Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 26 out of 47

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.8 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

party to: Desertification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Libya:People

Population: 5,648,359 (July 1997 est.)
note: includes 305,959 non-nationals (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 48% (male 1,369,984; female 1,323,254)
15-64 years: 49% (male 1,422,043; female 1,358,013)
65 years and over: 3% (male 91,953; female 83,112) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.64% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 43.94 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.49 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 57.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.05 years
male : 62.84 years
female: 67.37 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.19 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan

Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians,
Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Languages: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the
major cities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.2%
male: 87.9%
female: 63% (1995 est.)

@Libya:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al
Ishtirakiyah
local short form: none

Data code: LY

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory,
governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military
dictatorship

National capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular -
baladiyat); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al
Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az
Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha,
Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan
note: the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 1,500 communes
in 1992

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law;
separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : Revolutionary Leader Gen. Muammar Abu Minyar
al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title,
but is de facto chief of state
head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee
(Premier) Abd al-Majid al-QA'UD (since 29 January 1994)
cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General
People's Congress
elections : national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of
peoples' committees; head of government elected by the General
People's Congress; election last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: Abd al-Majid al-QA'UD elected head of government;
percent of General People's Congress vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress (NA seats;
members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of peoples' committees)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: various Arab nationalist
movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning
clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU,
NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Libya does not have an embassy in
the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US suspended all embassy
activities in Tripoli on 2 May 1980

Flag description: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam
(the state religion)

Economy

Economy - overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily
upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all
export earnings and about one-third of GDP. In 1990 per capita GDP was
the highest in Africa at $5,410, but subsequently GDP growth has
slowed on average and has fluctuated sharply in response to changes in
the world oil market. Import restrictions and inefficient resource
allocations have led to periodic shortages of basic goods and
foodstuffs. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which
account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly
agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals,
iron, steel, and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for only 5%
of GDP, it employs 18% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and
poor soils severely limit farm output, and Libya imports about 75% of
its food requirements. The UN sanctions imposed in April 1992 have not
yet had a major impact on the economy because Libya's oil revenues
generate sufficient foreign exchange to sustain imports of food,
consumer goods, and equipment for the oil industry and ongoing
development projects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $34.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,570 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry : 55%
services: 40% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 25% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1 million (includes about 280,000 resident foreigners)
by occupation: industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture
18%
note : 7.1% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $13 billion
expenditures: $14.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 4.6 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 16.73 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,012 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus,
vegetables, peanuts; meat, eggs

Exports:
total value: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas
partners: Italy, Germany, Spain, France, UK, Turkey, Greece, Egypt

Imports:
total value : $7.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
partners: Italy, Germany, UK, France, Spain, Turkey, Tunisia, Eastern
Europe

Debt - external: $2.6 billion excluding military debt (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.3764 (January 1997),
0.3651 (1996), 0.3532 (1995), 0.3596 (1994), 0.3250 (1993), 0.3013
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Libya:Communications

Telephones: 370,000

Telephone system: modern telecommunications system
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter,
and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); planned Arabsat and Intersputnik satellite earth
stations; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay
to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in
Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 1 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)

@Libya:Transportation

Railways:
note : Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous
systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a
1.435-m standard gauge line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and
Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral-rich area, but
there has been no progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would
establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt, to Tobruk with completion
set for mid-1994; no progress has been reported

Highways:
total: 19,189 km
paved: 10,738 km
unpaved : 8,451 km (1987)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes
liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km

Ports and harbors: Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah,
Misratah, Ra's Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah

Merchant marine:
total : 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 689,086 GRT/1,209,083
DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil
tanker 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 4
note: Libya owns an additional 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
33,050 DWT operating under the registries of Algeria and Turkey (1996
est.)

Airports: 131 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 71
over 3,047 m : 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 60
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m : 39 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,211,700 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 721,592 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 59,216 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.4 billion (1994 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.1% (1994 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia;
Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger and part of
southeastern Algeria
______________________________________________________________________

LIECHTENSTEIN

@Liechtenstein:Geography

Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Geographic coordinates: 47 10 N, 9 32 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 78 km
border countries: Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain;
cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Ruggleller Riet 430 m
highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use:
arable land : 25%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 38%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Law
of the Sea

Geography - note: along with Uzbekistan, one of the only two doubly
landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations
based on elevation

@Liechtenstein:People

Population: 31,389 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 3,032; female 2,909)
15-64 years: 70% (male 10,952; female 11,059)
65 years and over: 11% (male 1,410; female 2,027) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.03 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.33 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population : 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 77.82 years
male: 75.38 years
female: 80.36 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups: Alemannic 87.5%, Italian, Turkish, and other 12.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 6.9%, unknown 5.6%, other
7.5% (1995)

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male : 100%
female: 100% (1981 est.)

