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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 29 out of 47

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territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during
northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to
November)

Terrain: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic
peaks

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Benara 660 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other : NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones during rainy season

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: part of Comoro Archipelago

@Mayotte:People

Population: 104,715 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (male 26,101; female 25,877)
15-64 years: 48% (male 25,684; female 24,661)
65 years and over: 2% (male 1,171; female 1,221) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.76% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 47.42 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.78 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population : 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 59.14 years
male: 56.82 years
female: 61.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.56 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mahorais (singular and plural)
adjective: Mahoran

Ethnic groups: NA

Religions: Muslim 99%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)

Languages: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French

Literacy: NA

@Mayotte:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte
conventional short form: Mayotte

Data code: MF

Dependency status: territorial collectivity of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Mamoutzou

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Philippe BOISADAM (since NA)
head of government: President of the General Council Younoussa BAMANA
(since NA 1977)
cabinet: NA
elections: prefect appointed by the president of France on the advice
of the French Ministry of the Interior; president of the General
Council elected by the members of the General Council for a six-year
term

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA 1997)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPM
12, RPR 4, independents 3
note: Mayotte elects 1 member of the French Senate; elections last
held 24 September 1995 (next to be held 24 September 2001); results -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPM 1; Mayotte also
elects 1 member to the French National Assembly; elections last held
21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held as a special election on 25 May
- 1 June 1997); results - percent of vote by party - UDF-CDS 54.3%,
RPR 44.3%; seats by party - DF-CDS 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)

Political parties and leaders: Mahoran Popular Movement or MPM
[Younoussa BAMANA]; Mahoran Rally for the Republic or RPR [Soibahadine
Ibrahim RAMADAM]; Democratic Front or Front Democrate [Youssouf
MOUSSA]; Association for French Mayotte or Association Pour Mayotte
Francaise [Didier BEOUTIS]

International organization participation: FZ

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial collectivity of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial collectivity
of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the
agricultural sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte
is not self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food
requirements, mainly from France. The economy and future development
of the island are heavily dependent on French financial assistance.
Mayotte's remote location is an obstacle to the development of
tourism.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $54 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $37.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1985 est.)

Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: vanilla, ylang-ylang, coffee, copra

Exports:
total value: $3.64 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: ylang-ylang (perfume essence), vanilla, copra
partners : France 80%, Comoros 15%, Reunion

Imports:
total value: $131.5 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: building materials, machinery and transportation
equipment, metals, chemicals, rice, clothing, flour
partners : France 66%, Africa 14%, Southeast Asia 20%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note : exhaustive French financial assistance

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mayotte:Communications

Telephones: 450

Telephone system: small system administered by French Department of
Posts and Telecommunications
domestic : NA
international: microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone
communications to Comoros and other international connections

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 30,000 (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 3,500 (1994 est.)

@Mayotte:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 93 km
paved: 72 km
unpaved: 21 km

Ports and harbors: Dzaoudzi

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Comoros
______________________________________________________________________

MEXICO

@Mexico:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of
Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific
Ocean, between Guatemala and the US

Geographic coordinates: 23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 1,972,550 sq km
land: 1,923,040 sq km
water : 49,510 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,538 km
border countries : Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus,
and desert

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

Natural resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc,
natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 39%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 61,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and
destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the
Gulf and Caribbean coasts

Environment - current issues: natural fresh water resources scarce and
polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme
southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in
urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification;
serious air pollution in the national capital and urban centers along
US-Mexico border

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location on southern border of US

@Mexico:People

Population: 97,563,374 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 36% (male 17,849,251; female 17,236,639)
15-64 years: 60% (male 28,241,361; female 29,883,766)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,982,329; female 2,370,028) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.84% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 25.8 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.52 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population : 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74 years
male: 70.39 years
female: 77.78 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.97 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or
predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%

Languages: Spanish, various Mayan dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.6%
male : 91.8%
female: 87.4% (1995 est.)

@Mexico:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico

Data code: MX

Government type: federal republic operating under a centralized
government

National capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California,
Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de
Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero,
Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo
Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis
Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala,
Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (since 1
December 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
head of government : President Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (since 1
December 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 21 August 1994 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon elected president;
percent of vote - Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (PRI) 50.18%,
Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 17.08%, Diego FERNANDEZ DE
CEVALLOS (PAN) 26.69%, other 6.049%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la
Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats,
expanded from 64 seats at the last election; members are elected by
popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (500 seats; members are directly elected by
popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 21 August 1994 (next to be held 6 July
1997 for one-quarter of the seats); Chamber of Deputies - last held 24
August 1994 (next to be held 6 July 1997)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party in expanded Senate - PRI 93, PRD 25, PAN 10; Chamber of Deputies
- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 300, PAN 119,
PRD 71, PT 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
judges are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: (recognized parties) Institutional
Revolutionary Party (PRI), Humberto ROQUE Villanueva; National Action
Party (PAN), Felipe CALDERON Hinojosa; Popular Socialist Party (PPS),
Indalecio SAYAGO Herrera; Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Andres
Manuel LOPEZ Obrador; Cardenist Front for the National Reconstruction
Party (PFCRN), Rafael AGUILAR Talamantes; Democratic Forum Party
(PFD), Pablo Emilio MADERO; Mexican Green Ecologist Party (PVEM),
Jorge GONZALEZ Torres; Workers Party (PT), Alberto ANYA Gutierrez

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM); Confederation of Industrial
Chambers (CONCAMIN); Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce
(CONCANACO); National Peasant Confederation (CNC); Revolutionary
Workers Party (PRT); Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and
Peasants (CROC); Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM);
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX);
National Chamber of Transformation Industries (CANACINTRA);
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations (COECE);
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services (FESEBES)

International organization participation: AG (observer), APEC, BCIE,
BIS (pending member), Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB, EBRD, ECLAC, FAO,
G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM (observer),
OAS, OECD, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jesus SILVA Herzog Flores
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso,
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San
Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Albuquerque, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas),
Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Eagle
Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Laredo, McAllen (Texas), Midland
(Texas), Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia,
Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, Santa
Ana, Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. JONES
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico,
Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087
telephone : [52] (5) 211-0042
FAX: [52] (5) 511-9980, 208-3373
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana
consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a
snake in its beak) is centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of
modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated
by the private sector. The Mexican economy enters 1997 in the midst of
an economic recovery that began to pick up steam in mid-1996. After
plummeting more than 6% in 1995 in the aftermath of the peso crisis,
economic activity in Mexico grew by an estimated 5.1% in 1996. Many
private forecasters who had scoffed at the ZEDILLO administration's 3%
growth target for 1996 are now projecting economic expansion of 4-5%
for 1997. Strong export growth continues to drive the economy; total
exports were up roughly 16% in 1996 compared to 1995. By the end of
1996, however, Mexican government statistics showed that increased
domestic consumption and investment spending were also beginning to
contribute to the recovery. Despite these positive economic trends,
structural problems and vulnerabilities remain. Low savings rates will
keep Mexico dependent on foreign capital; national savings as a share
of GDP plunged from a peak of 25% in 1983 to less than 14% in 1994.
Additionally, Mexico City is still struggling to bail out a banking
sector burdened with bad debts. Mexico's international trade continues
to be highly dependent on the US market. The US/Mexico trade balance
has shifted over the last two years because of the peso's rapid
devaluation in late 1994, which made Mexican exports much more
attractive. In 1995 and 1996, the US ran trade deficits with Mexico, a
large turnaround from 1994's trade surplus of about $1.3 billion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $777.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 8%
industry: 28%
services: 63% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 28% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 36.3 million (November 1996)
by occupation: services 31.7%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and
fishing 28%, commerce 14.6%, manufacturing 11.1%, construction 8.4%,
transportation 4.7%, mining and quarrying 1.5%

Unemployment rate: 10% (1996 est.) plus considerable underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $73.8 billion
expenditures: $74 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel,
petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer
durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 11% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 40.502 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 142.344 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,206 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton,
coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

Exports:
total value: $95 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.), includes in-bond
industries
commodities: crude oil, oil products, coffee, silver, engines, motor
vehicles, cotton, consumer electronics
partners: US 80%, Canada 5.2%, Japan 1.8% (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value : $88.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.), includes in-bond
industries
commodities: metal-working machines, steel mill products, agricultural
machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts
for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
partners : US 74.8%, Japan 5.1%, Germany 3.65%, Canada 1.4%, France
1.1% (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $170 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $85 million (1993)
note : US commitments, (Emergency Stabilization Fund), $13.5 billion;
IMF, $13 billion (1995-96)

Currency: 1 New Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 7.8270
(January 1997), 7.6009 (1996), 6.4194 (1995), 3.3751 (1994), 3.1156
(1993), 3,094.9 (1992)
note: the new peso replaced the old peso on 1 January 1993; 1 new peso
= 1,000 old pesos

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mexico:Communications

Telephones: 11,890,868 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed system with extensive microwave
radio relay links; privatized in December 1990
domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but
the population is poorly served; domestic satellite system with 120
earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network
international : satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); launched Solidaridad I satellite in
November 1993 and Solidaridad II in October 1994, giving Mexico
improved access to South America, Central America and much of the US
as well as enhancing domestic communications; linked to Central
American Microwave System of trunk connections

Radio broadcast stations: AM 679, FM 0, shortwave 22

Radios: 22.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 238

Televisions: 13.1 million (1992 est.)

@Mexico:Transportation

Railways:
total: 20,567 km
standard gauge: 20,477 km 1.435-m gauge (246 km electrified)
narrow gauge : 90 km 0.914-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total : 249,520 km
paved: 93,071 km (including 5,920 km of expressways)
unpaved: 156,449 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural
gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1,400 km

Ports and harbors: Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada,
Guaymas, La Paz, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso,
Salina Cruz, Tampico, Topolobampo, Tuxpan, Veracruz

Merchant marine:
total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 899,032 GRT/1,297,346 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 1,
container 4, liquefied gas tanker 7, oil tanker 29, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3 (1996 est.)

Airports: 1,415 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1,003
over 3,047 m : 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 71
under 914 m : 805 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 412
1,524 to 2,437 m: 50
914 to 1,523 m: 362 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: National Defense (includes Army and Air Force),
Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 24,518,142 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 17,857,361 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 1,062,640 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.56 billion (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (1997 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis
continues in spite of increased government eradication; major supplier
of heroin and marijuana to the US market; continues as the primary
transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America;
increasingly involved in the production and distribution of
methamphetamines
______________________________________________________________________

MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF
States of]

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 158 15 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 702 sq km
land : 702 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk) Islands, Yap Islands,
and Kosrae

Area - comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6,112 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the
eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with
occasionally severe damage

Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to
low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Totolom 791 m

Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use:
arable land : NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: four major island groups totaling 607 islands

@Micronesia, Federated States of:People

Population: 127,616 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : 35% (est.)
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.33% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 27.75 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.14 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years : NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 35.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.18 years
male: 66.21 years
female: 70.18 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.93 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Micronesian(s)
adjective: Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

Ethnic groups: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, other and none 3%

Languages: English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian,
Yapese, Kosrean

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male : 91%
female: 88% (1980 est.)

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesia
conventional short form: none
former: Kosrae, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts (Trust Territory of
the Pacific Islands)
abbreviation: FSM

Data code: FM

Government type: constitutional government in free association with
the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November
1986

National capital: Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei)
note: a new capital is being built about 10 km southwest in the
Palikir valley

Administrative divisions: 4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk (Truk), Yap

Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN
Trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia,
10 May (1979)

Constitution: 10 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacob NENA (acting president since NA July
1996, president since 9 May 1997); Vice President Leo A. SALCAM (since
9 May 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government; Vice President Jacob NENA became acting president in
July 1996 after President Bailey OLTER suffered a stroke; OLTER was
declared incapacitated in November 1996; as provided for by the
constitution, 180 days later, with OLTER still unable to resume his
duties, NENA was sworn in as the new president; he will serve for the
remaining two years of OLTER's term
head of government: President Jacob NENA (acting president since NA
July 1996, president since 9 May 1997); Vice President Leo A. SALCAM
(since 9 May 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government; Vice President Jacob NENA became acting
president in July 1996 after President Bailey OLTER suffered a stroke;
OLTER was declared incapacitated in November 1996; as provided for by
the constitution, 180 days later, with OLTER still unable to resume
his duties, NENA was sworn in as the new president; he will serve for
the remaining two years of OLTER's term
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president and vice president elected by Congress from among
the four senators-at-large for four-year terms; election last held 11
May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1999); note - because of the vacancy
to the post of vice president created after NENA left to become acting
president, a new election to fill the position for the remaining two
years of the term was held on 9 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 1999)
election results: Bailey OLTER reelected president; percent of
Congress vote - NA; Leo A. SALCAM elected vice president; percent of
Congress vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Congress (14 seats; members elected by
popular vote; four - one elected from each of state - to serve
four-year terms and 10 - elected from single-member districts
delineated by population - to serve two-year terms)
elections: last held 7 March 1995 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jesse B. MAREHALAU
chancery : 1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4383
FAX: [1] (202) 223-4391
consulate(s) general: Honolulu and Tamuning (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Cheryl MARTIN
embassy: address NA, Kolonia
mailing address : P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of
Micronesia 96941
telephone: [691] 320-2187
FAX: [691] 320-2186

Flag description: light blue with four white five-pointed stars
centered; the stars are arranged in a diamond pattern

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity consists primarily of
subsistence farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits
worth exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a
tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack
of adequate facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from
the US is the primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend
$1 billion in the islands in the 1990s. Geographical isolation and a
poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term
growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $205 million (1994 est.)
note: GDP is supplemented by grant aid, averaging perhaps $100 million
annually

GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (1994 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (1994 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1994 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: two-thirds are government employees

Unemployment rate: 27% (1989)

Budget:
revenues: $45 million
expenditures: $31 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from
shell, wood, and pearls

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 38,500 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: black pepper, tropical fruits and vegetables,
coconuts, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, chickens

Exports:
total value: $29.1 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities : fish, garments, bananas, black pepper
partners: Japan, US, Guam

Imports:
total value: $141.1 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
beverages
partners: US, Japan, Australia

Debt - external: $129 million

Economic aid:
recipient: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will
provide $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Communications

Telephones: 960

Telephone system:
domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used
mostly for government purposes)
international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 17,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,290 (1993 est.)

@Micronesia, Federated States of:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 235 km
paved: 41 km
unpaved: 194 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Colonia (Yap), Kolonia (Pohnpei), Lele, Moen

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m : 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MIDWAY ISLANDS

(territory of the US)

@Midway Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third
of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo

Geographic coordinates: 28 13 N, 177 22 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 5.2 sq km
land : 5.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Eastern Island and Sand Island

Area - comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

Terrain: low, nearly level

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 4 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: a coral atoll; closed to the public

@Midway Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are 453 US military personnel (July 1995 est.)

@Midway Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Midway Islands

Data code: MQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; formerly
administered by the US Navy, under Naval Facilities Engineering
Command, Pacific Division; this facility has been operationally closed
since 10 September 1993 and is currently undergoing transfer of
accountability and responsibility to the US Department of the
Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on providing support services
for remaining activities located on the islands. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity - capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note : electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

@Midway Islands:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Midway Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 32 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Pipelines: 7.8 km

Ports and harbors: Sand Island

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MOLDOVA

@Moldova:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 33,700 sq km
land : 33,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii

Land boundaries:
total: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Nistru River 2 m
highest point: Mount Balaneshty 430 m

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 53%
permanent crops: 14%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 13%
other : 7% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals,
including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and
groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Moldova:People

Population: 4,457,206 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 580,839; female 560,784)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,384,380; female 1,503,831)
65 years and over: 9% (male 158,886; female 268,486) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.02% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.32 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 12.33 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.25 years
male : 59.46 years
female: 69.29 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%,
Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)
note : internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the
Nistru region and Gagauz Turks in the south

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about
1,000 members) (1991)
note: the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian

Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian
language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 99%
female: 94% (1989 est.)

@Moldova:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form : none
former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Data code: MD

Government type: republic

National capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: previously divided into 40 rayons; new
districts possible under new constitution of 1994

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old
Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews
legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution;
it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but
accepts many UN and OSCE documents

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Petru LUCINSCHI (since 15 January 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Ion CIUBUC (since 15 January 1997);
First Deputy Prime Minister Ion GUTU (since NA April 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 17 November 1996; runoff election 1 December 1996
(next to be held NA November 2000); following legislative elections,
the leader of the majority party or leader of the majority coalition
is usually elected prime minister by Parliament
election results: Petru LUCINSCHI ran against Mircea SNEGUR and was
elected president; percent of vote - LUCINSCHI 54%, SNEGUR 46%; Prime
Minister Ion CIUBU was appointed by the president 15 January 1997 and
was elected by a parliamentary vote of 75-15 on 24 January 1997

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (104 seats; members are
directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA February
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDAM
56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11,
FPCDM 9; note - seats as of June-July 1995 were as follows: PDAM 45,
PSM/UN 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, PRCM 11, FPCDM 9
note : the comparative breakdown of seats by faction is approximate

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Popular Front or
FPCDM (formerly Moldovan Popular Front) [Iurie ROSCA, chairman];
Socialist Unity Faction or US of the Socialist Party of Moldova or
PSM; Social Democratic Party of Moldova or PSDM [Anatol TARAN,
chairman]; Agrarian Democratic Party of Moldova or PDAM [Dumitru
MOTPAN, chairman]; Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc [Lidia ISTRATI,
chairwoman]; Liberal Party of Modova or PLM [Mircea RUSU, chairman];
Socialist Party of Moldova or PSM [Valeriu SENIC and Victor MOREV,
cochairmen]; Party of Rivival and Conciliation of Moldova or PRCM
[Mircea SNEGUR, chairman]; Moldovan Party of Democratic Forces or PFDM
[Valeriu MATEI, chairman]; Party for Social Progress or PPSM [Eugen
SOBOR, chairman]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN, first
chairman]; Civic Unity [Vladimir SOLONARI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: The Ecology Movement of Moldova
or EMM [Alecu RENITSA, chairman]; The Christian Democratic League of
Women of Moldova or CDLWM [Lidia ISTRATI, chairwoman]; National
Christian Party of Moldova or NCPM [V. NIKU, leader]; The Peoples
Movement Gagauz Khalky or GKh [S. GULGAR, leader]; The Democratic
Party of Gagauzia or DPG [G. SAVOSTIN, chairman]; The Alliance of
Working People of Moldova or AWPM [G. POLOGOV, president]; Liberal
Convention of Moldova (now the Liberal Party); Association of Victims
of Repression [Alexander USATIUC]; Christian Democratic Youth
Organization [Valeriu BARBA]; National Youth League [Valeriu
STRELETS]; Union of Youth of Moldova [Petru GAVTON]

International organization participation: BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI,
CIS, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE,
PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae TAU
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Todd STEWART
embassy : Strada Alexei Mateevicie #103, Chisinau 277014
mailing address: use embassy street address; pouch address - American
Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7080
telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72, RNX (plus extension)
FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag description: same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical
bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag
is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and
talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in
its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its
breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized
ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

Economy

Economy - overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good
farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy
depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine,
and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and
natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to
sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in
1991. The Moldovan Government has recently been making progress on an
ambitious economic reform agenda, and the IMF has called Moldova a
model for the region. As part of its reform efforts, Moldova
introduced a stable convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped
issuing preferential credits to state enterprises and backed their
steady privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest
rates. With the election of President LUCINSCHI in December 1996, it
is unclear how rapidly the reforms will be pushed.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10.8 billion (1996 estimate
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 48%
industry: 28%
services: 24% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 15% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.03 million (January 1994)
by occupation: agriculture 39.5%, industry 12.0%, other 48.5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 1.4% (includes only officially registered
unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (January 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $570 million
expenditures: $645 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry
equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery,
sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.222 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 1.4 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 324 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets,
sunflower seed, tobacco; meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $775 million (1996)
commodities: foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear,
machinery
partners : Russia, Kazakstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany

Imports:
total value: $1.048 billion (1996)
commodities: oil, gas, coal, steel, machinery, foodstuffs,
automobiles, and other consumer durables
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany

Debt - external: $950.7 million (of which $240 million to Russia)
(1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: commitments, $1,335 million ($500 million disbursements),
1992-95

Currency: the Moldovan leu (MLD) (plural lei) was introduced in late
1993

Exchange rates: lei (MLD) per US$1 (end of period) - 4.6870 (January
1997), 4.6743 (1996), 4.4990 (1995), 4.2700 (1994), 3.6400 (1993),
0.4145 (1992); period average - 4.6121 (August 1996), 4.4958 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Moldova:Communications

Telephones: 600,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: telecommunication system not well developed; 215,000
unsatisfied requests for telephone service (1991 est.); in early 1997,
Chisinau was considering privatizing its state-owned telephone company
domestic: NA
international: international connections to other former Soviet
republics by landline and microwave radio relay through Ukraine and to
other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international
gateway switch; satellite earth stations - 1 Eutelsat and 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 5, shortwave NA (1994)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one national and one private) (1995)

Televisions: NA

@Moldova:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,328 km
broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total: 12,259 km
paved: 10,690 km
unpaved: 1,569 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 424 km (1994)

Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 26 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m : 3 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 5
under 914 m: 8 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic
Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,134,619 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 894,337 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 37,689 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 203 million lei (1995); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine -
including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by
Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was
incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly
for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
Europe and Russia
______________________________________________________________________

MONACO

@Monaco:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, on the
southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 1.9 sq km
land: 1.9 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: second smallest independent state in world (after
Holy See); almost entirely urban

@Monaco:People

Population: 31,892 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 2,731; female 2,671)
15-64 years : 63% (male 9,856; female 10,392)
65 years and over: 20% (male 2,288; female 3,954) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.49% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.66 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 12.01 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.24 years
male: 74.59 years
female: 82.07 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: NA

@Monaco:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form : Monaco

Data code: MN

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier);
Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since 9 May 1949); Heir Apparent
Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958)
head of government: Minister of State Michel LEVEQUE (since 3 February
1997)
cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the prince
elections: none; the prince is a hereditary monarch; minister of state
appointed by the prince from a list of three French national
candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council or Conseil National
(18 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 24 and 31 January 1993 (next to be held NA
January 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
National and Democratic Union 15, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union or UND
[Jean-Louis CAMPORA]

International organization participation: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM,
IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Monaco does not have an embassy
in the US
consulate(s) general: New York
honorary consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New
Orleans, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
honorary consulate(s): Dallas, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and
Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited
to Monaco

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of
Poland which is white (top) and red

Economy

Economy - overview: Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean
coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and
pleasant climate. The Principality has successfully sought to
diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting
industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and
thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established
residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and
offices. About 55% of Monaco's annual revenue comes from value-added
taxes on hotels, banks, and the industrial sector; about 25% of
revenue comes from tourism. Living standards are high, roughly
comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $800 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 30,540 (1 January 1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $570.4 million
expenditures: $570.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 10,000 kW standby
note: electricity imported from France

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: none

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system
through customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system
through customs union with France

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169(January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Monaco:Communications

Telephones: 53,180 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: automatic telephone system
domestic : NA
international: no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into
the French communications system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 30,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 22,000 (1992 est.)

@Monaco:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1.7 km
standard gauge: 1.7 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total : 43 km
paved: 43 km
unpaved : 0 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Monaco

Merchant marine: none

Airports: linked to airport in Nice, France, by helicopter service

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MONGOLIA

@Mongolia:Geography

Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total : 1.565 million sq km
land: 1.565 million sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 8,114 km
border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature
ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and
southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten,
phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 80%
forests and woodland: 9%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization
and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative
effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the
concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the
air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to
agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and
rain; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
Russia

@Mongolia:People

Population: 2,538,211 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 485,760; female 471,005)
15-64 years: 58% (male 743,194; female 743,529)
65 years and over : 4% (male 40,621; female 54,102) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.62% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 24.57 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.41 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.1 years
male: 59.1 years
female : 63.2 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups: Mongol 90%, Kazak 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note: previously limited religious activity because of communist
regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.9%
male : 88.6%
female: 77.2% (1988 est.)

@Mongolia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form : Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia

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