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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross
Dependency)
______________________________________________________________________

NICARAGUA

@Nicaragua:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 85 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 129,494 sq km
land: 120,254 sq km
water: 9,240 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New York State

Land boundaries:
total: 1,231 km
border countries: Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 25-nm security zone
continental shelf: natural prolongation
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior
mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber,
fish

Land use:
arable land : 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 27%
other : 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 880 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and
occasionally severe hurricanes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea

@Nicaragua:People

Population: 4,386,399 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 963,878; female 949,658)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,147,565; female 1,207,386)
65 years and over : 4% (male 50,910; female 67,002) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.6% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 33.01 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.83 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 44.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.17 years
male: 63.83 years
female : 68.6 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%,
black 9%, Amerindian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%

Languages: Spanish (official)
note: English- and Amerindian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 65.7%
male : 64.6%
female: 66.6% (1995 est.)

@Nicaragua:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua
conventional short form : Nicaragua
local long form: Republica de Nicaragua
local short form : Nicaragua

Data code: NU

Government type: republic

National capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 15 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento), 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular
- region autonomista); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli,
Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva
Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 January 1987

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review
administrative acts

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997);
Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997)
head of government: President Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (10 January 1997);
Vice President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (10 January 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); note -
in July 1995 the term of the office of the president was amended to
five years
election results: Arnoldo ALEMAN Lacayo (Liberal Alliance) 51.03%,
Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 37.75%, Guillermo OSORNO (Nicaraguan
Christian Path - CNN) 4.10%, Noel VIDAURRE (Nicaraguan Conservative
Party - PCN) 2.26%, Benjamin LANZAS (National Project) 0.53%, others
(18 other candidates) remaining 4.33%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional
(93 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Alliance (ruling
party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 46.03%, Sandinista
National Liberation Front (FSLN) 36.55%, Nicaraguan Christian Road
Party (PCCN) 3.73%, Nicaraguan Conservative Party (PCN) 2.12%,
Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS) 1.33%; seats by party - Liberal
Alliance 42, FSLN 36, PCCN 4, PCN 3, PRONAL 2, MRS 1, PRN 1, PNC 1,
PLI 1, AU 1, UNO-96 Alliance 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), 12 judges elected for
a seven-year term by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders:
right: Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Road (PCCN), Guillermo
OSORNO, Roberto RODRIGUEZ; Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), NA;
Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN), Carlos GUERRA
Gallardo; National Conservative Party (PNC), Adolfo CALERO, Noel
VIDAURRE; Nationalist Liberal Party (PLN), Enrique SANCHEZ
center right: Neoliberal Party (PALI), Ricardo VEGA Garcia; Nicaraguan
Resistance Party (PRN), Enrique QUINONEZ; Independent Liberal Party
(PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO; National Project (PRONAL), Antonio LACAYO
Oyanguren; Conservative Action Movement (MAC), Hernaldo ZUNIYA
center left: Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS), Sergio RAMIREZ;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Adolfo JARQUIN; Social Christian Party
(PSC), Erick RAMIREZ; Movement for Revolutionary Unity (MUR), NA;
Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC), NA; Unity Alliance (AU),
Alejandro SERRANO; Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCN), Dr. Fernando
AGUERO Rocha; National Democratic Party (PND), Alfredo CESAR Aguirre;
Central American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS Echaverry; UNO-96
Alliance, Alfredo CESAR Aguirre; Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN),
Alfredo GUZMAN
left: Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA
Saavedra

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Workers Front (FNT) is
a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions: Sandinista Workers'
Central (CST); Farm Workers Association (ATC); Health Workers
Federation (FETASALUD); National Union of Employees (UNE); National
Association of Educators of Nicaragua (ANDEN); Union of Journalists of
Nicaragua (UPN); Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional
Associations (CONAPRO); and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers
(UNAG); Permanent Congress of Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of
four non-Sandinista labor unions: Confederation of Labor Unification
(CUS); Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A); Independent
General Confederation of Labor (CGT-I); and Labor Action and Unity
Central (CAUS); Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent
labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a
confederation of business groups

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco AGUIRRE Sacasa
chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis GUTIERREZ
embassy: Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua
mailing address : APO AA 34021
telephone: [505] (2) 666010 through 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026,
666027, 666032 through 33
FAX: [505] (2) 669074

