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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Fiscal year: calendar year

@Macedonia,:Communications

Telephones: 125,000

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 369,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (relays 2)

Televisions: 327,011 (1992 est.)

@Macedonia,:Transportation

Railways:
total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (232 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 8,532 km
paved: 5,401 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,131 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: none, lake transport only

Pipelines: 0 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 16 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 12 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Police
Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 532,578 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 429,419 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 16,468 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 7 billion denars (1993 est.);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Greece over name; in September
1995, Skopje and Athens signed an interim accord resolving their
dispute over symbols and certain constitutional provisions; Athens
also lifted its economic embargo on the Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia; Albanians in Macedonia claim discrimination in education,
access to public-sector jobs and representation in government

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine
______________________________________________________________________

MADAGASCAR

@Madagascar:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 587,040 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz,
tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures : 41%
forests and woodland: 40%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation
and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw
sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna
unique to the island are endangered

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location
along Mozambique Channel

@Madagascar:People

Population: 14,061,627 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 3,188,839; female 3,114,958)
15-64 years : 52% (male 3,608,508; female 3,680,574)
65 years and over: 3% (male 228,230; female 240,518) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.82% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.26 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.1 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 92 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.53 years
male : 51.4 years
female: 53.7 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.83 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo),
Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry -
Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian,
Creole, Comoran

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80%
male: 88%
female : 73% (1990 est.)

@Madagascar:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar
local short form: Madagascar
former: Malagasy Republic

Data code: MA

Government type: republic

National capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo,
Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional
Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA; (since 10 February 1997)
note - President Albert ZAFY impeached by the High Constitutional
Court on 5 September 1996; Prime Minister Emmanuel RAKOTOVAHINY served
as interim president until the election of President RATSIRAKA and
then retired from the office of prime minister
head of government: Prime Minister Pascal RAKOTOMAVO (since 21
February 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA 2002); prime
minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates
nominated by the National Assembly
election results: percent of the popular vote for president - Didier
RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (UNDD) 49.3%; percent of the
National Assembly vote for prime minister - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate or
Senat (two-thirds of upper house seats are to be filled from popularly
elected regional assemblies; the remaining third is to be filled by
presidential appointment; members serve four-year terms) and the
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (138 seats; members are
directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 16 June 1993 (next to be held
3 August 1997)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11, Famima 10,
RPSD 7, various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8
note: the Senate has never been established because the regional
assemblies have not been formed and are not expected to be formed
before late in 1997, following a national referendum on a new
constitution

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme); High Constitutional
Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders: Committee of Living Forces or CFV, an
alliance of National Union for Development and Democracy or UNDD
[Emmanuel RAKOTOVAHINY, president], Support Committee for Democracy
and Development in Madagascar or CSDDM [Francisque RAVONY, president],
Action and Reflection Group for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD,
Congress Party for Madagascar Independence-Renewal or AKFM-Fanavaozana
[Richard ANDRIAMANJATO, president], and some 12 other parties, trade
unions, and religious groups; Association of United Malagasys or
Famima [Didier RATSIRAKA, leader]; Confederation of Civil Societies
for Development or CSCD [Guy Willy RAZANAMASY]; Militant Party for the
Development of Madagascar or PMDM/MFM, formerly the Movement for
Proletarian Power [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Rally for Social Democracy
or RPSD [Evariste MARSON, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Council of Christian
Churches or FFKM; Federalist Movement

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Vicki J. HUDDLESTON
embassy : 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18
FAX: [261] (2) 234-539

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: Madagascar suffers from chronic malnutrition,
underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual
population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied
by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the
mainstay of the economy, accounting for 33% of GDP and contributing
more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features the processing of
agricultural products and textile manufacturing. Growth in output in
1992-95 averaged only 1.4%, less than half the growth rate of the
population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and
demonstrations, a decline in world coffee demand, and the erratic
commitment of the government to economic reform. Formidable obstacles
stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable growth
potential; the extent of government reforms, outside financial aid,
and foreign investment will be key determinants.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $880 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 33%
industry: 15%
services: 52% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 47% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.9 million
by occupation : agriculture 45,500, domestic service 29,750, industry
26,250, commerce 24,500, construction 19,250, service 15,750,
transportation 10,500, other 3,500 (1985 est.)
note: 175,000 workers (3.6% of the total work force) earn money wages;
4,725,000 workers receive no monetary wage (of these, 91% are engaged
in subsistence agriculture)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $250 million
expenditures: $265 million, including capital expenditures of $180
million (1991 est.)

Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar,
textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper,
petroleum, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1993 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 208,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 450 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 36 kWh (1992)

Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa,
rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products

Exports:
total value: $493 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves, shellfish, sugar,
petroleum products (1995 est.)
partners : France 41%, US, Japan, Italy (1995)

Imports:
total value: $612 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%,
petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13% (1995 est.)
partners: France 40%, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, US (1995)

Debt - external: $4.4 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $454 million (1992-96)

Currency: 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 3,950 (November
1996), 3,974.9 (August 1996), 4,265.6 (1995), 3,067.3 (1994), 1,913.8
(1993), 1,864.0 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Madagascar:Communications

Telephones: 96,000 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: system is above average for Africa
domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter links
international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations -
1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.565 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 36)

Televisions: 260,000 (1992 est.)

@Madagascar:Transportation

Railways:
total : 883 km
narrow gauge: 883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 49,837 km
paved: 5,731 km
unpaved : 44,106 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small
portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Ports and harbors: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga,
Toamasina, Toliara

Merchant marine:
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,624 GRT/28,621 DWT
ships by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil
tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 105 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 58
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 47
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 45 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces,
Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - includes Navy and Air Force),
Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,204,200 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,903,268 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 136,216 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $29 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island,
Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all
administered by France)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild
varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point
for heroin
______________________________________________________________________

MALAWI

@Malawi:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 S, 34 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 118,480 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
water: 24,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 2,881 km
border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to
November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills,
some mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary
with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Mount Mlanje Sapitwa 3,002 m

Natural resources: limestone, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal,
and bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 20%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water
pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes;
siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Malawi:People

Population: 9,609,081 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 46% (male 2,210,871; female 2,190,564)
15-64 years: 51% (male 2,430,178; female 2,520,608)
65 years and over: 3% (male 109,010; female 147,850) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.57% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 40.79 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 25.08 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: the return of refugees to Mozambique is apparently complete

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 138.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 35.26 years
male: 34.86 years
female: 35.68 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.77 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian

Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni,
Ngonde, Asian, European

Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, traditional
indigenous beliefs

Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages
important regionally

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 56.4%
male: 71.9%
female: 41.8% (1995 est.)

@Malawi:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
former: Nyasaland

Data code: MI

Government type: multiparty democracy

National capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa,
Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga
(Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata
Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day 6 July (1964); Republic Day 6 July
(1966)

Constitution: 18 May 1995

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet named by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held by May 1999)
election results: Bakili MULUZI elected president; percent of vote -
NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (177 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held by May 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UDF
84, AFORD 33, MCP 55, others 5; note - because of defections and
byelections, the seats in the National Assembly were held at the end
of the year as follows: UDF 84, MCP 47, AFORD 34, independents 8, and
vacant 4
note : the constitution of 18 May 1995, in addition to reducing the
age at which universal suffrage is conferred from 21 to 18 years,
provided for a bicameral legislature; by 1999, in addition to the
existing National Assembly, a Senate of 80 seats is to be elected

Judicial branch: High Court; Supreme Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI]
opposition groups: Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA];
Congress for the Second Republic or CSR [Kanyama CHIUME]; Malawi
Congress Party or MCP [Hastings KAMURU BANDA, president/Gwanda
CHAKAUMBA, vice president]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo
KALUA, president]; People Democratic Party or PDP [Rolf PATEL]; Social
Democratic Party or SDP [Eston KAKHOME, president]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Willie CHOKANI
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter R. CHAVEAS
embassy : address NA, in new capital city development area in Lilongwe
mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: [265] 783 166
FAX: [265] 780 471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red,
and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band

Economy

Economy - overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least
developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with
about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture
accounts for 45% of GDP and 90% of export revenues. The economy
depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF,
the World Bank, and individual donor nations. The new government faces
strong challenges, e.g., to spur exports, to improve educational and
health facilities, and to deal with environmental problems of
deforestation and erosion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 45%
industry: 30%
services: 25% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 83.3% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.5 million
by occupation : agriculture 86%, wage earners 14% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $530 million
expenditures: $674 million, including capital expenditures of $129
million (1993)

Industries: tea, tobacco, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer
goods

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 190,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 782 million kWh (1993)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 67 kWh (1993)

Agriculture - products: tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn,
potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; cattle, goats

Exports:
total value : $431 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts, wood products
partners: US, South Africa, Germany, Japan

Imports:
total value: $348 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer
goods, transportation equipment
partners : South Africa, Zimbabwe, Japan, US, UK, Germany

Debt - external: $2.2 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: donor pledges, $332 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1 - 15.3118 (September
1996), 15.2837 (1995), 8.7364 (1994), 4.4028 (1993), 3.6033 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Malawi:Communications

Telephones: 43,000 (1985 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : fair system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and radiotelephone communications stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.011 million (1995)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1987 est.)

Televisions: NA

@Malawi:Transportation

Railways:
total: 789 km
narrow gauge: 789 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 49,837 km
paved : 5,731 km
unpaved: 44,106 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports and harbors: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota

Airports: 41 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 4
under 914 m: 20 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 14 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment),
Police (includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,163,056 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,106,487 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $10.4 million (FY94/95)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)
______________________________________________________________________

MALAYSIA

@Malaysia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the
island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south
of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 329,750 sq km
land : 328,550 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,669 km
border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
specified boundary in the South China Sea
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast
(October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural
gas, bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 12%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 68%
other : 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,400 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and
vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and
southern South China Sea

@Malaysia:People

Population: 20,491,303 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 3,776,400; female 3,587,445)
15-64 years: 60% (male 6,153,173; female 6,171,287)
65 years and over: 4% (male 350,523; female 452,475) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.15% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.94 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.43 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population : 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 70.06 years
male: 67.08 years
female: 73.22 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic groups: Malay and other indigenous 58%, Chinese 26%, Indian 7%,
others 9%

Religions: Peninsular Malaysia - Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese),
Hindu (Indians); Sabah - Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45%; Sarawak
- tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%,
Christian 16%, other 5%

Languages: Peninsular Malaysia - Malay (official), English, Chinese
dialects, Tamil; Sabah - English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects,
Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate); Sarawak - English,
Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.5%
male: 89.1%
female : 78.1% (1995 est.)

@Malaysia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
former : Malayan Union

Data code: MY

Government type: constitutional monarchy
note: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by
the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular
Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where
governors are appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state
governments are limited by the federal constitution; Sabah -
self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with
foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers
delegated to federal government; Sarawak - self-governing state, holds
27 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense,
internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

National capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri)
and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular -
wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri
Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak,
Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of
the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Paramount Ruler TUANKU JA'AFAR ibni Al-Marhum Tuanku
Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1994) and Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan
TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin
Alam Shah (since 26 April 1994)
head of government : Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16
July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December
1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the paramount ruler from among the
members of Parliament
elections: paramount ruler and deputy paramount ruler elected by and
from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms;
election last held 4 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the paramount ruler
election results: TUANKU JA'AFAR ibni Al-Marhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman
elected paramount ruler; percent of vote - NA; Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN
Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah elected
deputy paramount ruler; percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the
Senate or Dewan Negara (69 seats; 43 appointed by the paramount ruler,
26 elected by the state legislatures; elected members serve six-year
terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (192 seats;
members elected by popular vote directly weighted toward the rural
Malay population to serve five-year terms)
elections : Senate - last held NA April 1995 (next to be held by
2000); House of Representatives - last held 24-25 April 1995 (next to
be held by 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party -
National Front 63%, other 37%; seats by party - National Front 162,
DAP 9, PBS 8, PAS 7, Spirit of '46 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the paramount
ruler

Political parties and leaders:
Peninsular Malaysia: National Front, a confederation of 14 political
parties dominated by United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO
Baru), MAHATHIR bin Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING
Liong Sik; Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, LIM Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian
Congress (MIC), S. Samy VELLU; major opposition parties are Parti
Islam SeMalaysia (PAS), Ustaz Fadzil Mohamed NOOR and the Democratic
Action Party (DAP), CHEN Man Hin
Sabah : National Front, dominated by the UMNO; Sabah Progressive Party
(SAPP), Datuk YONG Teck Lee; Parti Democratic Sabah (PDS), Bernard
DOMPOK; Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS), Datuk Joseph KURUP
Sarawak: National Front, composed of the Party Pesaka Bumiputra
Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud; Sarawak United
People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar Stephen YONG Kuat Tze; Sarawak
National Party (SNAP), Datuk Amar James WONG; Parti Bansa Dayak
Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo MOGGIE; major opposition party is Democratic
Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang
note: subsequent to the election, the following parties were dissolved
- Spirit of '46 (Semangat '46), Tengku Tan Sri RAZALEIGH, president,
and Sabah United Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah, PBS), Datuk Seri Joseph
PAIRIN Kitingan

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC,
CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM III,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNOMIL, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador DALI Mahmud Hashim
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2700
FAX : [1] (202) 483-7661
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador John R. MALOTT
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur or American
Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 248-9011
FAX : [60] (3) 242-2207

Flag description: 14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating
with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star;
the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design
was based on the flag of the US

Economy

Economy - overview: The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private
enterprise and public management, has posted a remarkable record of 9%
average annual growth in 1988-96. This growth has resulted in a
substantial reduction in poverty and a marked rise in real wages. In
1996 manufactured goods exports expanded less rapidly than in previous
years because of the global slump in electronics; nonetheless, foreign
investors continue to commit large sums in the economy. The government
is aware of the inflationary potential of this rapid development and
is closely monitoring fiscal and monetary policies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $214.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,750 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 45%
services: 41% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 8.398 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: manufacturing 25%, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries
21%, local trade and tourism 17%, services 12%, government 11%,
construction 8% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $22.6 billion
expenditures: $22 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.3
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and
manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining
and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging,
petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum
production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: 12% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 7.83 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 37.85 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,983 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: Peninsular Malaysia - natural rubber, palm
oil, rice; Sabah - subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconut, rice;
Sarawak - rubber, pepper; timber

Exports:
total value: $84.6 billion (1996)
commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and petroleum products,
palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber, textiles
partners : US 21%, Singapore 20%, Japan 12%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 4%,
Thailand 4%, Germany 3% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $83.2 billion (1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, food
partners: Japan 27%, US 16%, Singapore 12%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4%,
South Korea 4% (1995)

Debt - external: $27.5 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $45 million (1993)

Currency: 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.4914 (January 1997), 2.5158
(1996), 2.5044 (1995), 2.6243 (1994), 2.5741 (1993), 2.5474 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Malaysia:Communications

Telephones: 2,550,957 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: international service good
domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia
mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio
relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite
system with 2 earth stations
international: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong and Singapore;
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 8.08 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Malaysia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,806 km (Peninsular Malaysia 1,672 km; Sabah 134 km; Sarawak 0
km)
narrow gauge: 1,806 km 1.000-m gauge (Peninsular Malaysia 1,672 km;
Sabah 134 km)

Highways:
total: 93,975 km
paved: 70,481 km (including 575 km of expressways)
unpaved: 23,494 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 7,296 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,209 km, Sabah 1,569 km,
Sarawak 2,518 km)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Ports and harbors: Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuching, Kudat, Labuan,
Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Dickson, Port
Kelang, Sandakan, Sibu, Tanjong Berhala, Tanjong Kidurong, Tawau

Merchant marine:
total: 299 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,904,915 GRT/5,860,095
DWT
ships by type: bulk 51, cargo 103, chemical tanker 16, combination
bulk 3, container 35, liquefied gas tanker 16, oil tanker 62,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 1,
vehicle carrier 6 (1996 est.)

Airports: 106 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 99
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m : 6
under 914 m: 73 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal
Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police,
Sarawak Border Scouts

Military manpower - military age: 21 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,280,741 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 3,201,235 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 184,351 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 billion (1997)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: involved in a complex dispute over the
Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; State of Sabah claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to
purchase the Malaysian salient that divides Brunei into two parts; two
islands in dispute with Singapore; two islands in dispute with
Indonesia

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to
Western markets despite severe penalties for drug trafficking
______________________________________________________________________

MALDIVES

@Maldives:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean,
south-southwest of India

Geographic coordinates: 3 15 N, 73 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 300 sq km
land: 300 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone : 35-310 nm as defined by geographic
coordinates; segment of zone coincides with maritime boundary with
India
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to
March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat, with white sandy beaches

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point : unnamed location on Wilingili 24 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland : 3%
other: 84% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea
level rise

Environment - current issues: depletion of freshwater aquifers
threatens water supplies

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls;
archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in
Indian Ocean

@Maldives:People

Population: 280,391 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 67,967; female 64,643)
15-64 years : 50% (male 71,316; female 67,993)
65 years and over: 3% (male 4,534; female 3,938) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.47% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 40.98 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 44.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.86 years
male: 65.23 years
female: 68.58 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.95 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Maldivian(s)
adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic groups: Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, African

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Maldivian Divehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from
Arabic), English spoken by most government officials

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.2%
male: 93.3%
female: 93% (1995 est.)

@Maldives:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Maldives
conventional short form: Maldives
local long form : Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
local short form: Dhivehi Raajje

Data code: MV

Government type: republic

National capital: Male (Maale)

Administrative divisions: 19 atolls (atholhu, singular and plural) and
1 other first-order administrative division*; Alifu, Baa, Dhaalu,
Faafu, Gaafu Alifu, Gaafu Dhaalu, Gnaviyani, Haa Alifu, Haa Dhaalu,
Kaafu, Laamu, Lhaviyani, Maale*, Meemu, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani,
Thaa, Vaavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Constitution: 4 June 1968

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common
law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November
1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November
1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Ministry of Atolls appointed by the president; note - need
not be members of Majilis
elections : president elected by secret ballot of the Majlis for a
five-year term; election last held 1 October 1993 (next to be held NA
October 1998)
election results: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected; percent of
Majlis vote - Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 92.76%

Legislative branch: unicameral Citizens' Council or Majlis (48 seats;
40 elected by popular vote, 8 appointed by the president; members
serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 2 December 1994 (next to be held NA December
1999)
election results : percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 40

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: although political parties are not
banned, none exist

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Maldives does not have an embassy
in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York,
headed by Ahmed ZAKI

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Maldives; the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives
and makes periodic visits there

Flag description: red with a large green rectangle in the center
bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is
on the hoist side of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: During the 1980s tourism became one of the most
important and highest growth sectors of the economy. In 1994, tourism,
Maldives largest industry, accounted for about 18% of GDP and more
than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Fishing is a
second leading growth sector. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes
from import duties and tourism-related taxes. The Maldivian Government
initiated an economic reform program in 1989 initially by lifting
import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector.
Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow more foreign
investment. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a minor
role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of
cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labor. Most staple foods
must be imported. In 1994, industry which consisted mainly of garment
production, boat building, and handicrafts accounted for about 15% of
GDP.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $423 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.8% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,620 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21.5%
industry: 15.3%
services: 63.2% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.7% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 56,435 (1990 est.)
by occupation: fishing industry and agriculture 25%, services 21%,
manufacturing and construction 21%, trade, restaurants, and hotels
16%, transportation and communication 10%, other 7%

Unemployment rate: NEGL%

Budget:
revenues: $88 million (excluding foreign grants)
expenditures: $141 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, coconut
processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand
mining

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 18,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 163 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fishing

Exports:
total value: $50 million (f.o.b., 199)
commodities: fish, clothing
partners: Sri Lanka, US, Germany, Singapore, UK

Imports:
total value : $268 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum
products
partners : Singapore, India, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Japan, Thailand

Debt - external: $137.5 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laari

Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 11.770 (January 1997), 11.770
(1996), 11.770 (1995), 11.586 (1994), 10.957 (1993), 10.569 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Maldives:Communications

Telephones: 8,523 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: minimal domestic and international facilities
domestic: inter-atoll communication primarily through HF transceivers
and VHF/UHF telephones
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,284 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 7,309 (1992 est.)

@Maldives:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km; note - Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the
city (1988 est.)

Ports and harbors: Gan, Male

Merchant marine:
total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,079 GRT/108,455 DWT
ships by type: cargo 17, oil tanker 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1996
est.)

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 0

Military

Military branches: National Security Service (paramilitary police
force)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 61,408 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 34,245 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MALI

@Mali:Geography

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total : 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858
km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal
419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy,
humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand;
savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium,
bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but
not exploited

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 25%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 780 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry
seasons; recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked

@Mali:People

Population: 9,788,904 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 2,329,669; female 2,307,248)
15-64 years: 50% (male 2,287,769; female 2,546,981)
65 years and over : 3% (male 150,732; female 166,505) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 50.26 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 19.52 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 124 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.56 years
male: 45.25 years
female : 47.9 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.09 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%,
Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 31%
male: 39.4%
female: 23.1% (1995 est.)

@Mali:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan

Data code: ML

Government type: republic

National capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao,
Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22
September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was
formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since NA
March 1994)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2002); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha Oumar KONARE reelected president; percent of
vote - Alpha Oumar KONARE 85.15%, Mamadou DIABY 4.09%, other 10.76%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (116 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 8 March 1992 (next to be held in two rounds on 20
July and 3 August 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
ADEMA 76, CNID 9, US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the Development of
the Republic of West Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3, UFDP 3, PDP 2,
UMDD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA
[Ibrahim N'DIAYE]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID
[Mountaga TALL]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA
[Mamadou Madeira KEITA]; Popular Movement for the Development of the
Republic of West Africa; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP
[Almamy SYLLA]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa
Balla COULIBALY]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT; Union of
Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Dembo DIALLO]; Party for
Democracy and Progress or PDP [Idrissa TRAORE]; Malian Union for
Democracy and Development or UMDD; Movement for the Independence,
Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohammed Lamine
TRAORE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: United Movement and Fronts of
Azawad or MFUA; Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Kaye or MPGK

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
chancery : 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David P. RAWSON
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX : [223] 22 37 12

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world,
with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is
largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About
10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is
engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on
processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid
and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main
export. Nonetheless the government has successfully implemented an
IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the
economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's
adherence to economic reform, and the 50% devaluation of the African
Franc in January 1994, has pushed up economic growth. Several
multinational corporations increased gold mining operations in 1996
and the government projects that Mali will become a major Sub-Saharan
gold exporter in the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 49%
industry: 17%
services: 34% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 12.7% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.666 million (1986 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1%
(1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $730 million
expenditures: $770 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing;
construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 84,100 kW (1990)

Electricity - production: 235 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 28 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables,
peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $320 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: cotton, livestock, gold
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports:
total value : $422 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction
materials, petroleum, textiles
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Debt - external: $2.8 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mali:Communications

Telephones: 11,000 (1982 est.)

Telephone system: domestic system poor but improving; provides only
minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and
radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio
relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 430,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 11,000 (1992 est.)

@Mali:Transportation

Railways:
total: 641 km; (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes)
narrow gauge: 641 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 14,776 km
paved : 1,773 km
unpaved: 13,003 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Koulikoro

Airports: 24 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m : 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 8 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard,
National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,976,414 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,129,765 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $66 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MALTA

@Malta:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Sicily (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 35 50 N, 14 35 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 320 sq km
land: 320 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone : 25 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal
cliffs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Dingli Cliffs 245 m

Natural resources: limestone, salt

Land use:
arable land: 38%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland : NA%
other: 59% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: very limited natural fresh water
resources; increasing reliance on desalination

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : Biodiversity, Desertification

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