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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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NAVASSA ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Navassa Island:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of
the way from Haiti to Jamaica

Geographic coordinates: 18 25 N, 75 02 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 5.2 sq km
land: 5.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: marine, tropical

Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating;
ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on southwest side 77 m

Natural resources: guano

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 10%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 90%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base
at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to
support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

@Navassa Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the island

@Navassa Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Navassa Island

Data code: BQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered by
the US Coast Guard; in September 1996, the Coast Guard ceased
operations and maintenance of Navassa Island Light, a 46 meter tall
lighthouse located on the southern side of the island; negotiations
are currently underway between the Coast Guard, General Services
Administration, and Department of Interior for transfer of
administration of the island; there has also been a private claim
advanced against the island

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Navassa Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Haiti
______________________________________________________________________

NEPAL

@Nepal:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 140,800 sq km
land: 136,800 sq km
water: 4,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,926 km
border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to
subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central
hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Kanchan Kalan 70 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower potential, scenic
beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 42%
other : 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 8,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought,
and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the
summer monsoons

Environment - current issues: the almost total dependence on wood for
fuel and cutting down trees to expand agricultural land without
replanting has resulted in widespread deforestation; soil erosion;
water pollution (use of contaminated water presents human health
risks)

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks

@Nepal:People

Population: 23,107,464 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 4,994,992; female 4,692,691)
15-64 years: 55% (male 6,458,616; female 6,205,947)
65 years and over: 3% (male 376,962; female 378,256) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.53% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 35.99 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.71 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population : 1.05 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 57.38 years
male: 57.61 years
female: 57.13 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.96 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepalese

Ethnic groups: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs,
Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas

Religions: Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2% (1981)
note: only official Hindu state in the world, although no sharp
distinction between many Hindu and Buddhist groups

Languages: Nepali (official), 20 other languages divided into numerous
dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 27.5%
male: 40.9%
female : 14% (1995 est.)

People - note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of
approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
camps

@Nepal:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal

Data code: NP

Government type: parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991

National capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural);
Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi,
Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Constitution: 9 November 1990

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (succeeded to the
throne 31 January 1972 following the death of his father King MAHENDRA
Bir Bikram Shah Dev, crowned king 24 February 1975); Heir Apparent
Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram
head of government: Prime Minister Lokendra Bahadur CHAND (since 12
March 1997); note - in 1995, the king appointed Sher Bahadur DEUBA to
be prime minister; DEUBA's parliamentary coalition fell apart when two
Nepali Congress Party (NCP) members did not show up at a parliamentary
confidence vote; a coalition of the Communist Party of Nepal/United
Marxist-Leninist (CPN/UML) and the National Democratic Party (NDP) of
Prime Minister CHAND was subsequently approved by the king
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the king on the recommendation of the
prime minister
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a
majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
Council (60 seats; 35 appointed by the House of Representatives, 10 by
the king, and 15 elected by an electoral college; one-third of the
members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the House
of Representatives (205 seats; members elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 15 November 1994 (next
to be held by 15 November 1999)
election results : House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NCP 33%, CPN/UML 31%, NDP 18%, Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party 3%, NWPP
1%; seats by party - CPN/UML 88, NCP 83, NDP 20, NWPP 4, Sadbhavana
(Goodwill) Party 3, independents 7; note - subsequent to the election,
there was a change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution
is as follows - CPN/UML 90, NCP 87, NDP 19, NWPP 3, Sadbhavana Party
3, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat), chief justice is
appointed by the king on recommendation of the Constitutional Council,
the other judges are appointed by the king on the recommendation of
the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Nepal/United
Marxist-Leninist (CPN/UML), Man Mohan ADHIKARI, party president;
Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI, Girija Prasad
KOIRALA, party president; National Democratic Party (NDP; also called
Rastriya Prajantra Party or RPP), Surya Bahadur THAPA; Sadbhavana
(Goodwill) Party, Gajendra Narayan SINGH, president; Nepal Workers and
Peasants Party (NWPP), Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE, party chair

Political pressure groups and leaders: numerous small, left-leaning
student groups in the capital; several small, radical Nepalese
antimonarchist groups

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFCTU, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bekh Bahadur THAPA
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
consulate(s) general : New York
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sandra L. VOGELGESANG
embassy: Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [977] (1) 411179
FAX: [977] (1) 419963

Flag description: red with a blue border around the unique shape of
two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a
white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white
12-pointed sun

Economy

Economy - overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed
countries in the world with about 60% of the population living below
the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy,
providing a livelihood for over 80% of the population and accounting
for more than 40% of GDP. Industrial activity is limited, mainly
involving the processing of agricultural produce including jute,
sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Production of textiles and carpets has
expanded recently and accounted for about 80% of foreign exchange
earnings in the past two years. Apart from agricultural land and
forests, exploitable natural resources are mica, hydropower, and
tourism. Agricultural production is growing about 5% on average as
compared with annual population growth of 2.5%. Since May 1991, the
government has been moving forward with economic reforms particularly
those that encourage trade and foreign investment, e.g., by
eliminating business licenses and registration requirements in order
to simplify investment procedures. The government has also been
cutting expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing state
industries, and laying off civil servants. The government made some
progress in 1996, signing trade agreements with countries including
India, and attracting substantial foreign investment in hydropower.
Prospects for foreign trade and investment in areas besides hydropower
and tourism will continue to remain poor because of the small size of
the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, and its
landlocked geographic location highly susceptible to natural disaster.
The international community provides funding for more than 60% of
Nepal's development budget and more than 30% of total budgetary
expenditures.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 42%
industry: 22%
services: 36% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 9.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 9.2 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 90%, services 7%, industry 3%
note : severe lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%; substantial underemployment (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $645 million
expenditures: $1.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Industries: tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and
oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production

Industrial production growth rate: 14.7% (FY94/95 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 280,000 kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 980 million kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 48 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops;
milk, water buffalo meat

Exports:
total value: $343 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) but does not include
unrecorded border trade with India
commodities: carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
partners : India, US, Germany, UK

Imports:
total value: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
partners: India, Singapore, Japan, Germany

Debt - external: $2.85 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $310 million (1993)
note: total bilateral and multilateral aid of $217 million in 1996

Currency: 1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 57.030 (January
1997), 56.692 (1996), 51.890 (1995), 49.398 (1994), 48.607 (1993),
42.718 (1992)

Fiscal year: 16 July - 15 July

@Nepal:Communications

Telephones: 115,911 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair
radiotelephone communication service
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone communications; satellite earth station
- 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 88, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 690,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 45,000 (1992 est.)

@Nepal:Transportation

Railways:
total: 101 km; note - all in Kosi close to Indian border
narrow gauge: 101 km 0.762-m gauge

Highways:
total: 7,550 km
paved: 3,126 km
unpaved: 4,424 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 43 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m : 27 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air
Service, Nepalese Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,556,791 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,888,628 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 268,085 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $36 million (FY92/93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY92/93)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and
international drug markets; transit point for heroin from Southeast
Asia to the West
______________________________________________________________________

NETHERLANDS

@Netherlands:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and
Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 30 N, 5 45 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 37,330 sq km
land: 33,920 sq km
water: 3,410 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,027 km
border countries : Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some
hills in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Prins Alexanderpolder -7 m
highest point : Vaalserberg 321 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, fertile soil

Land use:
arable land : 27%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 31%
forests and woodland: 10%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the extensive system of dikes and dams, protects
nearly one-half of the total area from being flooded

Environment - current issues: water pollution in the form of heavy
metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and
phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid
rain

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: located at mouths of three major European rivers
(Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)

@Netherlands:People

Population: 15,649,729 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 1,466,463; female 1,401,507)
15-64 years : 68% (male 5,432,512; female 5,248,823)
65 years and over: 14% (male 848,853; female 1,251,571) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.53% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.84 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.87 years
male: 75 years
female : 80.88 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)
adjective: Dutch

Ethnic groups: Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)

Religions: Roman Catholic 34%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 3%, other 2%,
unaffiliated 36% (1991)

Languages: Dutch

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male : NA%
female: NA%

@Netherlands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands
conventional short form : Netherlands
local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
local short form: Nederland

Data code: NL

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien, singular -
provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen,
Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland,
Zuid-Holland

Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Constitution: 17 February 1983

Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory;
judicial review in the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order
rather than Acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), Prince of
Orange, son of Queen BEATRIX
head of government: Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 22 August 1994) and
Vice Prime Ministers Hans DIJKSTAL (since 22 August 1994) and Hans VAN
MIERLO (since 22 August 1994)
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a constitutional monarch; following
Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader
of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the
queen; vice prime ministers appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: bicameral States General or Staten Generaal
consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members
indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils for
four-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats;
members directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: First Chamber - last held 9 June 1995 (next to be held 9
June 1999); Second Chamber - last held 3 May 1994 (next to be held in
1998)
election results: First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - NA; Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - PvdA 24.3%,
CDA 22.3%, VVD 20.4%, D'66 16.5%, other 16.5%; seats by party - PvdA
37, CDA 34, VVD 31, D'66 24, other 24

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or De Hoge Raad, justices are nominated
for life by the crown from a list compiled by the Second Chamber of
the States General

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA
[Hans HELGERS]; Labor or PvdA [Wim KOK]; Liberal or VVD [Frits
BOLKESTEIN]; Democrats '66 or D'66 [Hans VAN MIERLO]; a host of minor
parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: large multinational firms;
Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist
and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of
Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; the nondenominational
Federation of Netherlands Enterprises; and Interchurch Peace Council
or IKV

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB,
ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Adriaan Pieter Roetert JACOBOVITS DE
SZEGED
chancery : 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Kirk Terry DORNBUSH
embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ The Hague
mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715
telephone: [31] (70) 310-9209
FAX: [31] (70) 361-4688
consulate(s) general: Amsterdam

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue
and is longer

Economy

Economy - overview: This highly developed and affluent economy is
based on private enterprise. The government makes its presence felt,
however, through many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare
programs affecting most aspects of economic activity. Industrial
activity features food-processing, oil-refining, and metalworking. The
highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 4% of the labor
force but provides large surpluses for export and the domestic
food-processing industry. Indeed, the Netherlands ranks third
worldwide in value of agricultural exports, behind the US and France.
Sharp cuts in subsidy and social security spending have been
accompanied by sustained growth in output and employment. The Dutch
will almost certainly qualify for the first wave of countries entering
the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $317.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 26%
services: 71% (1993)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 6.4 million (1993)
by occupation: services 73%, manufacturing and construction 23%,
agriculture 4% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (November 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $107.2 billion
expenditures: $118.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction,
microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 18.65 million kW

Electricity - production: 78 billion kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,140 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits,
vegetables; livestock

Exports:
total value: $176.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactures and machinery, chemicals; processed food and
tobacco, agricultural products
partners: EU 75% (Germany 29%, Belgium-Luxembourg 13%, UK 9%), Central
and Eastern Europe 3%, US 4% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $159.7 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities : raw materials and semifinished products, consumer goods,
transportation equipment, crude oil, food products
partners: EU 61% (Germany 24%, Belgium-Luxembourg 12%, UK 9%), US 8%
(1994)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid:
donor : ODA, $3.4 billion (1996)

Currency: 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per US$1
- 1.8009 (January 1997), 1.6859 (1996), 1.6057 (1995), 1.8200 (1994),
1.8573 (1993), 1.7585 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Netherlands:Communications

Telephones: 8.272 million (1983 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed and well maintained; extensive
redundant system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by microwave
radio relay
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; microwave radio relay
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3 (relays 3), FM 12 (repeaters 39),
shortwave 0

Radios: 13.755 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (repeaters 7)

Televisions: 7.4 million (1992 est.)

@Netherlands:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,791 km
standard gauge: 2,791 km 1.435-m gauge; 2,757 km are in common carrier
service (1,991 km electrified) and 34 km serve tourists

Highways:
total: 120,800 km
paved: 108,720 km (including 2,300 km of expressways)
unpaved : 12,080 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 1,000 metric
ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas
10,230 km

Ports and harbors: Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Dordrecht, Eemshaven,
Groningen, Haarlem, IJmuiden, Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen,
Utrecht

Merchant marine:
total: 406 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,333,353 GRT/3,880,155
DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 237, chemical tanker 32, combination bulk
3, container 40, liquefied gas tanker 15, livestock carrier 1,
multifunction large-load carrier 4, oil tanker 34, passenger 7,
refrigerated cargo 16, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea passenger
3, specialized tanker 2
note: many Dutch-owned ships are operating under the registry of
Netherlands Antilles (1996 est.)

Airports: 28 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy
(includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air
Force, Royal Constabulary

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 4,160,723 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 3,642,218 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 95,006 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8.2 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish
entering Europe; European producer of illicit amphetamines and other
synthetic drugs
______________________________________________________________________

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES

(part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

@Netherlands Antilles:Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea - one
includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela and the other is east
of the Virgin Islands

Geographic coordinates: 12 15 N, 68 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 960 sq km
land: 960 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint
Maarten (Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)

Area - comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 10.2 km
border countries: Guadeloupe (Saint Martin) 10.2 km

Coastline: 364 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 90% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane
belt, so are rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius
are subject to hurricanes from July to October

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Whaling (extended from Netherlands)
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Netherlands Antilles:People

Population: 211,093 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 26,496; female 25,267)
15-64 years : 68% (male 70,087; female 73,300)
65 years and over: 8% (male 6,694; female 9,249) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.61 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.33 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.18 years
male: 74.89 years
female: 79.59 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Netherlands Antillean(s)
adjective: Netherlands Antillean

Ethnic groups: mixed black 85%, Carib Amerindian, white, East Asian

Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento, a
Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect predominates, English widely
spoken, Spanish

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (1981 est.)

@Netherlands Antilles:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Netherlands Antilles
local long form: none
local short form : Nederlandse Antillen

Data code: NT

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs granted in 1954

Government type: NA

National capital: Willemstad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)
note: each island has its own government

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the
Netherlands, as amended

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH
(since NA October 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 25 February
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten
elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen for a six-year term; following legislative
elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime
minister by the Staten; election last held 31 March 1994 (next to be
held NA 1998)
election results: Miguel POURIER elected prime minister; percent of
legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral States or Staten (23 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 25 February 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAR
8, PNP 3, SPA 2, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, DP 1, WIPM 1, DP-St.E 1, DP-St.M
1, Nos Patria 1
note: the government of Prime Minister Miguel POURIER is a coalition
of several parties

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: political parties are indigenous to
each island
Bonaire: Patriotic Union of Bonaire (UPB), Rudy ELLIS; Democratic
Party of Bonaire (PDB), Broertje JANJA
Curacao : Antillean Restructuring Party (PAR), Miguel POURIER;
National People's Party (PNP), Maria LIBERIA-PETERS; New Antilles
Movement (MAN), Domenico Felip Don MARTINA; Workers' Liberation Front
(FOL), Wilson (Papa) GODETT; Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK
and Nelson MONTE; Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustin DIAZ; Nos
Patria, Chin BEHILIA
Saba : Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Ray HASSELL;
Saba Democratic Labor Movement, Steve HASSELL; Saba Unity Party,
Carmen SIMMONDS
Sint Eustatius: Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St.E), Julian
WOODLEY; Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM); St. Eustatius
Alliance (SEA), Ingrid WHITFIELD
Sint Maarten: Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St.M), Sarah
WESTCOTT-WILLIAMS; Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten (SPA), Vance
JAMES; Serious Alternative People's Party (SAPP) Julian ROLLOCKS

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WMO, WToO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General James L. WILLIAMS
consulate(s) general: J.B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao
mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone : [599] (9) 461-3066
FAX: [599] (9) 461-6489

Flag description: white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center
superimposed on a vertical red band also centered; five white
five-pointed stars are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of
the blue band; the five stars represent the five main islands of
Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, petroleum transshipment, and offshore
finance are the mainstays of this small economy, which is closely tied
to the outside world. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a
well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the
region. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with
Venezuela and the US being the major suppliers. Poor soils and
inadequate water supplies hamper the development of agriculture.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.04 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 15%
services: 84% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 89,000
by occupation: government 65%, industry and commerce 28% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 13.4% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $209 million
expenditures : $232 million, including capital expenditures of $8
million (1992 est.)

Industries: tourism (Curacao, Sint Maarten, and Bonaire), petroleum
refining (Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and
Bonaire), light manufacturing (Curacao)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 307,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 970 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,580 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: aloes, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables, tropical
fruit

Exports:
total value: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: petroleum products 98%
partners: US 39%, Brazil 9%, Colombia 6%

Imports:
total value: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities : crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures
partners: Venezuela 26%, US 18%, Colombia 6%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5%

Debt - external: $1.95 billion (December 1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA; the Netherlands Antilles received a $97 million
Dutch aid package in 1996, making it the Netherlands' second largest
aid recipient behind India

Currency: 1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) =
100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins
(NAf.) per US$1 - 1.790 (fixed rate since 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Netherlands Antilles:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: generally adequate facilities
domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 205,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 64,000 (1992 est.)

@Netherlands Antilles:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 600 km
paved : 300 km
unpaved: 300 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Kralendijk, Philipsburg, Willemstad

Merchant marine:
total: 106 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 971,002 GRT/1,318,064
DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 33, container 4, liquefied gas tanker 4,
multifunction large-load carrier 20, oil tanker 7, passenger 1,
refrigerated cargo 26, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8 (1996 est.)

Airports: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal
Netherlands Air Force, National Guard, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 57,691 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 32,406 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,640 (1997 est.)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center; transshipment point for South
American drugs bound for the US and Europe
______________________________________________________________________

NEW CALEDONIA

(overseas territory of France)

@New Caledonia:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 165 30 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total : 19,060 sq km
land: 18,575 sq km
water: 485 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,254 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver,
gold, lead, copper

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 12%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons most frequent from November to March

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@New Caledonia:People

Population: 191,003 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 30% (male 29,204; female 28,140)
15-64 years: 65% (male 62,344; female 60,864)
65 years and over: 5% (male 4,972; female 5,479) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.68% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 21.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.86 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.68 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 78.11 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: New Caledonian(s)
adjective: New Caledonian

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%,
Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%

Languages: French, 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 92%
female: 90% (1976 est.)

@New Caledonia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies
conventional short form: New Caledonia
local long form : Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances
local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie

Data code: NC

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1956

Government type: NA

National capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and
Sud

Independence: none (overseas territory of France; a referendum on
independence will be held in 1998)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to
the islands; formerly under French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by High Commissioner and President of the Council
of Government Dominque BUR (since NA August 1995)
head of government: President of the Territorial Congress Pierre
FROGIER (since 31 July 1995)
cabinet: Consultative Committee
elections: high commissioner appointed by the president of France on
the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the
Territorial Congress elected by the members of the congress

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Congress or Congres
Territorial (54 seats; members are members of the three Provincial
Assemblies or Assemblees Provinciales elected by popular vote to serve
six-year terms)
elections: last held 9 July 1995 (next to be held NA July 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPCR
22, FLNKS 12, UNCT 7, various left parties 7, various right parties 6
note : New Caledonia elects 1 seat to the French Senate; elections
last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held NA September 2001);
results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPCR 1; New
Caledonia also elects 2 seats to the French National Assembly;
elections last held 21 March 1993 (next to be held 25 May-1 June 1997
- special election); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - RPCR 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: white-dominated Rassemblement pour la
Caledonie dans la Republique or RPCR (conservative) [Jacques LAFLEUR,
president] - affiliated to France's Rassemblement pour la Republique
or RPR (also called South Province Party); Melanesian proindependence
Kanaka Socialist National Liberation Front or FLNKS [Rock WAMYTAN];
Melanesian moderate Kanak Socialist Liberation or LKS [Nidoish
NAISSELINE]; National Front or FN (extreme right) [Guy GEORGE];
Caledonie Demain or CD (right-wing) [Bernard MARANT]; Union Oceanienne
or UO (conservative) [Michel HEMA]; Front de Developpement des Iles
Loyautes or FDIL [Cono HAMU]; Union Caledonian or UC [Francois BURCK,
president]; A New Caledonia for All or UNCT [Didier LEROUX]

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ,
ICFTU, SPC, WFTU, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Flag description: three horizontal bands, blue (top), red, and green,
with a yellow disk enclosing a black symbol centered to the hoist
side; the flag of France is used for official occasions

Economy

Economy - overview: New Caledonia has more than 20% of the world's
known nickel resources. In recent years, the economy has suffered
because of depressed international demand for nickel, the principal
source of export earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is
suitable for cultivation, and food accounts for about 25% of imports.
In addition to nickel, financial support from France and tourism are
key to the health of the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 5%
industry: 35%
services: 60% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.4% (1990)

Labor force:
total : 70,044 (1988)
by occupation: agriculture 32%, industry 20%, services 40%, mining 8%
(1992)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $755.6 million
expenditures: $755.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: nickel mining and smelting

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: 1.12 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,744 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: vegetables; beef, other livestock products

Exports:
total value: $528 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: nickel metal 24.5%, nickel ore
partners: France 32.2%, Japan 23.5%, Germany 6.7%, US 3.6%, India 1.2%

Imports:
total value : $980 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical equipment
partners: France 46.3%, ECE 14.9%, Australia 10.2%, Japan 6.3%, New
Zealand 4.4%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: important support from France

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
- 98.48 (January 1997), 93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995), 100.93 (1994),
102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

@New Caledonia:Communications

Telephones: 38,748 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 97,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7

Televisions: 47,000 (1992 est.)

@New Caledonia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 5,562 km
paved: 975 km
unpaved: 4,587 km (1993)

Ports and harbors: Mueo, Noumea, Thio

Merchant marine:
total: 1 roll-on/roll-off ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,079
GRT/724 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 28 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 12 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 12
914 to 1,523 m: 12 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 7 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: French Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force,
Gendarmerie); Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Matthew and Hunter Islands claimed by France
and Vanuatu
______________________________________________________________________

NEW ZEALAND

@New Zealand:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 268,680 sq km
land: 268,670 sq km
water: 10 sq km
note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands,
Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Area - comparative: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : Mount Cook 3,764 m

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber,
hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops : 5%
permanent pastures: 50%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,850 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe;
volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native
flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: about 80% of the population lives in cities

@New Zealand:People

Population: 3,587,275 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 424,584; female 403,792)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,174,945; female 1,167,913)
65 years and over: 12% (male 179,853; female 236,188) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.08% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.35 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.67 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.27 years
male: 74.16 years
female: 80.56 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.96 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: New Zealander(s)
adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups: European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander 2.9%, other
0.2%

Religions: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%,
Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33%
(1986)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@New Zealand:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: New Zealand
abbreviation : NZ

Data code: NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town
districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller,
Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont,
Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay,
Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay,
Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt,
Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough,
Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua,
Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako,
Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga,
Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford,
Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga,
Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo,
Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea,
Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa,
Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland,
Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions
(Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay,
Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman,
Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are
subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*,
Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central
Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne,
Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*,
Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie,
Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*,
Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston
North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney,
Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato,
South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames
Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa,
Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western
Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various
documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand
Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1
January 1987, but has not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and
land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Michael HARDIE BOYS (since 21
March 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister James BOLGER (since 29 October
1990) and Deputy Prime Minister Winston PETERS (since 16 December
1996)
cabinet : Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of
the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year
term; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
note: the government is a coalition of the National Party and the New
Zealand First Party

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly
called Parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote in
single-member constituencies to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 12 October 1996 (next must be called by October
1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - NP 34.1%, NZLP 28.3%,
NZFP 13.1%, Alliance 10.1%, ACT 6.17%, UNZ 0.91%; seats by party - NP
44, NZLP 37, NZFP 17, Alliance 13, ACT 8, UNZ 1

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: National Party (NP), James BOLGER; New
Zealand First Party (NZFP), Winston PETERS; New Zealand Labor Party
(NZLP, opposition), Helen CLARK; Alliance, Jim ANDERTON; Democratic
Party, John WRIGHT; New Zealand Liberal Party, Frank GROVER; Green
Party, Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD; Mana Motuhake, Sandra LEE;
United New Zealand (UNZ), Clive MATTHEWSON; Conservative Party
(formerly Right of Centre Party), Trevor ROGERS; Association of
Consumers and Taxpayers, New Zealand (ACT), Richard PREBBLE; Christian
Democrats, Graeme LEE; Christian Heritage Party (CH), Rev. Graham
CAPILL

International organization participation: ANZUS (US suspended security
obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C,
CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), OECD, PCA, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNTAES,
UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel John WOOD
chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 328-4800
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Josiah Horton BEEMAN
embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address : P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP
96531-1001
telephone: [64] (4) 472-2068
FAX: [64] (4) 472-3537
consulate(s) general: Auckland

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in
the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross
constellation

Economy

Economy - overview: Since 1984 the government has accomplished major
economic restructuring from an agrarian economy dependent on a
concessionary British market access toward a more industrialized,
open, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic
growth has boosted real incomes, broadened and deepened the
technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained
inflationary pressures. Business confidence strengthened in 1994, and
export demand picked up in the Asia-Pacific region, resulting in 6.2%
growth. Growth continued strong in 1995, but tailed off in 1996.
Inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world. Per capita
GDP now is up to the levels of the big West European economies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $65.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.3%
industry: 25.9%
services : 66.8% (1990)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 1,634,500 (September 1995)
by occupation: services 64.6%, industry 25.0%, agriculture 10.4%
(1994)

Unemployment rate: 5.9% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues : $22.18 billion
expenditures: $20.28 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles,
machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism,
mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 7.75 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 34.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 9,198 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits,
vegetables; wool, meat, dairy products; fish catch reached a record
503,000 metric tons in 1988

Exports:
total value: $13.7 billion (1995)
commodities: wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fish, cheese, chemicals,
forestry products, fruits and vegetables, manufactures, dairy
products, wood
partners: Australia 19%, Japan 15%, UK 15%, US 12%

Imports:
total value : $14 billion (1995)
commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft,
petroleum, consumer goods, plastics
partners: Australia 21%, US 18%, Japan 16%, UK 6%

Debt - external: $38.5 billion (September 1994)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $98 million (1993)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.4247 (January
1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993),
1.8584 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@New Zealand:Communications

Telephones: 1.7 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: excellent international and domestic systems
domestic: NA
international: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth
stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 64, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.215 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 14 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 1.53 million (1992 est.)

@New Zealand:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,973 km
narrow gauge: 3,973 km 1.067-m gauge (504 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 92,306 km
paved: 53,537 km (including 144 km of expressways)
unpaved : 38,769 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; liquefied
petroleum gas or LPG 150 km

Ports and harbors: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga,
Wellington

Merchant marine:
total : 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 173,831 GRT/224,544 DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 3,
railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6 (1996 est.)

Airports: 112 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 89
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 48 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 22 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New
Zealand Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 932,982 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 785,440 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 26,514 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $677 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY96/97)

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