery : 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Minneapolis, New York, and San
Francisco
consulate(s): Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Thomas A. LOFTUS
embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] 22 44 85 50
FAX : [47] 22 44 33 63

Flag description: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

Economy - overview: Norway is a prosperous bastion of welfare
capitalism. The economy consists of a combination of free market
activity and government intervention. The government controls key
areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state
enterprises), and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and
areas with sparse resources. Norway maintains an extensive welfare
system that helps propel public sector expenditures to more than 50%
of GDP and results in one of the highest average tax levels in the
world (46%). A small country with a high dependence on international
trade, Norway is basically an exporter of raw materials and
semiprocessed goods, with an abundance of small- and medium-sized
firms, and is ranked among the major shipping nations. The country is
richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish,
forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil sector.
Only Saudi Arabia exports more oil than Norway. Norway imports more
than half its food needs. Economic growth, only 1.6% in 1993, has
improved steadily over the past few years, resulting in a budget
surplus in 1996. Oslo opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum
in November 1994. Despite their high per capita income - outstripped
among major nations only by the US - and their generous welfare
benefits, the Norwegians worry about that time in the 21st century
when the oil and gas run out.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $114.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $26,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.9%
industry: 34.7%
services : 62.4% (1991)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.13 million
by occupation: services 71%, industry 23%, agriculture, forestry, and
fishing 6% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $48.6 billion
expenditures: $53 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994
est.)

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and
paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 26.43 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 123.2 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 24,586 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: oats, other grains; beef, milk; livestock
output exceeds value of crops; among world's top 10 fishing nations;
fish catch of 2.33 million metric tons in 1994

Exports:
total value: $41.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 43%, metals and products
11%, foodstuffs (mostly fish) 9%, chemicals and raw materials 25%,
natural gas 6.0%, ships 5.4%
partners: EU 77.2% (UK 19.8%, Germany 12.7%, Netherlands 9.1%, France
7.8%, Sweden 9.8%), US 6.0% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $32.7 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery and equipment and manufactured consumer goods
54%, chemicals and other industrial inputs 39%, foodstuffs 6%
partners: EU 71.0% (Sweden 15.4%, Germany 13.8%, UK 9.7%, Denmark
7.5%, Netherlands 4.4%), US 6.6% (1995)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.014 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.4475 (January
1997), 6.4498 (1996), 6.3352 (1995), 7.0576 (1994), 7.0941 (1993),
6.2145 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Norway:Communications

Telephones: 2.39 million (1994 est.); 470,000 mobile phones in use in
1994

Telephone system: high-quality domestic and international telephone,
telegraph, and telex services
domestic: NA domestic satellite earth stations
international: 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine
cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note -
Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic
countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 46, FM 493 (350 private and 143
government), shortwave 0

Radios: 3.3 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 54 (repeaters 2,100)

Televisions: 1.5 million (1993 est.)

@Norway:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,027 km
standard gauge: 4,027 km 1.435-m gauge (2422 km electrified; 96 km
double track) (1995)

Highways:
total: 90,261 km
paved : 66,342 km (including 105 km of expressways)
unpaved: 23,919 km (1995)

Waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels maximum

Pipelines: refined products 53 km

Ports and harbors: Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad,
Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger,
Tromso, Trondheim

Merchant marine:
total : 718 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,401,580
GRT/31,740,273 DWT
ships by type: bulk 102, cargo 106, chemical tanker 83, combination
bulk 9, combination ore/oil 33, container 16, liquefied gas tanker 87,
multi-function large load carrier 1, oil tanker 148, passenger 14,
passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 10,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 49, short-sea passenger 24, vehicle carrier 34
note: the government has created an internal register, the Norwegian
International Ship register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian
register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience
and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians (1996 est.)

