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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 50,000 (1993 est.)

@Angola:Transportation

Railways:
total : 2,952 km limited trackage in use because of land mines still
in place from the civil war) (1997 est.)
narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
total: 72,626 km
paved: 18,157 km
unpaved: 54,469 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malogo, Namibe,
Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
total : 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 55,255 GRT/86,886 DWT
ships by type: cargo 10, oil tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 144 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 67
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m : 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 40 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 77
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 48 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,412,445 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,213,988 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 102,712 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.1 billion (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 31% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine
and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states
______________________________________________________________________

ANGUILLA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 91 sq km
land : 91 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other : 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes
cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution
system

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Anguilla:People

Population: 10,785 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 1,527; female 1,483)
15-64 years : 65% (male 3,563; female 3,407)
65 years and over: 7% (male 351; female 454) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.36% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.02 years
male: 74.07 years
female: 80.08 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 12 and over can read and write
total population : 95%
male: 95%
female: 95% (1984 est.)

@Anguilla:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995)
head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
elected members of the House of Assembly
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7
elected by direct popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANA
2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance or ANA
[Osbourne FLEMING]; Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES];
Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP [Victor BANKS]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an
interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy
water below

Economy

Economy - overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the
economy depends heavily on high-class tourism, offshore banking,
lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Output growth had
averaged about 7% in recent years, mainly as a result of a boom in
tourism thanks to economic expansion in North America and the UK. The
economy, and especially the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late
1995 due to the effects of Hurricane Luis in September. Agricultural
output had only just begun to recover from a drought in 1994 when Luis
hit. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing
the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial
services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term,
prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and,
therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $52 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -4.3% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,400 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,400 (1992)
by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%,
transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $13.5 million (1993)
expenditures: $17.6 million, including capital expenditures of
$740,000 (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes; sheep,
goats, pigs, cattle, poultry; fishing (including lobster)

Exports:
total value : $1.3 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: lobster and salt
partners : NA

Imports:
total value: $39.8 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Debt - external: $8.5 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (February
1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Anguilla:Communications

Telephones: 890

Telephone system:
domestic: modern internal telephone system
international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
(Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 105 km
paved: 65 km
unpaved : 40 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 14 million sq km
land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
ice-covered) (est.)
note : second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km
note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International disputes

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along
the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts
of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute
11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along
the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Environment - current issues: in 1995 it was reported that the ozone
shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet
radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica
since 1975 when measurements were first taken

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest
continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at
the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent
period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally
staffed research stations; Summer (January) population - over 4,115
total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256,
China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace
12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ
264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden
10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90); Winter
(July) population - over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71,
Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5,
India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12,
UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90); Year-round
stations - 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3,
China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea
1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR
6 (1990-91); Summer-only stations - over 38 total; Argentina 7,
Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2,
Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US
numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the
former USSR has placed the status and future of its Antarctic
facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings at any time
because of ongoing economic difficulties

@Antarctica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Antarctica

Data code: AY

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - The Antarctic Treaty,
signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961,
establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica.
Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings -
the 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April
1993. Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations: 26 consultative
and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven
nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some
claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other
nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to do so. The
US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in parentheses
indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative
(voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original
1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia,
Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985),
Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy
(1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989),
Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
(1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of
accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978),
Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993),
Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North
Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia
(1993), Switzerland (1990), and Ukraine (1992). Article 1 - area to be
used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons
testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be
used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2
- freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue;
Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation
with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not
recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims
shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits
nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 -
includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees
00 minutes south; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access,
including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all
stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all
activities and of the introduction of military personnel must be
given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and
scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative
meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states
will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are
contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully
by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13,
14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
involved nations; Other agreements - more than 170 recommendations
adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and
Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
(1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living
Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but
was subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental
Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification;
this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic
environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna,
and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and
protected areas; it also prohibits all activities relating to mineral
resources except scientific research; 21 parties have ratified
Protocol as of April 1996

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: The
taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous
plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific
areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the
Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce,
Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities.
Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires
expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the
Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information contact Permit
Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation,
Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703) 306-1031.

Economy

Economy - overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing
off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

@Antarctica:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Antarctica:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage

Airports: 42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 16
national governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility
operated by commercial (non-governmental) tourist organization;
helicopter pads at 32 of these locations; runways at 10 locations are
gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for
wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved runways; 17 locations have
snow-surface skiways limited to use by ski-equipped planes - 1 skiway
greater than 3,000 m, 19 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 2
runways/skiways less than 1,000 m, and 5 of unspecified or variable
length; airports generally subject to severe restrictions and
limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions;
airports do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the
respective governmental or non-governmental operating organization
required for landing (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a
military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing
of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or
equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see
Antarctic Treaty Summary above); sections (some overlapping) claimed
by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand
(Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most
other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations
and have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do
so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees
west and 150 degrees west
______________________________________________________________________

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

@Antigua and Barbuda:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 440 sq km
land: 440 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher
volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
arable land : 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern
because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered
by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall
to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Antigua and Barbuda:People

Population: 63,739 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 8,514; female 8,221)
15-64 years: 68% (male 21,499; female 21,891)
65 years and over : 6% (male 1,571; female 2,043) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.44% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.27 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.93 years
male : 68.58 years
female: 73.4 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman
Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
schooling
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1960 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
chosen by the queen on the advice of the prime minister; prime
minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional
representation to serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 8 March 1994 (next to
be held NA 1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP
11, UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester
Bryant BIRD]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER], a
coalition of three opposition political parties - the United National
Democratic Party or UNDP; the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or
ACLM; and the Progressive Labor Movement or PLM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union
or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh
MARSHALL]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU,
NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211, 5166, 5122
FAX : [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US
Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the
top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of
black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the
black band

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism continues to be by far the dominant
activity in the economy but the combined share in GDP of transport and
communications, trade, and public utilities has increased markedly in
recent years. Tourism's direct contribution to output in 1994 was
about 20%. In addition, increased tourist arrivals helped spur growth
in the construction and transport sectors. The dual island nation's
agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the
sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages
that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction.
Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major
products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components.
Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to
depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the
US, which accounts for about half of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $446 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3.5%
industry: 19.3%
services: 77.2% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 30,000
by occupation : commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry
7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 5%-10%(1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $134 million
expenditures: $135.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Electricity - capacity: 54,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports:
total value: $45 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live
animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%,
US 0.3%

Imports:
total value: $350.8 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

Debt - external: $435 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (February
1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Antigua and Barbuda:Communications

Telephones: 6,700

Telephone system:
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands
Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 28,000 (1993 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transportation

Railways:
total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways:
total: 245 km (1995 est.)
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 419 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,965,180 GRT/2,637,644
DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 285, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk
1, container 83, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated
cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 19
note : a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 13 ships, Slovenia
3, Croatia 1, Cyprus 1, and US 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m : 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.4 million (FY90/91)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY90/91)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a long-time but relatively minor
transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and
recent transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US;
potentially more significant as a drug money-laundering center
______________________________________________________________________

ARCTIC OCEAN
[Map of Arctic Ocean]

@Arctic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total: 14.056 million sq km
note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US;
smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic
Ocean, and Indian Ocean)

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack
that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges
may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian
Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
and whales)

Natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually
icelocked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing
from October to May

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include
walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to
recover from disruptions or damage

Environment - international agreements:
party to : none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea
(northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait);
strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine
link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia, floating
research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in
March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow
cover lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation
of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and
seals.

@Arctic Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international: no submarine cables

@Arctic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay
(US)

Transportation - note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land
routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route
(Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways

Military

:

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral
states); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between
Norway and Russia
______________________________________________________________________

ARGENTINA

@Argentina:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 2,766,890 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water : 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 9,665 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 52%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes
subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can
strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood
controls and improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation;
desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cities;
water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to
increased pesticide and fertilizer use

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: second-largest country in South America (after
Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
Drake Passage)

@Argentina:People

Population: 35,797,985 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 5,042,521; female 4,855,874)
15-64 years : 62% (male 11,133,884; female 11,155,104)
65 years and over: 10% (male 1,499,538; female 2,111,064) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.01 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.31 years
male: 70.67 years
female: 78.12 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.69 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups: white 85%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite
groups 15%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.2%
male : 96.2%
female: 96.2% (1995 est.)

@Argentina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Government type: republic

National capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires;
Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*;
Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones;
Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe;
Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico
Sur; Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice
President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note - the president is
both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989);
Vice President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 14 May 1995 (next
to be held May 1999)
election results : Carlos Saul MENEM reelected president; percent of
vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate (72 seats; three members appointed by each of
the provincial legislatures, one-third of the members appointed every
three years to a 9-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats;
one-half of the members elected every two years to four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA 1998);
Chamber of Deputies - last held 14 May 1995; (next to be held NA
October 1997)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PJ 38, others 34; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - PJ 132, UCR 68, Frepaso 26, other 31

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme Court
judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul
MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union
or UCR [Rodolfo TERRAGNO] (moderately left-of-center party); Union of
the Democratic Center or UCD (conservative party); Dignity and
Independence Political Party or MODIN [Aldo RICO] (right-wing party);
Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four party coalition)
[leader Carlos ALVAREZ]; several provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Peronist-dominated labor
movement; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning
umbrella labor organization); Argentine Industrial Union
(manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large
landowners' association); business organizations; students; the Roman
Catholic Church; the Armed Forces

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MTCR, NSG (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
RG, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6400 through 6403
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general : Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK has returned to
Washington; replacement not yet appointed
embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
mailing address : Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (1) 777-4533, 4534
FAX : [54] (1) 777-0197

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top),
white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow
sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

Economy

Economy - overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a
highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector,
and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of
mismanagement and statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was
plagued with huge external debts and recurring bouts of
hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession, President
MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program
that shows signs of putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable
growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar
since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 50
years. Argentines have responded to price stability by repatriating
capital and investing in domestic industry. Growth averaged more than
8% between 1991 and 1994, then fell to 4.6% in 1995, largely in
reaction to the Mexican peso crisis. The economy grew at 4.4% in 1996,
with the strongest growth occurring in the second half of the year.
Unemployment increased slightly - to over 17% - and Buenos Aires was
forced to renegotiate fiscal targets with the IMF. Although the
economy is expected to grow by at least 5% in 1997, unemployment and
fiscal concerns will continue to challenge the MENEM administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $296.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 29%
services: 64% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.1% (yearend 1996)

Labor force:
total: 14.5 million (1995 est.)
by occupation : agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985
est.)

Unemployment rate: 17.3% (October 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $50.3 billion
expenditures : $51.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.2
billion (1995 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 20.207 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 67.369 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,606 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets;
livestock

Exports:
total value: $23.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities : meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures, fuels
partners: Brazil 26.1%, US 8.5%, Chile 7.0%, Netherlands 5.7%, Italy
3.5% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $23.7 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, transport
equipment, agricultural products
partners: Brazil 20.8%, US 20.7%, Italy 6.3%, Germany 6.2%, France
5.2% (1995)

Debt - external: $95 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1 - 0.99950 (January 1997), 0.99966
(1996), 0.99975 (1995), 0.99901 (1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Argentina:Communications

Telephones: 4.6 million (1990)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern system
but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive use of
microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently grounds out
during rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires
domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with
40 earth stations serve the trunk network
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: 22.3 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 231

Televisions: 7.165 million (1991 est.)

@Argentina:Transportation

Railways:
total: 37,910 km
broad gauge: 24,124 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 11,021 km 1.000-m gauge (26 km electrified)

Highways:
total : 216,100 km
paved: 61,589 km (including 600 km of expressways)
unpaved : 154,511 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia,
Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio
Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 263,266 GRT/385,211 DWT
ships by type: cargo 11, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker
14, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
(1996 est.)

Airports: 1,202 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 598
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 55
914 to 1,523 m : 44
under 914 m: 469 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 604
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 59
914 to 1,523 m: 542 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic,
Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture
(Coast Guard only), National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,932,491 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 7,244,682 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 321,345 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of the boundary with Chile is
indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas
Malvinas); claims British-administered South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine
headed for Europe and the US
______________________________________________________________________

ARMENIA

Introduction

Current issues: Armenia's leaders remain preoccupied by Armenia's
nine-year old conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh
enclave. Although a cease-fire has been in effect since May 1994, the
sides have not made substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
President TER-PETROSSIAN's latitude on the issue may be further
constrained by his controversial reelection in September 1996. When
supporters of the main opposition candidate stormed the parliament
following the announcement of TER-PETROSSIAN's victory, MVD forces
were called in to restore order. The subsequent political standoff
between government and opposition supporters diminished in late 1996
as the government has gradually attempted reconciliation. Despite
these political problems, the Armenian government has been pursuing
its aggressive economic reform program, although implementation of its
privatization program stalled in late 1996.

@Armenia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total : 29,800 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land;
fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
alumina

Land use:
arable land : 17%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such
as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has
led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution
of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a
result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water
supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant without adequate
(IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: landlocked

@Armenia:People

Population: 3,433,629 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 476,375; female 456,723)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,088,103; female 1,134,649)
65 years and over: 8% (male 115,135; female 162,644) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.33% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.59 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.9 years
male: 62.69 years
female: 71.32 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female : 98% (1989 est.)

@Armenia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form : Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former : Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Data code: AM

Government type: republic

National capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular - marz) and 1
city* (k'aghak'ner, singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir,
Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor,
Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991
(from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSSIAN (since NA
October 1991); note - prior to becoming Armenia's first president,
TER-PETROSSIAN was chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet since 4
August 1990
head of government: Prime Minister Robert KOCHARIAN (since 20 March
1997)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held NA September
2001); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSSIAN elected president;
percent of vote - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSSIAN 52%, Vazgen MANUKYAN
41%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Azgayin Zhoghov
(190 seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 5 July 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Republican Bloc 159 (ANM 63, DLP-Hanrapetutyun Bloc 6, Republic Party
4, CDU 3, Intellectual Armenia 3, Social Democratic Party 2,
independents 78), SWM 8, ACP 7, NDU 5, NSDU 3, DLP 1, ARF 1, other 4,
vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:
Republic Bloc (Hanrapetoutioun): Armenian National Movement or ANM
[Husik LAZARIAN, chairman]; Democratic Liberal Party [Orthosis
GYONJIAN, chairman]; Republican Party [Ashot NAVARSARDIAN, chairman];
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKIAN, chairman];
Intellectual Armenia [H. TOKMAJIAN]; Social Democratic (Hnchakian)
Party [Yeghia NAJARIAN]
opposition parties: Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM [Shoger
MATEVOSIAN]; Armenian Communist Party or ACP [Sergey BADALYAN];
National Democratic Union or NDU [Davit VARDANIAN and Vasgen
MANUKIAN]; Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU [Paruir
HAIRIKIAN, chairman]; Democratic Liberal Party or DLP [Rouben
MIRZAKHANIAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF
[Rouben HAKOBIAN, chairman]

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, NAM
(observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ruben SHUGARIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX : [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter TOMSEN
embassy: 18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [374] (2) 151-144, 524-661
FAX: [374] (2) 151-550

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and
gold

Economy

Economy - overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system,
Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine
building tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister
republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the
implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to
small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes
of the Soviet area. The privatization of industry has been at a much
slower pace. Armenia is a food importer and its mineral deposits
(gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over
the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the
embargoes imposed by Azerbaijan and Turkey contributed to a severe
economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian
Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program
that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995 and 1996. Armenia
also managed to slash inflation and to privatize most small and
medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
suffered in recent years has been partially offset by the energy
supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor, which in 1996
supplied about 40% of the country's energy needs, according to the
Armenian Government. Moreover, Armenia is expanding its energy imports
from Iran.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 35%
industry: 35%
services : 30% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 1.6 million (1996)
by occupation: industry and construction 23%, agriculture 38%,
services 37%, other 2%

Unemployment rate: 7.4% officially registered unemployed, but large
numbers of underemployed (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: much of industry is shut down; metal-cutting machine
tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted
wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, washing machines, chemicals,
trucks, watches, instruments, microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.77 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 6.3 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,462 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables;
vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other liqueurs; minor
livestock sector

Exports:
total value : $273 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, scrap metal
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

Imports:
total value : $830 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

Debt - external: $850 million (of which $75 million to Russia) (1995
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: commitments (excluding Russia), $1,385 million ($675 million in
disbursements) (1992-95)

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma (introduced new currency in November 1993)

Exchange rates: dram per US$1 - 443 (December 1996), 401.8 (end
December 1995), 406 (end December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Armenia:Communications

Telephones: 650,000

Telephone system: joint venture agreement to install fiber-optic cable
and construct facilities for cellular telephone service is in the
implementation phase
domestic: NA
international : international connections to other former Soviet
republics are by landline or microwave radio relay and to other
countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow
international gateway switch; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 3, shortwave NA (1991)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1
note: 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian TV programs

Televisions: NA

@Armenia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 825 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total : 7,720 km
paved: 7,496 km
unpaved: 224 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Security Forces
(internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 907,579 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 722,715 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 30,942 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $75 million (1992)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands on
former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Western Europe and the US
______________________________________________________________________

ARUBA

(part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

@Aruba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 193 sq km
land: 193 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 89% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Aruba:People

Population: 68,031 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 22% (male 7,814; female 7,127)
15-64 years: 69% (male 22,544; female 24,656)
65 years and over: 9% (male 2,433; female 3,457) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.39% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.2 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.32 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.8 years
male: 73.11 years
female : 80.68 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Aruban(s)
adjective: Aruban

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

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