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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Data code: MG

Government type: republic

National capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and
3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor,
Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan,
Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay,
Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: 12 February 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law;
no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September
1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Mendsaihan ENHSAIHAN (since 18 July
1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural
elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and
elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 6
June 1993 (next to be held 19 May 1997); following legislative
elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is
usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural
election results: Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) reelected
president; percent of vote - Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT 57.8%, Lodongiyn
TUDEV (MPRP) NA%; Mendsaihan ENHSAIHAN elected prime minister; percent
of State Great Hural vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - DUC 66%, MPRP 33%, MCP
1%; seats by party - DUC 50 (MNDP 34, MSDP 13, independents 3), MPRP
25, MCP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's
and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower
courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for
approval by the Great Hural

Political parties and leaders: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
(MPRP), N. ENHBAYAR, general secretary; Democratic Union Coalition
(DUC), Mendsaihan ENHSAIHAN, general secretary (includes Mongolian
National Democratic Party or MNDP, M. ENHSAIHAN, chairman; Mongolian
Social Democratic Party or MSDP, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJI,
chairman; Green Party, leader NA; and Mongolian Democratic Party of
Believers or MDPB, leader NA); Mongolian Conservative Party (MCP),
leader NA; Democratic Power Coalition, D. BYAMBASUREN, chairman
(includes Mongolian Democratic Renaissance Party or MDRP, BYAMBASUREN,
chairman, and Mongolian People's Party or MPP, leader NA); Mongolian
National Solidarity Party (MNSP), leader NA; Bourgeois
Party/Capitalist Party, VARGALSAIHAN, chairman; United Heritage Party
(UHP), B. JAMTSAI (includes United Party of Herdsman and Farmers,
leader NA; Independence Party, leader NA; Traditional United
Conservative Party, leader NA; and Mongolian United Private Property
Owners Party, leader NA); Workers' Party, leader NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer),
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX : [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Llewellyn
HEDGBETH
embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol,
Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big
Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone : [976] (1) 329095, 329606
FAX: [976] (1) 320776

Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side),
blue, and red, centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the
national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and
geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the
yin-yang symbol)

Economy

Economy - overview: The new government has embraced free-market
economics, freezing spending, easing price controls, liberalizing
domestic and international trade. Mongolia's severe climate, scattered
population, and wide expanses of unproductive land, however, have
constrained economic development. Economic activity traditionally has
been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock. In past years
extensive mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support;
total Soviet assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP. The
mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and
gold account for a large part of industrial production. The dramatic
drop in the price of copper which accounts for half of the country's
export earnings, has held back economic growth. The Mongolian
leadership also has been soliciting support from international
financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy, however, has
still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid. The country continues
to suffer substantial economic hardships, with one-fourth of the
population below the poverty line.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,060 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 28%
industry: 35%
services: 37% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 53% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.115 million (mid-1993 est.)
by occupation : primarily herding/agricultural

Unemployment rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures : $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: copper, construction materials, mining (particularly
coal); food and beverage, processing of animal products

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 900,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3.07 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,215 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep,
goats, cattle, camels, horses

Exports:
total value: $400 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities : copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool,
hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
partners: former CMEA countries 30%, China 15%, EU 9% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $473 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities : machinery and equipment, fuels, food products,
industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners: former CMEA countries 56%, China 9%, EU 8% (1995)

Debt - external: $500 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA; US, $9.5 million (1995 est.)

Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 709.54 (January 1997),
548.40 (1996), 448.61 (1995), 412.72 (1994), 42.56 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mongolia:Communications

Telephones: 89,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 220,000

Television broadcast stations: 1 (provincial repeaters 18)

Televisions: 120,000 (1993 est.)

@Mongolia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,928 km
broad gauge: 1,928 km 1.524-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total : 49,200 km
paved: 1,120 km
unpaved: 48,080 km (1995 est.)
note: much of the unpaved rural road system consists of rough
cross-country tracks

Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 34 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
under 914 m : 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m : 5 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security
Forces and Frontier Guards), Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 659,173 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 430,482 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 27,723 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $22.8 million (1992)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (1992)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MONTSERRAT

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Montserrat:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto
Rico

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 100 sq km
land: 100 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal
lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chances Peak 914 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land : 20%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 10%
forests and woodland: 40%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic
eruptions (full-scale eruptions of the Soufriere Hills volcano
occurred during 1996)

Environment - current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have
been cleared for cultivation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

@Montserrat:People

Population: 12,800 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.23% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.47 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.85 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years : NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 11.87 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.62 years
male: 73.85 years
female : 77.42 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Montserratian(s)
adjective: Montserratian

Ethnic groups: black, white

Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal,
Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1970 est.)

@Montserrat:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montserrat

Data code: MH

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Plymouth

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges,
Saint Peter's

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday of June)

Constitution: present constitution came into force 19 December 1989

Legal system: English common law and statute law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Frank J. SAVAGE (since NA February 1993)
head of government : Chief Minister Bertrand OSBORNE (since 13
November 1996)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief
minister, three other ministries, the attorney general, and the
finance secretary
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed by
the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party usually becomes chief minister; note: as a result of the last
election, a coalition party was formed between NPP, NDP, and one of
the independent candidates

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats, 7
popularly elected; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 11 November 1996 (next to be held by NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPA
2, MNR 2, NPP 1, independent 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia); one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the High Court

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party (NPP),
Reuben T. MEADE; Movement for National Reconstruction (MNR), Percival
Austin BRAMBLE; People's Progressive Alliance (PPA), Bertrand OSBORNE

International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, ECLAC
(associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, WCL

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half
of the flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing beside a
yellow harp with her arm around a black cross

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of this volcanic island is small and
open, with economic activity centered on tourism and related services.
Tourism accounts for roughly one-quarter of Montserrat's national
income. The island's main export is electronic components which are
mainly shipped to the US. The agriculture sector is small; cabbages,
carrots, cucumbers, and onions are grown for the domestic market;
additionally, some hot peppers and live plants are exported to the US
and Europe. Volcanic activity in late 1995 led to the repeated
evacuation of Montserrat's capital, Plymouth, and deep ash from the
volcano destroyed much of the yearend crops. These disruptions,
compounded by hurricanes, caused production in 1995 to drop
precipitously. The likely slow recovery of tourism and the continued
danger of an eruption dimmed the prospects for rapid recovery in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $55.3 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -2.9% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,360 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.8%
industry: 18.4%
services: 76.8% (1990 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,521 (1992)
by occupation : community, social, and personal services 40.5%,
construction 13.5%, trade, restaurants, and hotels 12.3%,
manufacturing 10.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%, other
14.4% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: NA
expenditures : NA

Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes,
onions, peppers; livestock products

Exports:
total value: $12.1 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities : electronic components, plastic bags, apparel, hot
peppers, live plants, cattle
partners: US, Ireland

Imports:
total value: $29.9 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities : machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs,
manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
partners: NA

Debt - external: $10.2 million (December 1994)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (February
1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Montserrat:Communications

Telephones: 3,000

Telephone system:
domestic : NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 6,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 2,000 (1992 est.)

@Montserrat:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 269 km
paved: 203 km
unpaved: 66 km (1995)

Ports and harbors: Plymouth

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MOROCCO

@Morocco:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 446,550 sq km
land: 446,300 sq km
water: 250 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,017.9 km
border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain
(Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas
of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Sebkha Tah -55 m
highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish,
salt

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 47%
forests and woodland: 20%
other : 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,580 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject
to earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil
erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing,
destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage;
siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

@Morocco:People

Population: 30,391,423 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 37% (male 5,730,322; female 5,552,490)
15-64 years: 59% (male 8,832,635; female 8,949,126)
65 years and over: 4% (male 629,816; female 697,034) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.02% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.83 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.58 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.08 years
male : 68.04 years
female: 72.21 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.47 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Moroccan(s)
adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the
language of business, government, and diplomacy

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.7%
male : 56.6%
female: 31% (1995 est.)

@Morocco:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form : Morocco
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form: Al Maghrib

Data code: MO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 36 provinces and 5 wilayas*; Agadir, Al
Hoceima, Assa-Zag, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane,
Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia,
Essaouira, Es Smara, Fes*, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra,
Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech*,
Meknes*, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi
Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan,
Tiznit
note : decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature
in March 1997 creating many new provinces/regions; specific details
and scope of the reorganization not yet available

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 3 March (1961) (anniversary of King
HASSAN II's accession to the throne)

Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992, amended (to
create bicameral legislature) September 1996

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber
of Supreme Court

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdellatif FILALI (since 29 May
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king
elections: none; the king is a hereditary monarch; prime minister
appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Representatives or Majlis
Nawab (333 seats; 222 elected by popular vote, 111 indirectly elected
by an electoral college made up of government, professional, and labor
representatives; members serve six-year terms); note - bicameral
legislature to be introduced in September 1997; members of the upper
house will be indirectly elected to serve nine-year terms, with
one-third of the members renewed every three years; members of the
lower house will be directly elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms
elections: popular elections last held 15 June 1993; indirect
elections last held 17 September 1993 (next election will be for the
new bicameral legislature with both indirect and popular elections
scheduled to be held in September 1997)
election results: popular elections - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - USFP 48, IP 43, MP 33, RNI 28, UC 27, PND 14, MNP 14,
PPS 6, PDI 3, SAP 2, PA 2, OADP 2; indirect elections - percent of
vote by party - NA; seats by party - UC 27, MP 18, RNI 13, MNP 11, PND
10, IP 7, Party of Shura and Istiqlal 6, USFP 4, PPS 4, CDT 4, UTM 3,
UGTM 2, SAP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed on the
recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over
by the king

Political parties and leaders:
opposition : Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), Abderrahman
YOUSSFI; Istiqlal Party (IP), M'Hamed BOUCETTA; Party of Progress and
Socialism (PPS), Ali YATA; Organization of Democratic and Popular
Action (OADP), Mohamed Ben SAID; Democratic Socialist Party, Issa
al-OUARDIGHI
pro-government: Constitutional Union (UC), Abdelatif SEMLALI; Popular
Movement (MP), Mohamed LAENSER; National Democratic Party (PND),
Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI; National Popular Movement (MNP), Mahjoubi
AHARDANE; National Democratic Movement, Mohamed AARCHANE
independents: National Rally of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN;
Democracy and Istiqlal Party (PDI), leader NA; Action Party (PA),
Abdullah SENHAJI; Non-Obedience Candidates (SAP), leader NA
labor unions and community organizations (indirect elections only) :
Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT), Nabir AMAOUI; General Union
of Moroccan Workers (UGTM), Abderrazzak AFILAL; Moroccan Union of
Workers (UTM), Mahjoub BENSEDIQ; Party of Shura and Istiqlal,
Abdelwaheb MAASH; Labor Union Commissions, leader NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate),
AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending
member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed BENAISSA
chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone : [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982
FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marc C. GINSBERG
embassy : 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
mailing address: PSC 74, Box 003, APO AE 09718
telephone: [212] (7) 76 22 65
FAX: [212] (7) 76 56 61
consulate(s) general: Casablanca

Flag description: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear
star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the
traditional color of Islam

Economy

Economy - overview: Morocco faces the typical problems of developing
countries - restraining government spending, reducing constraints on
private activity and foreign trade, and keeping inflation within
manageable bounds. Since the early 1980s the government has pursued an
economic program toward these objectives with the support of the IMF,
the World Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The dirham is now
fully convertible for current account transactions; reforms of the
financial sector have been implemented; and 43 state enterprises have
been privatized. Drought conditions in three of the last four years
have depressed activity in the key agricultural sector, holding down
exports and contributing to a 7.5% contraction in real GDP in 1995.
Favorable rainfall in 1996 nurtured a record wheat crop and
contributed to the 9% overall growth. Servicing the large external
debt, preparing the economy for freer trade with the European Union,
and finding jobs for Morocco's youthful population remain long-term
problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $97.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,260 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 30%
services: 49% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9%
(1985)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10.4 billion
expenditures: $10.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing,
leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.79 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 10.17 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 385 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables,
olives; livestock

Exports:
total value: $7.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%,
consumer goods 21%, phosphates 17% (1995 est.)
partners : EU 63%, Japan 7.7%, India 6.6%, US 3.4%, Libya 3.4% (1996
est.)

Imports:
total value: $9.8 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials
16%, fuel and lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods
9% (1995 est.)
partners: EU 57%, US 6.6%, Saudi Arabia 5.3%, Brazil 2.8% (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $23.4 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $297 million (1993)
note : $2.8 billion debt canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991)

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 9.018 (January 1997),
8.716 (1996), 8.540 (1995), 9.203 (1994), 9.299 (1993), 8.538 (1992)

Fiscal year: July 1-June 30

@Morocco:Communications

Telephones: 270,100 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and
microwave radio relay links; principal centers are Casablanca and
Rabat; secondary centers are Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and
Tetouan
international : 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to
Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave
radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 5.527 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 26 (repeaters 26)

Televisions: 1.21 million (1993 est.)

@Morocco:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,907 km
standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1003 km electrified; 246 km
double track) (1994)

Highways:
total : 60,513 km
paved: 30,438 km (including 113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 30,075 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 362 km; petroleum products 491 km (abandoned);
natural gas 241 km

Ports and harbors: Agadir, El Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar,
Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also
Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

Merchant marine:
total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 180,172 GRT/261,213 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 7, container 2, oil tanker 3,
refrigerated cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1
(1996 est.)

Airports: 62 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 35
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m : 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m : 15 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 7,779,077 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,927,589 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 336,969 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.38 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.1% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims and administers Western Sahara, but
sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a
referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been in
effect since September 1991; Spain controls five places of sovereignty
(plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal
enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests as well as the
islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas
Chafarinas

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the
increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments
of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for
cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

MOZAMBIQUE

@Mozambique:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between
South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 801,590 sq km
land : 784,090 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105
km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in
northwest, mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m

Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 56%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe droughts and floods occur in central and
southern provinces; devastating cyclones

Environment - current issues: a long civil war and recurrent drought
in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the
population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental
consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone
Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

@Mozambique:People

Population: 18,165,476 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 4,021,791; female 4,136,853)
15-64 years: 53% (male 4,678,819; female 4,910,085)
65 years and over: 2% (male 173,177; female 244,751) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.6% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 44.33 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 18.31 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 122.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.85 years
male: 43.71 years
female: 46.02 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.11 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic groups: indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe,
Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans
0.2%, Indians 0.08%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

Languages: Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 40.1%
male: 57.7%
female: 23.3% (1995 est.)

@Mozambique:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form : Republica Popular de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique

Data code: MZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula,
Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 30 November 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November
1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO was elected
president by FRELIMO's Central Committee 4 November 1986 (reelected by
the Committee 30 July 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since NA December
1994)
cabinet : Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 27 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO elected president; percent
of vote - Joaquim CHISSANO 53.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 33.3%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia
da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote
on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27-29 October 1994 (next to be held NA October
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - Frelimo 44.33%, RENAMO
33.78%, Democratic Union 5.15%, other 16.74%; seats by party - Frelimo
129, RENAMO 112, Democratic Union 9
note: the presidential and legislative elections took place as called
for in the 1992 peace accords; RENAMO participated in the elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president and
judges elected by the Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
or FRELIMO [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, chairman]; Mozambique National
Resistance or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]; Democratic Union or
DU [Antonio PALANGE, general secretary]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA
chancery: Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter Michael
McKINLEY
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone : [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490114

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black,
and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the
black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow
five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black
superimposed on an open white book

Economy

Economy - overview: One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has
failed to exploit the economic potential of its sizable agricultural,
hydropower, and transportation resources. Agricultural output is at
only 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to be imported. Industry
operates at only 20%-40% of capacity. Foreign assistance programs
supply the foreign exchange required to pay for imports of goods and
services. The peace accord, signed in October 1992, has improved
Mozambique's prospects. The restoration of electrical transmission
lines to South Africa and the completion of a new transmission line to
Zimbabwe (permitting the giant Cahora Bassa hydropower plant to export
large amounts of electricity), proposed construction of a natural gas
pipeline to South Africa, and reform of transportation services will
greatly improve foreign exchange receipts. The Mozambique and South
African governments are developing the Maputo corridor, linking the
port of Maputo with Witbank, South Africa. In the past few years, more
than 500 state enterprises have been privatized, including the
country's largest commercial bank and a number of sizable
manufacturing firms. Other pending reform measures are the
privatization of customs operations, the reform of tax collection, and
the facilitation of private enterprise in the transportation, energy,
and telecommunications sectors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $670 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 12%
services : 55% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 22% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: 80% engaged in agriculture
note: in 1993, 47% of the wage earners were employed in industry, 28%
in transportation and communication; traditionally, a large number of
Mozambicans work abroad

Unemployment rate: 50% (1989 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $252 million
expenditures : $607 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints),
petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 5.8% (1993 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.36 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 490 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 45 kWh (1993)

Agriculture - products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava
(tapioca), corn, rice, tropical fruits; beef, poultry

Exports:
total value : $169 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: shrimp 40%, cashews, cotton, sugar, copra, citrus
partners: Spain, South Africa, US, Portugal, Japan

Imports:
total value: $784 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities : food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
partners: South Africa 44%, UK, France, Japan, Portugal

Debt - external: $5.5 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 11,455.0 (December 1996),
11,293.8 (1996), 9,024.3 (1995), 6,038.6 (1994), 3,874.2 (1993),
2,516.5 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mozambique:Communications

Telephones: 59,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: fair system of tropospheric scatter, open-wire
lines, and microwave radio relay
domestic: microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international : satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic
Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 700,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 44,000 (1992 est.)

@Mozambique:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,131 km
narrow gauge: 2,988 km 1.067-m gauge; 143 km 0.762-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 29,810 km
paved: 5,545 km
unpaved : 24,265 km (1995 est.)
note: highway traffic impeded by land mines not removed at end of
civil war

Waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Pipelines: crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km

Ports and harbors: Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba

Merchant marine:
total : 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,694 GRT/9,724 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 129 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 85
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m : 10
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 65 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 44
1,524 to 2,437 m : 12
914 to 1,523 m: 32 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Militia

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,149,766 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,390,791 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $84 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.3% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: Southern African transit hub for South American cocaine
probably destined for the European and US markets; producer of hashish
and methaqualone
______________________________________________________________________

NAMIBIA

@Namibia:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Angola and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 17 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 825,418 sq km
land: 825,418 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 3,824 km
border countries: Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 855
km, Zambia 233 km

Coastline: 1,572 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari
Desert in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein 2,606 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin,
lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected
deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged periods of drought

Environment - current issues: very limited natural fresh water
resources; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Biodiversity, Desertification

@Namibia:People

Population: 1,727,183 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 379,158; female 371,008)
15-64 years: 53% (male 444,523; female 465,510)
65 years and over: 4% (male 28,743; female 38,241) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.94% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 37.08 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.72 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population : 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.91 years
male : 63.23 years
female: 66.63 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.05 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian

Ethnic groups: black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%
note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to
the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups are: Herero 7%, Damara 7%,
Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%

Religions: Christian 80% to 90% (Lutheran 50% at least, other
Christian denominations 30%, native religions 10% to 20%

Languages: English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of
the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%,
indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38%
male: 45%
female: 31% (1960 est.)

@Namibia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia

Data code: WA

Government type: republic

National capital: Windhoek

Administrative divisions: 13 regions; Caprivi, Erongo, Hardap, Karas,
Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana,
Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa

Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)

Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 7-8 December 1994 (next to be held NA December
1999)
election results : Sam NUJOMA elected president; percent of vote - 76%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the National
Council (26 seats; two members are chosen from each regional council
to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly (72 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 30 November-3 December 1992
(next to be held by December 1998); National Assembly - last held 7-8
December 1994 (next to be held NA December 1999)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - SWAPO 19, DTA 6, UDF 1; National Assembly - percent
of vote by party - SWAPO 73.89%, DTA 20.78%, UDF 2.72%, DCN 0.83%, MAG
0.82%; seats by party - SWAPO 53, DTA 15, UDF 2, MAG 1, DCN 1
note: the National Council is a purely advisory body

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: South West Africa People's Organization
or SWAPO [Sam NUJOMA]; National Democratic Party for Justice or NDPFJ
[Nbhwete NDJOBA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA
[Mishake MUYONGO, president]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus
GAROEB]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Kosie PRETORIUS]; Democratic
Coalition of Namibia or DCN [Moses K. KATJIUONGUA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC,
UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Veiccoh NGHIWETE
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador George F. WARD, Jr. (24 July 1996)
embassy: Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St., Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 221601
FAX: [264] (61) 229792

Flag description: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills
the upper left section and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the
lower right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that
is contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction
and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 25%
of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in
Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Rich
alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for
gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead,
zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. Half of the population depends on
agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood.
Namibia must import some of its food.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 20%
services: 65% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 500,000
by occupation: agriculture 49%, industry and commerce 25%, services
5%, government 18%, mining 3% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 21.8% (1993)

Budget:
revenues : $1.1 billion
expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $193
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: meat packing, fish processing, dairy products; mining
(diamond, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 406,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 994 million kWh (1993)
note: imports electricity from South Africa

Electricity - consumption per capita: 925 kWh (1993)

Agriculture - products: millet, sorghum, peanuts; livestock; fish
catch potential of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled

Exports:
total value: $1.45 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle,
processed fish, karakul skins
partners : UK, South Africa, Spain, Japan (1994)

Imports:
total value: $1.55 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and
equipment, chemicals
partners: South Africa 85%, Germany, US, Japan (1994 est.)

Debt - external: about $315 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Namibian dollar (N$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Nambian dollars (N$) per US$1 - 4.64152 (January
1997), 4.29935 (1996), 3.62709 (1995), 3.55080 (1994), 3.26774 (1993),
2.85201 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Namibia:Communications

Telephones: 89,722 (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio
relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by
open wire
international: NA
note: a fully automated digital network is to be operational by 1997

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 40, shortwave 0

Radios: 195,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 27,000 (1993 est.)

@Namibia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,382 km
narrow gauge: 2,382 km 1.067-m gauge; single track (1995)

Highways:
total: 40,450 km
paved: 5,299 km
unpaved: 35,151 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine:
total : 1 roll-on/roll-off ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,330
GRT/2,233 DWT

Airports: 111 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m : 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m : 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 79
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 59 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: National Defense Force (Army), Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 392,228 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 233,336 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $64 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with Botswana over uninhabited
Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River remained unresolved
in December 1995, and the parties agreed to refer the matter to the
ICJ
______________________________________________________________________

NAURU

@Nauru:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the
Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 32 S, 166 55 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 21 sq km
land: 21 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs
with phosphate plateau in center

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location along plateau rim 61 m

Natural resources: phosphates

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other : 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources,
roof storage tanks collect rainwater; phosphate mining threatens
limited remaining land resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock
islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in
Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

@Nauru:People

Population: 10,390 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years : NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Nationality:
noun: Nauruan(s)
adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic groups: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%,
European 8%

Religions: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Languages: Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language),
English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and
commercial purposes

Literacy: NA

@Nauru:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Nauru
conventional short form: Nauru
former: Pleasant Island

Data code: NR

Government type: republic

National capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren
District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare,
Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, New Zealand-, and
UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kinza CLODUMAR (since 8 February 1997); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government : President Kinza CLODUMAR (since 8 February 1997);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term;
election last held 8 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results : Kinza CLODUMAR elected president; percent of
Parliament vote - NA
note: President CLODUMAR is the country's fifth president in five
months

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 18 November 1995 (next to be held NA November
1998)
election results : percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: AsDB, C (special), ESCAP,
ICAO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC,
SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Nauru does not have an embassy in
the US
consulate(s) : Agana (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru

Flag description: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across
the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the
hoist side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to
the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12
original tribes of Nauru

Economy

Economy - overview: Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the
reserves of which are expected to be exhausted by the year 2000.
Phosphates have given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes
in the Third World, but incomes probably will drop sharply in the
future. Few other resources exist, so most necessities must be
imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of
mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious
long-term problems. Substantial amounts of phosphate income are
invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition. However,
dividends from the trusts have declined sharply since 1990 and the
government has been borrowing heavily from the trusts to finance
fiscal deficits. In an effort to stem further escalation of fiscal
problems, the FY96/97 budget calls for a freeze on government wages
for two years, a reduction of over-staffed public service departments,
drastic cutbacks in hiring new government staff, privatization of
numerous government agencies, and closure of some overseas consulates.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $100 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services : NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: -3.6% (1993)

Labor force:
by occupation : employed in mining phosphates, public administration,
education, and transportation

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues : $23.4 million
expenditures: $64.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96)

Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 13,250 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 48 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts predominate

Exports:
total value: $25.3 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: phosphates
partners : Australia, NZ

Imports:
total value: $21.1 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
partners: Australia, UK, NZ, Japan

Debt - external: $33.3 million

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $2.25 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2835 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Nauru:Communications

Telephones: 2,000 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: adequate local and international radiotelephone
communications provided via Australian facilities
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 4,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1991 est.)

Televisions: NA

@Nauru:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3.9 km; note - used to haul phosphates from the center of the
island to processing facilities on the southwest coast

Highways:
total: 28 km
paved: 22 km
unpaved: 6 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Nauru

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru
Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

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