Airports: 102 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 97
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 59 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (includes
Coast Artillery and Coast Guard), Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home
Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,112,390 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 925,780 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 27,382 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.7 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.9% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud
Land); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute in the
Barents Sea between Norway and Russia

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for drugs shipped via the CIS
and Baltic states for the European market; increasing domestic
consumption of cannabis and amphetamines
______________________________________________________________________

OMAN

@Oman:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and
Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE

Geographic coordinates: 21 00 N, 57 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 212,460 sq km
land: 212,460 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
total: 1,374 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong
southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal ash Sham 2,980 m

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble,
limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 95% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust
storms in interior; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: rising soil salinity; beach pollution
from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location with small foothold on Musandam
Peninsula controlling Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for
world crude oil

@Oman:People

Population: 2,264,590 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 527,091; female 507,849)
15-64 years: 51% (male 632,647; female 535,149)
65 years and over: 3% (male 27,974; female 33,880) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.49% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 37.85 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.39 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.18 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.8 years
male : 68.84 years
female: 72.85 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.02 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Omani(s)
adjective: Omani

Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri
Lankan, Bangladeshi), African

Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu

Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: approaching 80%
male : NA%
female: NA%

@Oman:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form : Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman

Data code: MU

Government type: monarchy

National capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: 6 regions (mintaqah, singular - mintaqat)
and 2 governorates* (muhafazah, singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah,
Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*,
Zufar*

Independence: 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)

National holiday: National Day, 18 November (1940)

Constitution: none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a
royal decree promulgating a new basic law which, among other things,
clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars
ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the
government, establishes a bicameral Omani council, and guarantees
basic civil liberties for Omani citizens

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate
appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said
(since 23 July 1970); note - the sultan is both the chief of state and
head of government
head of government : Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said
(since 23 July 1970); note - the sultan is both the chief of state and
head of government
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the sultan
elections: none; the sultan is a hereditary monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Consultative Council or Majlis
ash-Shura (80 members; two appointed from each wilayat with a
population over 30,000, one appointed from each of the other wilayats;
members serve four-year terms; has advisory powers only)
note: new basic law to be implemented in 1997, provides for an upper
chamber - the Majlis ad-Dawla or State Council; also the Majlis
ash-Shura will be expanded to 110 members; the resulting bicameral
legislature will be known as the Omani Council

Judicial branch: none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil
court system, administered by region

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Aqil al-DHAHAB
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1982
FAX : [1] (202) 745-4933

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Frances D. COOK
embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: domestic - Unit 73000, Box 1, APO AE 09890-3000;
international - P. O. Box 202, Code No. 115, Medinat Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: [968] 698989 (Medinat Qaboos, switchboard)
FAX: [968] 699779

Flag description: three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of
equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the
national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two
crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the
vertical band

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic performance is closely tied to the
fortunes of the oil industry. Petroleum accounts for 75% of export
earnings and government revenues and for roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has
proved oil reserves of 4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20
years' supply at the current rate of extraction. Agriculture is
carried on at a subsistence level and the general population depends
on imported food. The year 1996 was marked by higher oil production
and prices. The government is encouraging private investment, both
domestic and foreign, as a prime force for further economic
development.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3%
industry: 55%
services : 42% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 454,000
by occupation: agriculture 37% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $5.3 billion
expenditures: $6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997
est.)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production,
construction, cement, copper

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.74 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 7.39 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,412 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables;
camels, cattle; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value: $7.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum 75%, reexports, fish, processed copper,
textiles
partners: Japan 32%, South Korea 16%, Thailand 12%, China 8%, US 6%,
Taiwan 6% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $5.5 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods,
food, livestock, lubricants
partners : UAE 25% (largely reexports), UK 16%, Japan 16%, France 11%,
US 5% (1995)

Debt - external: $2.7 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $82 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza

Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate since
1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Oman:Communications

Telephones: 150,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system consisting of open wire, microwave,
and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable
domestic: open wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a
domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 1

Radios: 1.043 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 1.195 million (1992 est.)

@Oman:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 5,000 km
paved: 3,500 km (including 426 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,500 km (1983 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

Ports and harbors: Matrah, Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Raysut

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,306 GRT/8,210 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 126 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 38
over 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 32 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 88
over 3,047 m : 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m : 57
914 to 1,523 m: 25 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes Royal
Oman Police)

Military manpower - military age: 14 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 550,421 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 312,205 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.82 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 13.7% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: no defined boundary with most of UAE, but
Administrative Line in far north
______________________________________________________________________

PACIFIC OCEAN
[Map of Pacific Ocean]

@Pacific Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Antarctica, Asia, Australia, and the
Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 160 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 165.384 million sq km
note: includes Bali Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering
Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Flores Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of
Tonkin, Java Sea, Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Savu Sea, Sea of Japan,
Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, and other
tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: about 18 times the size of the US; the largest
ocean (followed by the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the
Arctic Ocean); covers about one-third of the global surface; larger
than the total land area of the world

Coastline: 135,663 km

Climate: planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns
exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and
westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal
fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico
from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America;
continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less
pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in
the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy
season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow
from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter
months, when dry winds blow from the Asian land mass back to the
ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and East Asia
from May to December

Terrain: surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a
clockwise, warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in
the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the
northern Pacific, sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk
in winter; in the southern Pacific, sea ice from Antarctica reaches
its northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern
Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western
Pacific is dissected by deep trenches, including the Marianas Trench,
which is the world's deepest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Marianas Trench -10,924 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish

Natural hazards: surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and
earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the "Pacific Ring of
Fire"; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east
Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to October);
tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike
Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August
and September); southern shipping lanes subject to icebergs from
Antarctica; occasional El Nino phenomenon occurs off the coast of
Peru, when the trade winds slacken and the warm Equatorial
Countercurrent moves south, killing the plankton that is the primary
food source for anchovies; consequently, the anchovies move to better
feeding grounds, causing resident marine birds to starve by the
thousands because of the loss of their food source; ships subject to
superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May and in
extreme south from May to October; persistent fog in the northern
Pacific can be a maritime hazard from June to December

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution
in Philippine Sea and South China Sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to : none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama
Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the
Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific
Ocean; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in
the southwestern Pacific Ocean

@Pacific Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
Codes appendix

Economy

Economy - overview: The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the
world economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly
touch. It provides low-cost sea transportation between East and West,
extensive fishing grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and
sand and gravel for the construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%)
of the world's fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the
only ocean where the fish catch has increased every year since 1978.
Exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an
ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of Australia, NZ, China,
US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering offshore oil and gas,
combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil since 1985, has
slowed but not stopped new drillings.

@Pacific Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international : several submarine cables with network nodal points on
Guam and Hawaii

@Pacific Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Kao-hsiung (Taiwan),
Los Angeles (US), Manila (Philippines), Pusan (South Korea), San
Francisco (US), Seattle (US), Shanghai (China), Singapore, Sydney
(Australia), Vladivostok (Russia), Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
______________________________________________________________________

PAKISTAN

@Pakistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on
the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total : 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km,
Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in
north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited
petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 5%
other : 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 171,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially
in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July
and August)

Environment - current issues: water pollution from raw sewage,
industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh
water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to
potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography - note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional
invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

@Pakistan:People

Population: 132,185,299 (July 1997 est.)
note: no national census has been conducted since 1981

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 28,702,496; female 27,048,787)
15-64 years: 54% (male 36,387,329; female 34,708,803)
65 years and over : 4% (male 2,667,936; female 2,669,948) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.22% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 35.26 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.95 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 95.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.77 years
male: 57.97 years
female : 59.61 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.08 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir
(immigrants from India and their descendants)

Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and
other 3%

Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%,
Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%,
English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most
government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 37.8%
male: 50%
female: 24.4% (1995 est.)

@Pakistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan

Data code: PK

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital
territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*,
Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and
Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the
republic)

Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with
amendments 30 December 1985

Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to
accommodate Pakistan's stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and
reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Sardar Farooq LEGHARI (since 13 November
1993)
head of government : Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 17
February 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term;
election last held 13 November 1993 (next to be held no later than 14
October 1998); following legislative elections, the leader of the
majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually elected
prime minister by the National Assembly; election last held 3 February
1997 (next to be held NA February 2002)
election results: Sardar Farooq LEGHARI elected president; percent of
Parliament vote - NA; Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF elected prime minister;
percent of National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists
of the Senate (87 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial
assemblies to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members up for
election every two years; has advisory powers only) and the National
Assembly (217 seats; 207 represent Muslims and 10 represent
non-Muslims; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 12 March 1997 (next to be held NA March
1999); National Assembly - last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held
NA February 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7, MQM/A 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/J
2, BNM/M 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1, independents 6, vacant 5; National
Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML/N 137,
PPP 18, MQM/A 12, ANP 10, BNP 3, JWP 2, JUI/F 2, PPP/SB 1, NPP 1,
independents 21, minorities 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judicial chiefs are appointed by the
president; Federal Islamic (Shari'at) Court

Political parties and leaders:
government: Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N),
Nawaz SHARIF; Awami National Party (ANP), Ajmal Khan KHATTAK;
Balochistan National Movement/Mengal Group (BNM/M), Sardar Akhtar
MENGAL; Mohajir Quami Movement, Altaf faction (MQM/A), Altaf HUSSAIN;
Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH); Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Akbar Khan BUGTI;
Pakistan People's Party/Shaheed Bhutto (PPP/SB), Ghinva BHUTTO; Baluch
National Party (BNP), leader NA
opposition: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; Pakistan
Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J), Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; National
People's Party (NPP), Ghulam Mustapha JATOI; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami
Party (PKMAP), Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI; Balochistan National
Movement/Hayee Group (BNM/H), Dr. HAYEE Baluch; Pakhtun Quami Party
(PKQP), Mohammed AFZAL Khan
frequently shifting: Mutaheda Deeni Mahaz (MDM), Maulana Sami-ul-HAQ,
the MDM includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction (JUP/NI) and
Sepah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP); Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz (IJM-Islamic
Democratic Front) includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur Rehman group
(JUI/F); Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group (PML/F), Pir PAGARO;
Pakistan National Party (PNP); Milli Yakjheti Council (MYC) is an
umbrella organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi
Hussain AHMED, Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction (JUI/S),
Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan (TJP), Allama Sajid NAQVI, and Jamiat
Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction (JUP/NO)
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently

Political pressure groups and leaders: military remains important
political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small
merchants also influential

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO,
ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA,
SAARC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR,
UNMIBH, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Riaz KHOKAR
chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6200
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas W. SIMONS, Jr.
embassy : Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 826161 through 826179
FAX: [92] (51) 214222
consulate(s) general : Karachi, Lahore
consulate(s): Peshawar

Flag description: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the
role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white
crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star,
and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy

Economy - overview: Pakistan is a poor, highly populated Third World
country struggling to make the difficult transition to the modern
world of high technology and international markets. Even though GDP
growth has remained strong, at roughly 5% annually, international
confidence in Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO's government declined in
1996. The IMF suspended a Standby Agreement in the spring; foreign
investment declined; and the budget and trade deficits rose
substantially. In October 1996, BHUTTO responded to IMF pressure to
implement reforms, devaluing the rupee by about 8% and raising
petroleum prices in an attempt to slow the drain on foreign exchange
reserves. But Islamabad still failed to meet IMF revenue and borrowing
targets. Pakistan's interim government - in power since President
LEGHARI sacked BHUTTO on 5 November 1996 - agreed to slash the budget
deficit, push down bank borrowing, implement an agricultural tax; and
speed up reforms in the financial sector; accordingly, the Standby
Agreement was reinstated in December 1996 and a tranche of $80 million
released; but Pakistan fell out of compliance in February 1997. For
the long run, Pakistan must deal with serious problems of
deteriorating infrastructure, low literacy levels, and persistent
sectarian and political violence.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $296.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 24.8%
industry: 26.5%
services: 48.7% (1996)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10.8% (FY95/96)

Labor force:
total: 36.7 million (1997)
by occupation: agriculture 47%, mining and manufacturing 17%, services
17%, other 19%
note : extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use
of child labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $12.5 billion
expenditures: $14 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.8
billion (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction
materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate: 6.1% (FY95/96 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 13.17 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 46.1 billion kWh (FY95/96)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 403 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits,
vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Exports:
total value: $8.3 billion (FY95/96)
commodities: cotton, textiles, clothing, rice, leather, carpets
partners: US, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, UK, UAE, France

Imports:
total value: $12 billion (FY95/96)
commodities : petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation
equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
partners: Japan, US, Germany, UK, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea

Debt - external: $28.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $2.6 billion from all bilateral and multilateral sources
(FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 40.120 (January
1997), 36.078 (1996), 31.643 (1995), 30.567 (1994), 28.1 (1993), 25.1
(1992); note - annual average of official rate; parallel market rate
is higher

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Pakistan:Communications

Telephones: 1.572 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: the domestic system is mediocre, but adequate for
government and business use, in part because major businesses have
established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has
promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a
priority basis; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems,
telecommunication services are still not readily available to the
major portion of the population
domestic: microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 2 Indian Ocean); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 8, shortwave 11

Radios: 11.3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 29

Televisions: 2.08 million (1993 est.)

@Pakistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified; 1,037 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (1996 est.)

Highways:
total : 216,564 km
paved: 116,945 km
unpaved: 99,619 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas
4,044 km (1987)

Ports and harbors: Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim

Merchant marine:
total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 425,140 GRT/699,040 DWT
ships by type : bulk 5, cargo 17, container 3, oil tanker 1 (1996
est.)

Airports: 102 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 86
over 3,047 m : 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 27
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 18 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 16
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 6 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National
Guard

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 31,456,430 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 19,288,081 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,431,074 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.3 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.3% (FY96/97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: status of Kashmir with India; water-sharing
problems with upstream riparian India over the Indus (Wular Barrage)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium and hashish for the
international drug trade (produced 75 metric tons in 1996, down from
155 metric tons in 1995); major center for processing Afghan heroin
and key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western
markets
______________________________________________________________________

PALAU

@Palau:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the North Pacific Ocean,
southeast of the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 7 30 N, 134 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 458 sq km
land : 458 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,519 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
extended fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid

Terrain: varying geologically from the high, mountainous main island
of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier
reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Ngerchelchauus 242 m

Natural resources: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine
products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)

Environment - current issues: inadequate facilities for disposal of
solid waste; threats to the marine ecosystem from sand and coral
dredging, illegal fishing practices, and overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: includes World War II battleground of Beliliou
(Peleliu) and world-famous rock islands; archipelago of six island
groups totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain

@Palau:People

Population: 17,240 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.66% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 21.04 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 25.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.01 years
male : 69.14 years
female: 73.02 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Palauan(s)
adjective: Palauan

Ethnic groups: Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan, and
Melanesian races

Religions: Christian (Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's
Witnesses, the Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and Latter-Day
Saints), Modekngei religion (one-third of the population observes this
religion which is indigenous to Palau)

Languages: English (official in all of Palau's 16 states), Sonsorolese
(official in the state of Sonsoral), Angaur and Japanese (in the state
of Anguar), Tobi (in the state of Tobi), Palauan (in the other 13
states)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92%
male: 93%
female: 90% (1980 est.)

@Palau:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Palau
conventional short form: Palau
local long form: Beluu er a Belau
local short form : Belau
former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Data code: PS

Government type: constitutional government in free association with
the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October
1994

National capital: Koror
note: a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast in eastern
Babelthuap

Administrative divisions: there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 16 states
named Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur, Kayangel, Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard,
Ngardmau, Ngaremlengui, Ngatpang, Ngchesar, Ngerchelong, Ngiwal,
Peleliu, Sonsorol, Tobi

Independence: 1 October 1994 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)

Constitution: 1 January 1981

Legal system: based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature,
municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993) and
Vice President Tommy E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Kuniwo NAKAMURA (since 1 January 1993)
and Vice President Tommy E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since 1 January 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet : Cabinet
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 11 November 1996
(next to be held NA November 2000)
election results : Kuniwo NAKAMURA reelected president; percent of
vote - Kuniwo NAKAMURA 64%, Chief Ibedul Yutuka GIBBONS 36%; Tommy E.
REMENGESAU Jr. reelected vice president; percent of vote - Tommy E.
REMENGESAU Jr. 69%, Kione ISECHAL 31%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Olbiil Era Kelulau (OEK)
consists of the Senate (14 seats; members elected by popular vote on a
population basis to serve four-year terms) and the House of Delegates
(16 seats - one from each state; members elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 11 November 1996 (next to be held NA
November 2000); House of Delegates - last held 11 November 1996 (next
to be held NA November 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NA; House of Delegates - percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; National Court; Court of Common Pleas

Political parties and leaders: Palau Nationalist Party, Polycarp
BASILIUS

International organization participation: ESCAP, SPC, SPF, UN, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim
David A. ORRUKEM
chancery: 2000 L Street NW, Suite 407, Washington, DC 20036
telephone : [1] (202) 452-6814
FAX: [1] (202) 452-6281

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Thomas C. HUBBARD (resident in Manila)
embassy: address NA, Koror
mailing address: P.O. Box 6028, Republic of Palau 96940
telephone: [680] 488-2920, 2990
FAX: [680] 488-2911

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing
the moon) shifted slightly to the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy consists primarily of subsistence
agriculture and fishing. The government is the major employer of the
work force, relying heavily on financial assistance from the US. The
population, in effect, enjoys a per capita income of $5,000, twice
that of the Philippines and much of Micronesia. Long-run prospects for
the tourist sector have been greatly bolstered by the expansion of air
travel in the Pacific and the rapidly rising prosperity of leading
East Asian countries. Reducing budgeted operating expenditures - which
have increased 56% from 1989 to 1993 - will be the biggest challenge
for the government over the next several years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $81.8 million (1994 est.)
note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (1994 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $21 million
expenditures: $57 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: tourism, craft items (from shell, wood, pearls), some
commercial fishing and agriculture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts, copra, cassava (tapioca), sweet
potatoes

Exports:
total value: $600,000 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: trochus (type of shellfish), tuna, copra, handicrafts
partners: US, Japan

Imports:
total value : $24.6 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: NA
partners: US

Debt - external: about $100 million (1989)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note : the compact of "free association" with the US, entered into
after the end of the UN trusteeship on 1 October 1994, will provide
Palau with up to $700 million in US aid over 15 years in return for
furnishing military facilities

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Palau:Communications

Telephones: 1,500 (1988 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 9,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 1,600 (1993 est.)

@Palau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 61 km
paved: 36 km
unpaved: 25 km

Ports and harbors: Koror

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

PALMYRA ATOLL

(territory of the US)

@Palmyra Atoll:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 5 52 N, 162 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total : 11.9 sq km
land: 11.9 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 14.5 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

Terrain: very low

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 2 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 100%
other: 0%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation,
coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

@Palmyra Atoll:People

Population: uninhabited

@Palmyra Atoll:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Palmyra Atoll

Data code: LQ

Dependency status: incorporated territory of the US; privately owned,
but administered by the Office of Territorial and International
Affairs, US Department of the Interior

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Palmyra Atoll:Transportation

Highways: much of the road and many causeways built during World War
II are unserviceable and overgrown

Ports and harbors: West Lagoon

Airports: airstrip has been overgrown by vegetation and is no longer
serviceable

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

PANAMA

@Panama:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 78,200 sq km
land: 75,990 sq km
water: 2,210 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 555 km
border countries: Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to
January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland
plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland : 44%
other: 27% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff
threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest;
land degradation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming
land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal
that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific
Ocean

@Panama:People

Population: 2,693,417 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 444,673; female 426,823)
15-64 years: 62% (male 846,707; female 824,690)
65 years and over : 6% (male 72,472; female 78,052) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.58% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 22.27 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.15 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.28 years
male: 71.55 years
female : 77.1 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Panamanian(s)
adjective: Panamanian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70%, Amerindian
and mixed (West Indian) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%

Languages: Spanish (official), English 14%
note: many Panamanians bilingual

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.8%
male: 91.4%
female : 90.2% (1995 est.)

@Panama:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Panama
conventional short form: Panama
local long form: Republica de Panama
local short form: Panama

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest