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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Geography - note: the country comprises an archipelago, with only the
three largest islands (Malta, Gozo, and Comino) being inhabited;
numerous bays provide good harbors

@Malta:People

Population: 377,177 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 21% (male 41,207; female 39,041)
15-64 years: 67% (male 127,553; female 126,355)
65 years and over: 12% (male 18,202; female 24,819) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.68% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.47 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.34 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.44 years
male: 75.16 years
female: 79.87 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Maltese (singular and plural)
adjective: Maltese

Ethnic groups: Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and
Phoenicians, with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean
stock)

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%

Languages: Maltese (official), English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 88%
male: 88%
female: 88% (1985)

@Malta:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Malta
conventional short form: Malta

Data code: MT

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administered directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964)

Constitution: 1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December
1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ugo MIFSUD BONNICI (since 4 April 1994)
head of government : Prime Minister Dr. Alfred SANT (since 28 October
1996); Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Dr. George VELLA
(since 29 October 1996)
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the
prime minister
elections: president elected by the House of Representatives for a
five-year term; election last held NA April 1994 (next to be held by
NA April 1999); following House of Representatives elections, the
leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is
usually appointed prime minister by the president for a five-year term
election results: Ugo MIFSUD BONNICI elected president; percent of
House of Representatives vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (usually 65
seats; note - additional seats are given to the party with the largest
popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total: 69
seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
five-year terms)
elections : last held 26 October 1996 (next to be held by October
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - MLP 50.7%, NP 46.5%;
seats by party - NP 34, MLP 31 (MLP 35, NP 34 after adjustment)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are appointed by the
president on the advice of the prime minister; Court of Appeal, judges
are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Party or NP [Edward FENECH
ADAMI]; Malta Labor Party or MLP [Alfred SANT]

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU
(applicant), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NACC (observer), NAM, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Albert Borg Olivier DE PUGET
chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3611, 3612
FAX : [1] (202) 387-5470
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Charles N.
PATTERSON, Jr.
embassy: 2nd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana,
Malta
mailing address: P. O. Box 535, Valletta
telephone : [356] 235960
FAX: [356] 223322

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and
red; in the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George
Cross, edged in red

Economy

Economy - overview: Significant resources are limestone, a favorable
geographic location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only
about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has
no domestic energy sources. The economy is dependent on foreign trade,
industry (especially electronics and textiles), and tourism; the
state-owned Malta drydocks employs about 3,800 people. In 1995, over
1.1 million tourists visited the island. Per capita GDP of $12,600
places Malta in the range of the less affluent EU countries. The
island is divided politically over the question of joining the EU.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 34%
services : 61% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3% (1996)

Labor force:
total : 148,085 (September 1996)
by occupation: public services 37%, other services 28%, manufacturing
and construction 25%, agriculture 2% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.7% (September 1996)

Budget:
revenues : $1.66 billion
expenditures: $1.69 billion, including capital expenditures of $633
million (1996 est.)

Industries: tourism; electronics, ship building and repair,
construction; food and beverages, textiles, footwear, clothing,
tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: -5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 405,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.41 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley,
tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers; pork, milk, poultry,
eggs

Exports:
total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, clothing and footware,
printed matter
partners: Italy 32%, Germany 16%, UK 8%

Imports:
total value: $3 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods
partners: Italy 27%, Germany 14%, UK 13%, US 9%

Debt - external: $134 million (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.3677 (January 1997),
0.3604 (1996), 0.3529 (1995), 0.3776 (1994), 0.3821 (1993), 0.3178
(1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Malta:Communications

Telephones: 191,876 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: automatic system satisfies normal requirements
domestic: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands
international : 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 189,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 300,000 (1996 est.)

@Malta:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 1,582 km
paved: 1,471 km
unpaved: 111 km (1993 est.)

Ports and harbors: Marsaxlokk, Valletta

Merchant marine:
total : 1,128 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,806,358
GRT/31,554,713 DWT
ships by type: bulk 314, cargo 353, chemical tanker 32, combination
bulk 27, combination ore/oil 13, container 43, liquefied gas tanker 2,
livestock carrier 1, multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker
224, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 3, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated
cargo 31, roll-on/roll-off cargo 37, short-sea passenger 22,
specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 12
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 46 countries
among which are Greece 478, Croatia 52, Switzerland 48, Russia 46,
Italy 44, Norway 37, Turkey 28, Germany 23, UK 22, and Ukraine 20
(1996 est.)

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 99,032 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 78,710 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $65.5 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY96/97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Malta and Tunisia are discussing the
commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their
countries, particularly for oil exploration

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for hashish from North Africa
to Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

MAN, ISLE OF

(British crown dependency)

@Man, Isle of:Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the Irish Sea, between Great
Britain and Ireland

Geographic coordinates: 54 15 N, 4 30 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 588 sq km
land: 588 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 113 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the
time

Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Irish Sea 0 m
highest point: Snaefell 620 m

Natural resources: lead, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA% (extensive arable land and forests)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the
southwest, and is a bird sanctuary

@Man, Isle of:People

Population: 74,504 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 6,681; female 6,427)
15-64 years: 65% (male 24,225; female 24,102)
65 years and over : 17% (male 5,198; female 7,871) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.86% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.48 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.89 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.36 years
male: 73.79 years
female : 81.09 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Manxman, Manxwoman
adjective: Manx

Ethnic groups: Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Briton

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian,
Society of Friends

Languages: English, Manx Gaelic

Literacy: NA

@Man, Isle of:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Isle of Man

Data code: IM

Dependency status: British crown dependency

Government type: NA

National capital: Douglas

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6
February 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor His Excellency Sir
Timothy DAUNT (since NA 1995)
head of government: President of the Legislative Council Sir Charles
KERRUISH (since NA 1990)
cabinet : Council of Ministers
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; lieutenant governor
appointed by the queen for a five-year term; president of the
Legislative Council elected by the Tynwald for a NA-year term;
election last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: Sir Charles KERRUISH elected president of the
Legislative Council; percent of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Tynwald consists of the Legislative
Council (a 10-member body composed of the Lord Bishop of Sodor and
Man, a nonvoting attorney general, and 8 others named by the House of
Keys) and the House of Keys (24 seats; members are elected by popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Keys - last held NA November 1991 (next to be held
NA 1996)
election results: House of Keys - percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - independents 24

Judicial branch: High Court of Justice, justices are appointed by the
Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant
governor

Political parties and leaders: there is no party system; members sit
as independents

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)

Flag description: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria),
in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the
knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of
the flag, a two-sided emblem is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are
key sectors of the economy. The government's policy of offering
incentives to high-technology companies and financial institutions to
locate on the island has paid off in expanding employment
opportunities in high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and
fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in their
shares of GDP. Banking now contributes about 45% to GDP. Trade is
mostly with the UK. The Isle of Man enjoys free access to EU markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $780 million (1994 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,800 (1994 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7% (1992 est.)

Labor force:
total: 33,189 (1991)
by occupation: manufacturing 11%, construction 11%, transport and
communication 6%, retail distribution 9%, professional and scientific
services 17%, public administration 7%, banking and finance 8%

Unemployment rate: 1% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $333.7 million
expenditures: $333.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Industries: financial services, light manufacturing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: cereals, vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs,
poultry

Exports: $NA
commodities: tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, beef, lamb
partners : UK

Imports: $NA
commodities : timber, fertilizers, fish
partners: UK

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Manx pound (M) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Manx pounds (M) per US$1 - 0.6023 (January 1997),
0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664
(1992); the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Man, Isle of:Communications

Telephones: 41,000 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4

Televisions: NA

@Man, Isle of:Transportation

Railways:
total : 52 km (27 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 640 km
paved: 320 km
unpaved: 320 km

Ports and harbors: Castletown, Douglas, Peel, Ramsey

Merchant marine:
total: 106 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,679,710 GRT/4,450,358
DWT
ships by type: bulk 21, cargo 9, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk
1, container 14, liquefied gas tanker 9, oil tanker 22, passenger 2,
refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 16, short-sea passenger
1, vehicle carrier 3
note: a flag of convenience registry; UK owns 11 ships, Switzerland 2,
South Africa 1, Denmark 1, and Netherlands 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MARSHALL ISLANDS

@Marshall Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific
Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 168 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 181.3 sq km
land: 181.3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein

Area - comparative: about the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands
border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed
minerals

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: 60%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and
1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites;
Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US
missile test range

@Marshall Islands:People

Population: 60,652 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (male 15,550; female 14,926)
15-64 years : 48% (male 14,732; female 14,032)
65 years and over: 2% (male 662; female 750) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.85% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 45.54 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.07 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.14 years
male: 62.57 years
female: 65.79 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.78 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)
adjective: Marshallese

Ethnic groups: Micronesian

Religions: Christian (mostly Protestant)

Languages: English (universally spoken and is the official language),
two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family,
Japanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 93%
male: 100%
female: 88% (1980 est.)

@Marshall Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands
conventional short form : Marshall Islands
former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands)

Data code: RM

Government type: constitutional government in free association with
the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October
1986

National capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall
Islands, 1 May (1979)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Imata KABUA (since 14 January 1997); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Imata KABUA (since 14 January 1997);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of
Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members
for a four-year term; election last held 14 January 1997 (next to be
held NA January 2000); note - Imata KABUA elected to succeed and
complete the term of the late President Amata KABUA
election results : Imata KABUA elected president; percent of
Parliament vote - 63%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Nitijela (33 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 14 January 1997 (next to be held NA 2000; note -
new elections will be held upon the completion of the term of the late
President Amata KABUA)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
note : the Council of Chiefs is a 12-member body that advises on
matters affecting customary law and practice

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court

Political parties and leaders: traditionally there have been no
formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely
resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party
headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two
"groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years -
Our Islands Party, leader NA, and Ralik/Ratak Democratic Party (RRDP),
Ramsey REIMERS

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Banny DE BRUM
chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236
consulate(s) general : Honolulu

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joan M. PLAISTED
embassy: Oceanside, Long Island, Majuro
mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall
Islands 96960-1379; Majuro, 20521-4380 (pouch)
telephone : [692] 247-4011
FAX: [692] 247-4012

Flag description: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower
hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with
four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two
stripes

Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the
economy. Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and
the most important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons,
and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish
processing, and copra. The tourist industry is the primary source of
foreign exchange, employs about 10% of the labor force, and remains
the best hope for future added income. The islands have few natural
resources, and imports far exceed exports. The government is drafting
economic reforms designed to increase revenue and compensate for
reductions in US Government grants - in 1994, the US Government
provided grants of $50 million, equal to 55% of the Marshall Islands'
GDP. About 25% of the government's FY95/96 budget was devoted to debt
repayment. In 1996, efforts to stabilize the economy included a 27%
reduction in the government's work force and a 10% cut in the budget.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $94 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,680 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16%
industry: 14%
services : 70% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total : 4,800 (1986)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 16% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $67.2 million
expenditures: $79.6 million, including capital expenditures of $21.6
million (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and
pearls, offshore banking (embryonic)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 16,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 57 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits;
pigs, chickens

Exports:
total value: $21.3 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: fish, coconut oil, live animals, trochus shells
partners: US, Japan, Australia

Imports:
total value: $69.9 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and
tobacco
partners: US, Japan, Australia

Debt - external: $170 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US
is to provide approximately $40 million in aid annually

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Marshall Islands:Communications

Telephones: 800 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: telex services
domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used
mostly for government purposes)
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean);
US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Marshall Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise
stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Ports and harbors: Majuro

Merchant marine:
total: 94 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,040,788 GRT/6,780,092
DWT
ships by type: bulk carrier 44, cargo 5, combination ore/oil 1,
container 21, oil tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 1, vehicle carrier 1
(1996 est.)

Airports: 16 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 7
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no regular military forces (a coast guard may be
established); Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims US territory of Wake Island
______________________________________________________________________

MARTINIQUE

(overseas department of France)

@Martinique:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 61 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 1,100 sq km
land: 1,060 sq km
water: 40 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than six times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to
October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight
years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Montagne Pelee 1,397 m

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 17%
forests and woodland: 44%
other : 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity (an
average of one major natural disaster every five years)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Martinique:People

Population: 402,984 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 46,906; female 45,800)
15-64 years: 67% (male 133,500; female 136,773)
65 years and over : 10% (male 16,890; female 23,115) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.07% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 16.69 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.88 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.98 years
male: 76.21 years
female: 81.83 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Martiniquais (singular and plural)
adjective: Martiniquais

Ethnic groups: African and African-white-Indian mixture 90%, white 5%,
East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%

Languages: French, Creole patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 92%
female: 93% (1982 est.)

@Martinique:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Martinique
conventional short form: Martinique
local long form : Departement de la Martinique
local short form: Martinique

Data code: MB

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995); Prefect Jean-Francois CORDET (since NA)
head of government : President of the General Council Claude LISE
(since 22 March 1992); President of the Regional Council Emile CAPGRAS
(since 22 March 1992)
cabinet: NA
elections: prefect appointed by the president of France on the advice
of the French Ministry of Interior; the presidents of the General and
Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (45
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
and a unicameral Regional Assembly or Conseil Regional (41 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: General Council - last held NA March 1994 (next to be held
NA 2000); Regional Assembly - last held on 22 March 1992 (next to be
held by March 1998)
election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - NA; note - the PPM won a plurality; Regional Assembly
- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR-UDF 16, MIM 9,
PPM 9, PCM 5, independents 2
note: Martinique elects 2 seats to the French Senate; elections last
held 24 September 1995 (next to be held September 1998); results -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS 2; Martinique also
elects 4 seats to the French National Assembly; elections last held 21
March 1993 (next to be held 25 May-1 June 1997 - special election);
results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 3, PS 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR [Andre
LESUEUR]; Union for a Martinique of Progress or UMP; Martinique
Progressive Party or PPM [Ernest WAN-AJOUHU]; Socialist Federation of
Martinique or FSM [Jean CRUSOL]; Martinique Communist Party or PCM
[George ERICHOT]; Martinique Patriots or PM; Union for French
Democracy or UDF [Miguel LAVENTURE]; Martinique Independence Movement
or MIM [Alfred MARIE-JEANNE]; Republican Party or PR [Jean BAILLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Proletarian Action Group or
GAP; Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution Group or GRS; Caribbean
Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union for Martinique Workers or
CSTM [Marc PULVAR]; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and
Peasants; Parti Martiniquais Socialiste or PMS; Association for the
Protection of Martinique's Heritage (ecologist)

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: a light blue background is divided into four
quadrants by a white cross; in the center of each rectangle is a white
snake; the flag of France is used for official occasions

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas,
tourism, and light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 6% of GDP
and the small industrial sector for 11%. Sugar production has
declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of
rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk
of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be imported,
contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual
transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than
agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of
the work force is employed in the service sector and in
administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.95 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 11%
services: 83% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.9% (1990)

Labor force:
total: 160,000
by occupation: agriculture 10%, industry 17%, services 73% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 23.5% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $620 million
expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $170
million (1992)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers,
vegetables, sugarcane for rum

Exports:
total value: $220 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples
partners: France 57%, Guadeloupe 31%, French Guiana (1991)

Imports:
total value : $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs, construction
materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods
partners: France 62%, UK, Italy, Germany, Japan, US (1991)

Debt - external: $180 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: substantial annual French aid

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Martinique:Communications

Telephones: 209,672 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic facilities are adequate
domestic: NA
international: microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and
Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 74,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10

Televisions: 65,000 (1993 est.)

@Martinique:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,724 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km (1994)

Ports and harbors: Fort-de-France, La Trinite

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
the US and Europe
______________________________________________________________________

MAURITANIA

@Mauritania:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Senegal and Western Sahara

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 12 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 1,030,700 sq km
land: 1,030,400 sq km
water: 300 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 5,074 km
border countries : Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km,
Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sebkha de Ndrhamcha -3 m
highest point: Kediet Ijill 910 m

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 38%
forests and woodland : 4%
other: 58% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 490 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows
primarily in March and April; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: overgrazing, deforestation, and soil
erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification;
very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Senegal which
is the only perennial river

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: most of the population concentrated along the
Senegal River in the southern part of the country

@Mauritania:People

Population: 2,411,317 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (male 586,972; female 580,408)
15-64 years: 49% (male 579,071; female 612,343)
65 years and over : 2% (male 22,098; female 30,425) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.17% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 46.55 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.82 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 49.49 years
male : 46.52 years
female: 52.58 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mauritanian(s)
adjective: Mauritanian

Ethnic groups: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof
(official)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37.7%
male: 49.6%
female: 26.3% (1995 est.)

@Mauritania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Islamic Republic of Mauritania
conventional short form: Mauritania
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form: Muritaniyah

Data code: MR

Government type: republic

National capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular - region);
Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech
Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
note: there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Constitution: 12 July 1991

Legal system: three-tier system: Islamic (Shari'a) courts, special
courts, and state security courts (in the process of being eliminated)

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA (since 12
December 1984)
head of government: Prime Minister Cheikh El Afia Ould Mohamed KHOUNA
(since 2 January 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 17 January 1992 (next to be held NA January 1998);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA
reelected; percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or
Majlis al-Shuyukh (56 seats; 17 up for election every two years;
members elected by municipal leaders to serve six-year terms) and the
National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani (79 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 12 April 1996 (next to be held NA 1998);
National Assembly - last held 11 and 18 October 1996 (next to be held
NA 2001)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PRDS 16, UFD/NE 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - PRDS 71, AC 1, independents and other 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: legalized by constitution passed 12
July 1991, however, politics continue to be tribally based; emerging
parties include Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS), led by
President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA; Union of Democratic
Forces-New Era (UFD/NE), headed by Ahmed Ould DADDAH; Assembly for
Democracy and Unity (RDU), Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA; Popular Social and
Democratic Union (UPSD), Mohamed Mahmoud Ould MAH; Mauritanian Party
for Renewal (PMR), Hameida BOUCHRAYA; National Avant-Garde Party
(PAN), Khattry Ould JIDDOU; Mauritanian Party of the Democratic Center
(PCDM), Bamba Ould SIDI BADI; Action for Change (AC), Messoud Ould
BOULKHEIR

Political pressure groups and leaders: Mauritanian Workers Union (UTM)

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate),
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member),
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bilal Ould WERZEG
chancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5700

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Dorothy Myers SAMPAS
embassy: address NA, Nouakchott
mailing address: B. P. 222, Nouakchott
telephone: [222] (2) 526-60, 526-63
FAX: [222] (2) 515-92

Flag description: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a
yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down;
the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy

Economy - overview: A majority of the population still depends on
agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the
nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by
recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive
deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports.
The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks
in production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest
fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners
threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater
port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, drought and
economic mismanagement have resulted in a substantial buildup of
foreign debt. The government has begun the second stage of an economic
reform program in consultation with the World Bank, the IMF, and major
donor countries. Short-term growth prospects are gloomy because of the
heavy debt service burden, rapid population growth, and vulnerability
to climatic conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1995)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200 (1995)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 31%
services: 44% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6.5% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980)
by occupation: agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce
14%, government 10%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $256 million
expenditures : $269 million, including capital expenditures of $54
million (1995)

Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Industrial production growth rate: 7.2% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 105,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 135 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; cattle,
sheep; fish products

Exports:
total value: $483 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: fish and fish products, iron ore, gold
partners : Japan 27%, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

Imports:
total value: $365 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital
goods
partners: Algeria 15%, China 6%, US 3%, France, Germany, Spain, Italy

Debt - external: $2.3 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

Exchange rates: ouguiyas (UM) per US$1 - 141.230 (December 1996),
137.222 (1996), 129.768 (1995), 123.575 (1994), 120.806 (1993), 87.027
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mauritania:Communications

Telephones: 17,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor
microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications
stations (improvements being made)
domestic : mostly cable and open-wire lines
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
and 2 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 50,000 (1992 est.)

@Mauritania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 704 km (single track); note - owned and operated by government
mining company
standard gauge : 704 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 7,600 km
paved: 851 km
unpaved: 6,749 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports and harbors: Bogue, Kaedi, Nouadhibou, Nouakchott, Rosso

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 24 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
National Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 518,212 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 253,047 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $33 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MAURITIUS

@Mauritius:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 20 17 S, 57 33 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 1,860 sq km
land: 1,850 sq km
water: 10 sq km
note: includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint
Brandon), and Rodrigues

Area - comparative: almost 11 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter
(May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains
encircling central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point : Piton de la Petite Riviere Noire 828 m

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use:
arable land: 49%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 170 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones (November to April); almost completely
surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards

Environment - current issues: water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Mauritius:People

Population: 1,154,272 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 155,779; female 151,964)
15-64 years : 67% (male 387,406; female 391,167)
65 years and over: 6% (male 27,719; female 40,237) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.21% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 18.81 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.68 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.71 years
male: 66.88 years
female : 74.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.23 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Mauritian(s)
adjective: Mauritian

Ethnic groups: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%,
Franco-Mauritian 2%

Religions: Hindu 52%, Christian 28.3% (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant
2.3%), Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1%

Languages: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka,
Bojpoori

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.9%
male : 87.1%
female: 78.8% (1995 est.)

@Mauritius:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mauritius
conventional short form : Mauritius

Data code: MP

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Port Louis

Administrative divisions: 9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega
Islands*, Black River, Cargados Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka,
Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart,
Rodrigues*, Savanne

Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

Constitution: 12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of
English common law in certain areas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992) and Vice
President Rabindranath GHURBURRUN (since 1 July 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Navin RAMGOOLAM (since 27 December
1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Paul BERENGER (since 27 December 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly for five-year terms; election last held NA June 1992 (next to
be held NA 1997); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed
by the president and are responsible to the National Assembly
election results : Cassam UTEEM elected president and Rabindranath
GHURBURRUN elected vice president; percent of vote by the National
Assembly - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (66 seats - 62
popularly elected, 4 appointed; members serve five-year terms); note -
the election commission appoints four members from the losing
political parties to give representation to various ethnic minorities
elections: last held on 20 December 1995 (next to be held by December
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - MLP/MMM 65%, MSM/RMM 20%,
other 15%; seats by party - MLP 35, MMM 25, allies of MLP and MMM on
Rodrigues Island 2; appointed were Rodrigues Movement 2, PMSD 1,
Hizbullah 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
government coalition : MLP/MMM alliance, consisting of Mauritian Labor
Party or MLP [Navin RAMGOOLAM] and Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM
[Paul BERENGER]
opposition: MSM/MSR alliance consisting of the Militant Socialist
Movement or MSM [Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH] and the Mauritian Militant
Renaissance or MMR [Dr. Paramhansa NABABSING]; Organization of the
People of Rodrigues or OPR [Louis Serge CLAIR]; Mauritius Social
Democrat Party or PMSD [Xavier-Luc DUVAL]; Hizbullah [Imam Mustapha
BEEHARRY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: various labor unions

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC,
ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING
chancery: Suite 441, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-1491, 1492
FAX: [1] (202) 966-0983

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Harold Walter GEISEL (8 July 1996)
embassy: 4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis
mailing address: International Mail: P.O. Box 544, Port Louis; US
Mail: American Embassy, Port Louis, Department of State, Washington,
DC 20521-2450
telephone : [230] 208-2347, 208-2354, 208-9763 through 9767
FAX: [230] 208-9534

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue,
yellow, and green

Economy

Economy - overview: Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has
developed from a low income, agriculturally based economy to a middle
income diversified economy with growing industrial, financial
services, and tourist sectors. For most of the period, annual growth
has been of the order of 5% to 6%. This remarkable achievement has
been reflected in increased life expectancy, lowered infant mortality,
and a much improved infrastructure. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of
the cultivated land area and accounts for 25% of export earnings. The
government's development strategy centers on industrialization (with a
view to modernization and to exports), agricultural diversification,
and tourism. Economic performance in 1991-96 continued strong with
solid growth and low unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.3%
industry : 31.6%
services: 59.1% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6% (1995)

Labor force:
total : 479,500 (1993 est.)
by occupation: construction and industry 37%, services 24%,
agriculture and fishing 15%, trade, restaurants, hotels 14%,
transportation and communication 7%, finance 3%

Unemployment rate: 2.4% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $732 million
expenditures: $550 million, including capital expenditures of $123
million (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing
apparel; chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical
machinery; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5.8% (1992)

Electricity - capacity: 235,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 425 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 393 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, bananas,
pulses; cattle, goats; fish

Exports:
total value: $1.57 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: clothing and textiles 67%, sugar 25%
partners: UK 34%, France 21%, US 15%, Germany 6%, Italy 4%

Imports:
total value: $1.98 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities : manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%,
foodstuffs 13%, petroleum products 8%, chemicals 7%
partners: France 20%, India 8%, Hong Kong 7%, UK 6%, Germany 5%

Debt - external: $996.8 million (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1 - 18.528 (January
1997), 17.948 (1996), 17.386 (1995), 17.960 (1994), 17.648 (1993),
15.563 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Mauritius:Communications

Telephones: 65,000 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: small system with good service
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several
countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 395,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)
note: two new subscription channels began operation in 1995

Televisions: 151,096 (1991 est.)

@Mauritius:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,877 km
paved: 1,746 km (including 29 km of expressways)
unpaved : 131 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Port Louis

Merchant marine:
total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 221,147 GRT/309,513 DWT
ships by type : bulk 1, cargo 9, container 4, liquefied gas tanker 1,
oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: National Police Force (includes the paramilitary
Special Mobile Force or SMF, Special Support Units or SSU, and
National Coast Guard)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 333,029 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 169,129 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $11.2 million (FY92/93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.4% (FY92/93)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims the island of Diego Garcia in
UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims
French-administered Tromelin Island

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; heroin consumption and transshipment are growing problems
______________________________________________________________________

MAYOTTE

(territorial collectivity of France)

@Mayotte:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from northern Madagascar to northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 50 S, 45 10 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 375 sq km
land: 375 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 185.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

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