@Liechtenstein:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Furstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein

Data code: LS

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

National capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (Gemeinden, singular -
Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan,
Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein
established)

National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed
executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und
zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968)
head of government: Head of Government Mario FRICK (since 15 December
1993) and Deputy Head of Government Michael RITTER (since 14 April
1997)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Diet; confirmed by the prince
elections : none; the prince is a hereditary monarch; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is
usually appointed the head of government by the prince and the leader
of the largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the
deputy head of government by the prince

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet or Landtag (25 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote under proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 2 February 1997 (next to be held by NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - VU 50.1%, FBP 41.3%, FL
8.5%; seats by party - VU 13, FBP 10, FL 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Superior Court
or Obergericht

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union or VU [Dr. Oswald
KRANZ]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Otmar HASLER]; The Free
List or FL

International organization participation: CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA,
ICRM, IFRCS, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU,
WCL, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Liechtenstein does not have an
embassy in the US, but is represented by the Swiss embassy in routine
diplomatic matters

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Liechtenstein, but the US Ambassador at Bern (Switzerland) has been
nominated to be the non-resident US Ambassador to Liechtenstein

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red
with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

Economy

Economy - overview: Despite its small size and limited natural
resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly
industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service
sector and living standards on a par with the urban areas of its large
European neighbors. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 18% -
and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or
so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country
participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss
franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy
requirements. Liechtenstein is a member of the European Economic Area
(an organization serving as a bridge between EFTA and EU) since May
1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies
with those of an integrated Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $713 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 22,187 of which 13,576 are foreigners; 7,781 commute from
Austria and Switzerland to work each day
by occupation : industry, trade, and building 45%, services 53%,
agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 2% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.1% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $455 million
expenditures: $435 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics,
pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 23,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 150 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 8,000 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, maize, potatoes; livestock,
dairy products

Exports:
total value: $2.14 billion (1994)
commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps,
hardware, pottery
partners: EU and EFTA countries 60.57% (Switzerland 15.7%) (1995)

Imports:
total value : $852.3 million (1994)
commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor
vehicles
partners : EU countries, Switzerland (1996)

Debt - external: $0 (1996)

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 -
1.3936 (January 1997), 1.2360 (1996), 1.1825 (1995), 1.3677 (1994),
1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Liechtenstein:Communications

Telephones: 28,393 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: limited, but sufficient automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio
relay

Radio broadcast stations: 1 broadcast station in Triesea
note: linked to Swiss networks

Radios: 11,203 (1995)

Television broadcast stations: NA
note : linked to Swiss networks

Televisions: 11,421 (1995)

@Liechtenstein:Transportation

Railways:
total: 18.5 km; note - owned, operated, and included in statistics of
Austrian Federal Railways
standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

Highways:
total: 250 km
paved: 250 km
unpaved: 0 km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Switzerland

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims 1,600 sq km of Czech territory
confiscated from its royal family in 1918; the Czech Republic insists
that restitution does not go back before February 1948, when the
communists seized power
______________________________________________________________________

LITHUANIA

@Lithuania:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and
Russia

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 65,200 sq km
land: 65,200 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,273 km
border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia
(Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 99 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate
winters and summers

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapine Kalnas 292 m

Natural resources: peat

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops : 12%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 430 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater
with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Lithuania:People

Population: 3,617,104 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 385,959; female 370,100)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,157,987; female 1,240,850)
65 years and over : 13% (male 157,328; female 304,880) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.49% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.64 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 12.96 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.7 years
male: 62.61 years
female : 75.11 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 80.1%, Russian 8.6%, Polish 7.7%,
Byelorussian 1.5%, other 2.1%

Religions: primarily Roman Catholic, others include Lutheran, Russian
Orthodox, Protestant, evangelical Christian Baptist, Islam, Judaism