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band;
the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA
DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to
the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by
the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in
the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five
blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: The Nicaraguan economy, devastated during the
1980s by economic mismanagement and civil war, is beginning to
rebound. Since March 1991, when President CHAMORRO launched an
ambitious economic stabilization program, Nicaragua has reduced
inflation and obtained substantial economic aid from abroad. Annual
inflation fell from more than 750% in 1991 to less than 5% in 1992.
After rising again to an estimated 20% in 1993, the annual inflation
rate dropped to roughly 11% in 1994-96. Economic growth rose sharply
in 1995-96, thanks to surges in most export categories. The
government's efforts to liberalize trade include a December 1995
decision to stop requiring exporters to bring their foreign exchange
earnings into Nicaragua. On the debt front, the Nicaraguan Government
launched a successful debt buyback program in 1995, purchasing 73% of
its $1.373 billion commercial debt inherited from previous
governments. Progress also occurred on reducing bilateral debt in 1996
as Nicaragua reached an agreement with Russia, reducing Nicaragua's
debt by $3.3 billion. Debt reduction agreements with Paris Club
creditors and rescheduling with Latin American creditors also took
place. Unemployment remains a pressing problem, however, with roughly
half the country's work force unemployed or underemployed.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 34%
industry: 21%
services: 45% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 11% (1996)

Labor force:
total : 1.086 million
by occupation: services 43%, agriculture 44%, industry 13% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 16%; underemployment 36% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $389 million
expenditures: $551 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles,
clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear

Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 417,700 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 1.713 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 279 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice,
corn, cassava (tapioca), citrus, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry,
dairy products

Exports:
total value: $607 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: meat, coffee, cotton, sugar, seafood, gold, bananas
partners: US, Central America, Canada, Germany

Imports:
total value : $1.188 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: consumer goods, machinery and equipment, petroleum
products
partners: Central America, US, Venezuela, Japan

Debt - external: $6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 gold cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: gold cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 8.63 (September 1996),
7.55 (1995), 6.72 (1994), 5.62 (1993), 5.00 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Nicaragua:Communications

Telephones: 66,810 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system
being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System
domestic : wire and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
Ocean Region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 45, FM 0, shortwave 3

Radios: 1.037 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1994 est.)

Televisions: 260,000 (1992 est.)

@Nicaragua:Transportation

Railways:
total: 0 km
narrow gauge: 0 km 1.067-m gauge; note - part of the previous 376 km
system was closed and dismantled in 1993 and, in 1994, the remainder
was closed, the track and rolling stock being sold for scrap

Highways:
total : 17,146 km
paved: 1,715 km
unpaved: 15,431 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km

Ports and harbors: Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas,
Puerto Sandino, Rama, San Juan del Sur

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 147 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 115
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 107 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,027,630 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 632,433 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 49,552 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $27.48 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.35% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial disputes with Colombia over the
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; with
respect to the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca, the
International Court of Justice (ICJ) referred the disputants to an
earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite
resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be
required; maritime boundary dispute with Honduras

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US
______________________________________________________________________

NIGER

@Niger:Geography

Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water : 300 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total : 5,697 km
border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km,
Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling
plains in south; hills in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Niger River 200 m
highest point: Mont Greboun 1,944 m

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 2%
other: 88% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion;
deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as
elephant, hippopotamus, and lion) threatened because of poaching and
habitat destruction

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Niger:People

Population: 9,388,859 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,303,790; female 2,207,542)
15-64 years: 50% (male 2,272,535; female 2,381,033)
65 years and over: 2% (male 118,333; female 105,626) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.98% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 53.73 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 23.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.09 years
male: 41.44 years
female: 40.73 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic groups: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri
(Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 4,000 French
expatriates

Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 13.6%
male: 20.9%
female: 6.6% (1995 est.)

@Niger:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form : Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger

Data code: NG

Government type: republic

National capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements, singular -
departement), and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez,
Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Constitution: the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national
referendum on 12 May 1996

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (since 28 January
1996); note - President is chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ibraham BARE Mainassara (since 28
January 1996); note - President is chief of state and head of
government; Prime Minister Amadou Boubacar CISSE (since 21 December
1996) was appointed by the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by President BARE
elections : the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year
term; last election 7-8 July 1996 (next election NA 2001); note -
Ibrahim BARE Mainassara initially became president when he ousted
President Mahamane OUSMANE in a coup on 27 January 1996 and
subsequently defeated him in the flawed election of July 1996
election results: percent of total vote - Ibrahim BARE Mainassara
52.22%, Mahamane OUSMANE 19.75%, Tandja MAMADOU 15.65%, Mahamadou
ISSOUFOU 7.60%, Moumouni AMADOU Djermakoye 4.77%

Legislative branch: two chamber National Assembly; one chamber with 83
seats directly elected by proportional representation for five-year
terms; selection process for second chamber not established
elections: last held 23 November1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
UNIRD 59, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 8, UDPS-Amana 3, coalition of
independents 3, MDP-Alkwali 1, UPDP-Shamuwa 4, DARAJA 3, PMT-Albarka 2

Judicial branch: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour
d'Apel

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or
ADP-AUMUNCI [Issoufou BACHARD, chairman]; DARAJA [Ali TALBA,
chairman]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama
[Mahamane OUSMANE]; Movement for Development and Pan-Africanism or
MDP-Alkwali [Mai Manga BOUCAR, chairman]; National Movement of the
Development Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Tandja MAMADOU,
chairman]; National Union of Independents for Democratic Revival or
UNIRD [leader NA]; Niger Progressive Party-African Democratic Rally or
PPN-RDA [Dori ABDOULAI]; Niger Social Democrat Party or PADN [Malam
Adji WAZIRI]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or
PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and
Social Progress-Zaman Lahia or ANDPS-Zaman Lahia [Moumouni Adamou
DJERMAKOYE]; PMT-Albarka; Union for Democracy and Social
Progress-Amana or UDPS-Amana [Akoli DAOUEL]; Union of Patriots,
Democrats, and Progressives-Shamuwa or UPDP-Shamuwa [Professor Andre'
SALIFOU, chairman]; Union of Popular Forces for Democracy and
Progress-Sawaba or UFPDP-Sawaba [Djibo BAKARY, chairman]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA
chancery : 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles O. CECIL (20 August 1996)
embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey
telephone : [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64
FAX: [227] 73 31 67

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white,
and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in
the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked
wheel centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation,
whose recent GDP growth has barely matched the rapid growth of
population. The economy is centered on subsistence agriculture, animal
husbandry, and reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its
major export throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Terms of trade with
Nigeria, Niger's largest regional trade partner, have improved
dramatically since the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January
1994; this devaluation boosted exports of livestock, peas, onions, and
the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies
on bilateral and multilateral aid for operating expenses and public
investment and is strongly induced to adhere to structural adjustment
programs designed by the IMF and the World Bank. The US terminated
bilateral assistance to Niger after the coup of 1996. Other donors
have reduced their aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $640 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 41%
industry: 18%
services: 41% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.5 million wage earners (1982)
by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government
4%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $200 million
expenditures : $387 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals,
slaughterhouses, and a few other small light industries; uranium
mining

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 105,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 230 million kWh (1991)
note: imports about 200 million kW of electricity from Nigeria

Electricity - consumption per capita: 53 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum,
cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $247 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: uranium ore 67%, livestock products 20%, cowpeas, onions
partners: France 77%, Nigeria 8%, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Canada

Imports:
total value : $307 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles
and parts, petroleum, cereals
partners: France 23%, Cote d'Ivoire, China, Belgium-Luxembourg

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA; bilateral donors: France, Japan, Germany, US

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Niger:Communications

Telephones: 14,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: small system of wire, radiotelephone communications,
and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern area
domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio
relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 500,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18 stations in a single network (1995)

Televisions: 38,000 (1992 est.)

@Niger:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 9,863 km
paved: 779 km
unpaved: 9,084 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Niger river is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on the
Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 23 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Republican
Guard, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,983,377 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,069,743 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 95,217 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $32 million (FY92/93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY92/93)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern
Niger; demarcation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake
Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is
completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
Nigeria
______________________________________________________________________

NIGERIA

@Nigeria:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin
and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 923,770 sq km
land: 910,770 sq km
water : 13,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger
1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm

Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in
north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus;
mountains in southeast, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point : Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal,
limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 44%
forests and woodland: 12%
other : 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,570 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation;
desertification; recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Nigeria:People

Population: 107,129,469 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 24,142,369; female 23,931,502)
15-64 years: 52% (male 28,502,597; female 27,432,816)
65 years and over : 3% (male 1,572,773; female 1,547,412) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 3.05% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.58 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 12.45 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.65 years
male: 53.32 years
female : 56.03 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.17 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups: Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv, Ijaw

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.1%
male: 67.3%
female: 47.3% (1995 est.)

@Nigeria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria

Data code: NI

Government type: military government; Nigeria has been ruled by one
military regime after another since 31 December 1983; on 1 October
1995, the present military government announced it will turn power
over to democratically elected civilian authorities in October 1998

National capital: Abuja
note : on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos
to Abuja; many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion
of facilities in Abuja

Administrative divisions: 30 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja
Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Borno,
Cross River, Delta, Edo, Enugu, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina,
Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau,
Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe
note: the government has announced the creation of six additional
states named Bayelsa, Ebonyi, Ekiti, Gombe, Nassarawa, and Zamfara as
part of the process of transition to a civilian government

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Constitution: 1979 constitution still partially in force; plan for
1989 constitution to take effect in 1993 was not implemented

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council and
Commander in Chief of Armed Forces and Defense Minister Gen. Sani
ABACHA (since 17 November 1993); Vice Chairman of the Provisional
Ruling Council Oladipo DIYA (since 17 November 1993); note - the
chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council is both the chief of state
and head of government
head of government: Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council and
Commander in Chief of Armed Forces and Defense Minister Gen. Sani
ABACHA (since 17 November 1993); Vice Chairman of the Provisional
Ruling Council Oladipo DIYA (since 17 November 1993); note - the
chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council is both the chief of state
and head of government
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: none; Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council Gen. Sani
ABACHA assumed power in a military coup 17 November 1993; the
government's provisions for a return to civilian rule call for the
election of a president by universal suffrage in the third quarter of
1998 (inaugeration planned for October 1998)

Legislative branch: National Assembly
note: the National Assembly was suspended after the military takeover
of 17 November 1993; in October 1995, the government announced a
three-year program for transition to civilian rule; elections to the
National Assembly are to take place in the second quarter of 1998

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Armed Forces
Ruling Council; Federal Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the
federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee

Political parties and leaders: political party system, which was
suspended after the military takeover of 17 November 1993, was
reestablished by the Provisional Ruling Council on 30 September 1996
with the registration of five of 15 competing political parties; these
were the United Nigeria Congress Party or UNCP [Isa MOHAMMED,
chairman]; National Center Party of Nigeria or NCPN [Magaji ABDULLAH,
chairman]; Grassroots Democratic Movement or GDM [Gambo LAWAR,
chairman]; Comittee for National Consensus or CNC [Abel UBEKU,
chairman]; Democratic Party of Nigeria or DPN [Sale HASSAN, chairman]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C (suspended),
CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM
III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP,
UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wakili Hassan ADAMU
chancery: 1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Walter C. CARRINGTON
embassy: 2 Eleke Crescent, Lagos
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone : [234] (1) 261-0097
FAX: [234] (1) 261-0257

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and green

Economy

Economy - overview: The oil-rich Nigerian economy continues to be
hobbled by political instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic
management. Nigeria's unpopular military rulers have failed to make
significant progress in diversifying the economy away from
overdependence on the capital intensive oil sector which provides half
of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 80% of budgetary
revenues. Regime officials also appear divided on how to redress
fundamental economic imbalances that result in troublesome inflation
and the discouragement of investors. The government's resistance to
initiating greater transparency and accountability in managing the
country's multibillion dollar oil earnings continues to limit economic
growth and prevent an agreement with the IMF and bilateral creditors
on debt relief. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed
to keep up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net
exporter of food, now must import food. Agricultural production in
1996 suffered from severe shortages of fertilizer.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $143.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,380 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 28%
industry: 53%
services: 19% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 57% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 42.844 million
by occupation: agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and services 19%,
government 15%

Unemployment rate: 28% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $16.1 billion
expenditures: $16 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
billion (1995 est.)

Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts,
cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other
construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals,
fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate: -1% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 5.88 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 14.88 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 141 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum,
millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber ; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs;
fishing and forest resources extensively exploited

Exports:
total value : $11.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
partners : US 52%, EU 34%

Imports:
total value: $10 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods,
chemicals, food and animals
partners : EU 50%, US 13%, Japan 7%

Debt - external: $34 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: naira (N) per US$1 - 21.886 (October 1996), 21.895
(1995), 21.996 (1994), 22.065 (1993), 17.298 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Nigeria:Communications

Telephones: 492,204 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: average system limited by poor maintenance; major
expansion in progress
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and 20 domestic
satellite earth stations carry intercity traffic
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); 1 coaxial submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 35, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 20 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 3.8 million (1992 est.)

@Nigeria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,557 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge
standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 32,105 km
paved: 26,005 km (including 2,044 km of expressways)
unpaved: 6,100 km (1994 est.)
note : many of the roads reported as paved may be graveled

Waterways: 8,575 km consisting of the Niger and Benue rivers and
smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural
gas 500 km

Ports and harbors: Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri

Merchant marine:
total : 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 353,422 GRT/600,389 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 12, chemical tanker 3, oil tanker 13,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 65 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 51
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m : 17 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 12 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 24,465,233 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 14,015,140 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 1,209,386 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $243 million (1995 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: less than 1% (1995 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: demarcation of international boundaries in
vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in
the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Cameroon over land and maritime
boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred
to the ICJ

Illicit drugs: facilitates movement of heroin en route from Southeast
and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America; increasingly a
transit route for cocaine from South America intended for European,
East Asian, and North American markets
______________________________________________________________________

NIUE

(free association with New Zealand)

@Niue:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga

Geographic coordinates: 19 02 S, 169 52 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : unnamed location near Mutalau settlement 68 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops : 8%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 50% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons

Environment - current issues: traditional methods of burning brush and
trees to clear land for agriculture have threatened soil supplies
which are not naturally very abundant

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: one of world's largest coral islands

@Niue:People

Population: 1,708 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -3.65% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years : NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female : NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Niuean(s)
adjective: Niuean

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and
Tongans)

Religions: Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church) 75% - a Protestant church
closely related to the London Missionary Society, Latter-Day Saints
10%, other 15% (mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses,
Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 95%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Niue:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Niue

Data code: NE

Dependency status: in free association with New Zealand; Niue fully
responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility
for external affairs

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

National capital: Alofi

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing
parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty)

Constitution: 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
the queen and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High
Commissioner Warren SEARELL (since NA August 1993)
head of government: Premier Frank Fakaotimanava LUI (acting premier
since NA December 1992, premier since 12 March 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; premier elected by the
Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 23
February 1996 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results: Frank Fakaotimanava LUI elected premier; percent of
Legislative Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a
common roll and 14 are village representatives)
elections : last held 23 February 1996 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP
9, independents 11

Judicial branch: Appeal Court of New Zealand; High Court

Political parties and leaders: Niue Peoples Party (NPP), Robert REX,
Jr.

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing territory in
free association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing territory
in free association with New Zealand)

Flag description: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed
stars - a large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on
each arm of the bold red cross

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New
Zealand as Niue has no indigenous export product. Government
expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the shortfall made up by
grants from New Zealand - the grants are used to pay wages to public
employees. Niue has cut government expenditures in 1994-96, however,
by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector
consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are
grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to
process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of
postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of
revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of
population because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.4 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5% (1992)

Labor force:
total: 1,000 (1981 est.)
by occupation: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only
in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5.5 million
expenditures: $6.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1985 est.)

Industries: tourism, handicrafts, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro,
yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle

Exports:
total value: $117,500 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit
products, pawpaw, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
partners: NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

Imports:
total value: $4.1 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels,
lubricants, chemicals, drugs
partners : NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $5.9 million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.4247 (January
1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993),
1.8584 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Niue:Communications

Telephones: 276 (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : single-line telephone system connects all villages on
island
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1987 est.)

Radios: 1,000

Television broadcast stations: 0
note: there is cable television

Televisions: 312 (1991 est.)

@Niue:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 229 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved: 229 km

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

NORFOLK ISLAND

(territory of Australia)

@Norfolk Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 29 02 S, 167 57 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total : 34.6 sq km
land: 34.6 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Bates 319 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops : NA%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 75% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially May to July)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

@Norfolk Island:People

Population: 2,194 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -0.68% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New
Zealander, Polynesians

Religions: Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in
Australia 16.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%,
other 2.4% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century
English and ancient Tahitian

@Norfolk Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form: Norfolk Island

Data code: NF

Dependency status: territory of Australia

Government type: NA

National capital: Kingston (administrative center); Burnt Pine
(commercial center)

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1979

Legal system: based on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and
acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either
Australian or Norfolk Island law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
the queen and Australia are represented by Administrator Alan Gardner
KERR (since NA April 1992)
head of government: Assembly President and Chief Minister David
Earnest BUFFETT (since NA 1995)
cabinet: Executive Council is made up of executive members of the
Legislative Assembly
elections : the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator appointed
by the governor general of Australia; chief minister elected by the
Legislative Assembly for a term of not more than three years; election
last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1998)
election results : David Earnest BUFFETT elected chief minister;
percent of Legislative Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members
elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes
can be given to any one candidate; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1998)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white,
and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the
slightly wider white band

Economy

Economy - overview: The primary economic activity is tourism, which
has brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the
Pacific islands. The number of visitors has increased steadily over
the years and reached 29,000 in FY88/89. Revenues from tourism have
given the island a favorable balance of trade and helped the
agricultural sector to become self-sufficient in the production of
beef, poultry, and eggs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry : NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total : 1,395 (1991 est.)
by occupation: tourism NA%, subsistence agriculture NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $4.6 million
expenditures: $4.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY92/93)

Industries: tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed,
cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry

Exports:
total value : $1.5 million (f.o.b., FY91/92)
commodities: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and
Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe

Imports:
total value : $17.9 million (c.i.f., FY91/92)
commodities: NA
partners: Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2835 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Norfolk Island:Communications

Telephones: 1,087 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone service with Sydney (Australia)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 900 (1991 est.)

@Norfolk Island:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 80 km
paved: 53 km
unpaved: 27 km

Ports and harbors: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS

(commonwealth in political union with the US)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 15 12 N, 145 45 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 477 sq km
land: 477 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,482 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little
seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy
season July to October

Terrain: southern islands are limestone with level terraces and
fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : unnamed location on Agrihan 965 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use:
arable land : 21%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 19%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons
(especially August to November)

Environment - current issues: contamination of groundwater on Saipan
by raw sewage contributes to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection
of endangered species conflicts with development

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

@Northern Mariana Islands:People

Population: 53,552 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over : NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : NA
male: NA
female: NA

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective : NA

Ethnic groups: Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians,
Caucasian, Japanese, Chinese, Korean

Religions: Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional
beliefs and taboos may still be found)

Languages: English, Chamorro, Carolinian
note: 86% of population speaks a language other than English at home

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female : 96% (1980 est.)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
conventional short form : Northern Mariana Islands

Data code: CQ

Dependency status: commonwealth in political union with the US;
federal funds to the Commonwealth administered by the US Department of
the Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs

Government type: commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected
governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature

National capital: Saipan

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (commonwealth in political union with the US)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

Constitution: Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986 and the
Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

Legal system: based on US system except for customs, wages,
immigration laws, and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Froilan C. TENORIO (since NA January
1994) and Lieutenant Governor Jesus C. BORJA (since NA January 1994)
cabinet: NA
elections : governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same
ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held in NA
November 1993 (next to be held NA November 1997)
election results: Froilan C. TENORIO elected governor of Northern
Mariana Islands; percent of vote - Froilan C. TENORIO (Democrat) 56%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature consists of the Senate (9
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
and the House of Representatives (18 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve two-year terms)
elections : Senate - last held NA November 1993 (next to be held NA
November 1997); House of Representatives - last held NA November 1995
(next to be held NA November 1997)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NA (Republicans retained a majority of the seats); House of
Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
(Republicans retained a majority of the seats)
note : the Commonwealth does not have a nonvoting delegate in
Congress; instead, it has an elected official or "resident
representative" located in Washington, DC; seats by party - Republican
1 (Juan N. BABAUTA)

Judicial branch: Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal
District Court

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Benigno R. FITIAL,
leader; Democratic Party, Benigno SABLAN, chairman

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), SPC

Flag description: blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on
the gray silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone
used in building) in the center, surrounded by a wreath

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy benefits substantially from financial
assistance from the US. The rate of funding has declined as locally
generated government revenues have grown. An agreement for the years
1986 to 1992 entitled the islands to $228 million for capital
development, government operations, and special programs. Since 1992,
funding has been extended one year at a time. The commonwealth
received $27.7 million from FY93/94 through FY95/96. For FY96/97
through FY02/03, funding of $11 million will be provided for
infrastructure, with an equal local match. A rapidly growing major
source of income is the tourist industry, which now employs about 50%
of the work force. Japanese tourists predominate. The agricultural
sector is of minor importance and is made up of cattle ranches and
small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons.
Industry is small scale, mostly handicrafts, light manufacturing, and
garment production.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $524 million (1994 est.)
note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,500 (1994 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6.5% (1994 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7,476 total indigenous labor force; 2,699 unemployed; 22,560
foreign workers (1995)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 15% (residents)

Budget:
revenues: $190.4 million
expenditures : $190.4 million, including capital expenditures of $19.1
million (FY94/95)

Industries: tourism, construction, garments, handicrafts

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