Languages: Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

@Lithuania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: LH

Government type: independent, democratic republic

National capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 44 regions (rajonai, singular - rajonas) and
11 municipalities*: Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*,
Anyksciu Rajonas, Birsionas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos
Rajonas, Jonavos Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas,
Kaisiadoriu Rajonas, Marijampoles Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas,
Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas,
Kretingos Rajonas, Kupiskio Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*,
Mazeikiu Rajonas, Moletu Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*,
Panevezio Rajonas, Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas,
Prienu Rajonas, Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio
Rajonas, Sakiu Rajonas, Salcininky Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu
Rajonas, Silales Rajonas, Siltues Rajonas, Sirvinty Rajonas, Skuodo
Rajonas, Svencioniu Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traky
Rajonas, Ukmerges Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas,
Vilkaviskio Rajonas, Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (acting
president since 25 November 1992, president since 15 February 1993)
head of government : Premier Gediminas VAGNORIUS (since 28 November
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
nomination of the premier
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held spring 1997);
premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS elected president; percent of
vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71
members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by
proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October and 10 November 1996 (next to be held
NA October 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Conservative Party 70, LKDP 16, Center Union 13, LDDP 12, LSDP 12, DP
2, independents 4, others 8, vacant 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Parliament;
Court of Appeal, judges appointed by the Parliament

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or LKDP
[Algirdas SAUDARGAS, chairman]; Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania or
LDDP [Mindaugas STANKEVICIUS, chairman]; Lithuanian Nationalist Union
or LTS [Rimantas SMETONA, chairman]; Lithuanian Social Democratic
Party or LSDP [Aloyzas SAKALAS, chairman]; Farmers' Union [Jonas
CIULEVICIUS, chairman]; Center Union [Romualdas OZOLAS, chairman];
Homeland Union/Conservative Party [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman];
Lithuanian Polish Union or LLS [Rsztardas MACIEKIANIEC, chairman];
Democratic Party or DP [Lydie WURTH-POLFER, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Lithuanian Future Forum

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD,
ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfonsas EIDINTAS
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX : [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James W. SWIHART, Jr.
embassy: Akmenu 6, Vilnius 2600
mailing address: PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 09723
telephone : [370] 670-6083
FAX: [370] 670-6084

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green,
and red

Economy

Economy - overview: Since declaring independence in 1990, Lithuania
has implemented reforms aimed at eliminating the vestiges of the
former socialist system. With the help of the IMF and other
international institutions, the government has adopted a disciplined
program to restrain inflation, abolish most price controls, lower the
budget deficit, and privatize the economy. More than two-thirds of its
industrial facilities as well as most housing and agricultural
enterprises have been privatized. Although some important "strategic"
enterprises remain exempt from privatization, the new government has
outlined plans to privatize large companies dealing with transport,
pipelines, communications, and energy. While Lithuania has reduced its
trade dependence on Russia and other republics of the FSU from 85% in
1991 to about 40% in 1995, Russia remains Lithuania's leading trading
partner. Lithuania has made great strides in reducing its annual rate
of inflation - from over 1,100% in 1992 to about 35% in 1995 and 13.1%
in 1996. Although the government tried to stay the course on economic
reform and fiscal discipline in 1996, the new government, which took
office in 1996 inherited high debts for energy supplies. As for real
resources, Lithuania's growth depends largely on its ability to
exploit its strategic location - with its ice-free port at Klaipeda
and its rail and highway hub in Vilnius connecting it with Eastern
Europe, Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Lacking important natural
resources, it will remain dependent on imports of fuels and raw
materials.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $14.1 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,870 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 32%
services: 55% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 13.1% (1996 official est.)

Labor force:
total : 1.836 million
by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry
18%, other 40% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 8% (January 1997)

Budget:
revenues: $1.4 billion
expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $168
million (1995)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television
sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding
(small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing,
fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic
components, computers, amber

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 5.46 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 9.57 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,151 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables;
meat, milk, eggs; fish; flax fiber

Exports:
total value: $3.3 billion (1996 est.)
commodities : textiles 15%, agriculture and food 14%, chemicals 12%,
fuels 12%, machinery 11% (1995)
partners: Russia, Germany, Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine (1995)

Imports:
total value: $4.56 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: oil 25%, machinery 17%, textiles 10%, chemicals 9% (1995)
partners: Russia, Germany, Ukraine, Poland, Belarus

Debt - external: $895 million

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $144 million (1993)
note : commitments from the West and international financial
institutions, $765 million (1992-95)

Currency: 1 Lithuanian litas = 100 centas

Exchange rates: litai per US$1 - 4.000 (January 1997), 4.000 (1996),
4.000 (1995), 3.978 (1994), 4.344 (1993), 1.773 (1992); note - fixed
rate since 1 May 1994

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Lithuania:Communications

Telephones: 1.012 million (1995)

Telephone system: telecommunications system ranks among the most
modern of the former Soviet republics
domestic: an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates in
Vilnius and other cities; landlines and microwave radio relay connect
switching centers
international: international connections no longer depend on the
Moscow international gateway switch, but are established by satellite
through Oslo from Vilnius and through Copenhagen from Kaunas;
satellite earth stations - 1 Eutelsat and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
cellular network linked internationally through Copenhagen by
Eutelsat; international electronic mail is available; landlines or
microwave radio relay to former Soviet republics

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 26, shortwave 1, longwave 1

Radios: 1.42 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 1.77 million (1993 est.)

@Lithuania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,002 km
broad gauge: 2,002 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total : 61,442 km
paved: 53,086 km (including 394 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,356 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Kaunas, Klaipeda

Merchant marine:
total : 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 275,871 GRT/305,943 DWT
ships by type: cargo 24, combination bulk 11, oil tanker 2, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
passenger 3 (1996 est.)

Airports: 96 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m : 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m : 2
under 914 m: 14 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 63 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force,
Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard (Skat)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 904,096 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 712,366 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 26,204 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $31.7 million (1996 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (1996 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Russia over the position of the
riparian and maritime boundary with Kaliningrad Oblast; disputes
maritime border with Latvia (primary concern is oil exploration
rights); treaty with Belarus defining the border awaits demarcation

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs
from Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe and
Scandinavia
______________________________________________________________________

LUXEMBOURG

@Luxembourg:Geography

Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries:
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys;
uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to
Moselle floodplain in the southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Burgplatz 559 m

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland : 21%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in urban areas

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified : Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Luxembourg:People

Population: 420,416 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 18% (male 39,219; female 37,459)
15-64 years: 67% (male 143,754; female 138,493)
65 years and over: 15% (male 24,653; female 36,838) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.92 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.29 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.33 years
male : 74.24 years
female: 80.52 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups: Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese,
Italian, and European (guest and worker residents)

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%

Languages: Luxembourgish, German, French, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male : 100%
female: 100% (1980 est.)

@Luxembourg:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form : Luxembourg
local long form: Grand-Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg

Data code: LU

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher,
Luxembourg

Independence: 1839

National holiday: National Day, 23 June (1921) (public celebration of
the Grand Duke's birthday)

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir
Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke JEAN, born 16 April 1955)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1
January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July
1984)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the sovereign, responsible
to the Chamber of Deputies
elections : none; the grand duke is a hereditary monarch; prime
minister and vice prime minister appointed by the sovereign but are
responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 June 1994 (next to be held by June 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CSV
21, LSAP 17, DP 12, Action Committee for Democracy and Pension Rights
5, Greens 5
note: the Conseil d'Etat or Council of State is an advisory body whose
views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice or Cour Superieure de
Justice, judges are appointed for life by the Grand Duke;
Administrative Court or Tribunale Administratin

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social People's Party or CSV
[Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP
[Ben FAYOT]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie Wurth POLFER]; Action
Committee for Democracy and Pension Rights [Roby MEHLEN]; the Green
Alternative [Abbes JACOBY]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: group of steel companies
representing iron and steel industry; Centrale Paysanne representing
agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions;
Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation

International organization participation: ACCT, Australia Group,
Benelux, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alphonse BERNS
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
FAX : [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Clay CONSTANTINOU
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE
09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box
9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX : [352] 46 14 01

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a
darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

Economy

Economy - overview: The stable, prosperous economy features moderate
growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. Agriculture is based on
small family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until recently
dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified. During
the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than
compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking,
account for a growing proportion of the economy. Luxembourg
participates in an economic union with Belgium on trade and most
financial matters, is also closely connected economically to the
Netherlands, and, as a member of the EU, enjoys the advantages of the
open European market.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $10 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,500 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 21%
services: 74% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.3% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 213,100 (one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly
from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and Germany)
by occupation : trade, restaurants, hotels 20%, mining, quarrying,
manufacturing 16%, other market services 18%, community, social,
personal services 14%, construction 11%, finance, insurance, real
estate, business services 9%, transport, storage, communications 8%,
agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 1%, electricity, gas, water 1%
(1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $5.46 billion
expenditures: $5.44 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal
products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.2 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.2 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 13,443 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine
grapes; livestock products

Exports:
total value: $7.3 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products,
glass, aluminum, other industrial products
partners : Germany 28%, France 18%, Belgium 15%, UK 7%, Netherlands 5%

Imports:
total value: $9.1 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
partners: Belgium 38%, Germany 25%, France 11%, Netherlands 4%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $50 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1 - 30.067 (January
1997), 30.962 (1996), 29.480 (1995), 33.456 (1994), 34.597 (1993),
32.150 (1992); note - the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian
franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Luxembourg:Communications

Telephones: 221,900 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed, completely automated and efficient
system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable
international: 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable
(Europe to North America)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 230,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 plus 1 direct-broadcast satellite
link

Televisions: 100,500 (1993 est.)

@Luxembourg:Transportation

Railways:
total: 275 km
standard gauge : 275 km 1.435-m gauge (262 km electrified; 178 km
double track) (1995)

Highways:
total : 5,137 km
paved: 5,086 km (including 123 km of expressways)
unpaved: 51 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 37 km; Moselle

Pipelines: petroleum products 48 km

Ports and harbors: Mertert

Merchant marine:
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 858,861 GRT/1,188,457 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, chemical tanker 5, container 2, liquefied gas
tanker 12, oil tanker 4, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6 (1996
est.)

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 107,842 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 88,733 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,337 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $142 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.8% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MACAU

(overseas territory of Portugal)

@Macau:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 10 N, 113 33 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total : 16 sq km
land: 16 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 0.34 km
border countries: China 0.34 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: not specified

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Coloane Alto 174 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Ozone Layer Protection (extended from Portugal)
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges
connect the two islands to the peninsula on mainland

@Macau:People

Population: 502,325 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 60,270; female 56,803)
15-64 years: 68% (male 169,850; female 171,551)
65 years and over: 9% (male 18,208; female 25,643) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.05% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.78 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.41 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 80.05 years
male: 77.57 years
female : 82.65 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Macanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Macau

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%

Religions: Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none 45.8%,
other 1.2% (1981)

Languages: Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90%
male: 93%
female: 86% (1981 est.)

@Macau:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Macau
local long form: none
local short form : Ilha de Macau

Data code: MC

Dependency status: overseas territory of Portugal; note - scheduled to
revert to China on 20 December 1999

Government type: NA

National capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Ilhas, Macau

Independence: none (territory of Portugal; Portugal signed an
agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20
December 1999; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect
Macau's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50
years after transition)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; basic law
drafted primarily by Beijing, promulgated 31 March 1993

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of Portugal Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March
1996)
head of government: Governor General Vasco Joachim Rocha VIERA (since
20 March 1991)
cabinet: Consultative Council consists of a total of 15 members - five
appointed by the governor, two nominated by the governor, five elected
for a four-year term (two represent administrative bodies, one
represents moral, cultural, and welfare interests, and two represent
economic interests), and three statutory members
elections: none; governor general appointed by the president of
Portugal after consultation with the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (23 seats; 8
elected by popular vote, 8 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the
governor; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, consisting of five magistrates
including the president; lower court judges appointed for three-year
terms by the governor

Political parties and leaders: Association to Defend the Interests of
Macau, leader NA; Macau Democratic Center, leader NA; Group to Study
the Development of Macau, leader NA; Macau Independent Group, leader
NA

Political pressure groups and leaders: wealthy Macanese and Chinese
representing local interests, wealthy procommunist merchants
representing China's interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government
acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over
administration

International organization participation: CCC, ESCAP (associate), IMO
(associate), Interpol (subbureau), WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (Chinese territory under
Portuguese administration)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US has no offices in Macau,
and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong
Kong

Flag description: the flag of Portugal is used

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including
gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to
diversify have spawned other small industries - toys, artificial
flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly
25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of
export earnings; the gambling industry probably represents over 40% of
GDP. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and
energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw
materials and capital goods.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $13,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.5% (first half 1996)

Labor force:
total : 180,000 (1986)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 2% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $305 million
expenditures: $298 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1989 est.)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture,
tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 260,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.2 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,750 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, vegetables

Exports:
total value: $1.99 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: textiles, clothing, toys
partners: US 42%, Hong Kong 10%, Germany 9.9%, China 9.6%, France 8%,
UK 7.2% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $1.99 billion (c.i.f.,1996 est.)
commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods
partners: Hong Kong 33%, China 20%, Japan 18% (1992 est.)

Debt - external: $0 (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1 - 7.962 (1996), 8.034 (1993-95),
7.973 (1992); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of
1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Macau:Communications

Telephones: 170,021 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: fairly modern communication facilities maintained
for domestic and international services
domestic: NA
international: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to
international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and
China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 135,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0
note: TV programs received from Hong Kong

Televisions: 34,000 (1992 est.)

@Macau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 97 km
paved : 97 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Macau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: NA

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 144,117 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 79,819 (1997 est.)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Portugal

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

MACEDONIA,
Yugoslav Republic of]

@Macedonia,:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries:
total: 748 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with
heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys;
there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country
bisected by the Vardar River

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Korab 2,753 m

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel,
low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops : 2%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 830 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high seismic risks

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from
Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to
Western Europe

@Macedonia,:People

Population: 1,995,859 (July 1997 est.)
note: the Macedonian government census of July 1994 put the population
at 1.94 million, but ethnic allocations were likely undercounted

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 245,923; female 231,621)
15-64 years: 67% (male 670,535; female 665,556)
65 years and over : 9% (male 82,285; female 99,939) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.68% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.88 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.13 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 72.48 years
male: 70.41 years
female: 74.71 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 65%, Albanian 22%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%,
Gypsies 3%, other 4%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian
3%, other 3%

Literacy: NA

@Macedonia,:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
abbreviation: FYROM

Data code: MK

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 counties (opstinas, singular - opstina)
Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci,
Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo,
Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar,
Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba,
Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo,
Vinica
note: in September 1996, the Macedonian Parliament passed legislation
changing the territorial division of the country; names of the 123 new
municipalities are not yet available

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: 8 September

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4
September 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the
deputies in the Assembly; note - after the withdrawal of the Liberal
Party (LP) from the ruling coalition in early 1996, the Council of
Ministers was reorganized without LP participation
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: Kiro GLIGOROV elected president; percent of vote -
NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 and 30 October 1994 (next to be held NA
November 1998)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
SDSM 58, LP 29, SP 8, PDP 10, NDP 4, independents 7, other 4; note -
since October 1994 elections, some members of the Assembly have
changed their party affiliation; the seating as of January 1997 is as
follows: SDSM 61, LP 27, SP 6, PDP 11, NDP 2, PDPA 5, independents 3,
other 5

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the
Judicial Council; Judicial Court of the Republic, judges are elected
by the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders: Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia
or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president];
Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Abdurahman ALITI, president];
National Democratic Party or NDP [Ilijas HALIMI, president]; Liberal
Party or LP [Stojan ANDOV, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or
SP [Ljubislav IVANOV-ZINGO, president]; Internal Macedonian
Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National
Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljupco GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Democratic Party
or DP [Petar GOSEV, president]; Party for Democratic Prosperity of
Albanians or PDPA [Arben XHAFFERI, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Movement for All Macedonian
Action or MAAK; Democratic Party of Serbs; Democratic Party of Turks;
Party for Democratic Action (Slavic Muslim)

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ljubica Z. ACEVSKA
chancery: 3050 K Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337 3063
FAX: [1] (202) 337 3093

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher Robert HILL (18 July 1996)
embassy: Ilindenska BB, 9100 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone : [389] (91) 116-180
FAX: [389] (91) 117-103

Flag description: a rising yellow sun with 8 rays extending to the
edges of the red field

Economy

Economy - overview: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
although the poorest republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can
meet basic food and energy needs through its own agricultural and coal
resources. The economy slowly rebounded in 1996 after years of
recession. Continued recovery depends on Macedonia's ability to
redevelop trade ties with Greece and Serbia and Montenegro; as well as
on Skopje's continued commitment to economic liberalization. The
economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and most
of its modern machinery and parts. An important supplement of GDP is
the remittances from thousands of Macedonians working in Germany and
other West European nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $960 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 24%
industry: 44%
services : 32%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 591,773 (June 1994)
by occupation: manufacturing and mining 40% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 38% (1996 est.); note - many employed workers are,
in fact, furloughees

Budget:
revenues : $1.06 billion
expenditures: $1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel,
textiles, wood products, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.38 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 5.22 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,408 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton,
sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry,
mutton

Exports:
total value: $900 million (1996 est.)
commodities: food, beverage, tobacco 17.0%, machinery and transport
equipment 13.3%, other manufactured goods 58%
partners : Bulgaria, other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Italy

Imports:
total value: $1.4 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment 19%, chemicals 14%, fuels 12%
partners: other former Yugoslav republics, Germany, Bulgaria, Italy,
Austria

Debt - external: $1.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: US, $10 million (for humanitarian and technical assistance); in
December 1995, the EU agreed to provide a credit line of ECU 21.7
million for investment projects

Currency: 1 Macedonian denar (MKD) = 100 deni

Exchange rates: denar per US$1 - 40.5 (September 1996), 38.8 (December
1995), 39 (November 1994), 865 (October 1992)

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest