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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Terrain: low and nearly level

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : unnamed location 1 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1996)

Natural hazards: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of
about 1 meter makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: none

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed
to the public

@Kingman Reef:People

Population: uninhabited

@Kingman Reef:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Kingman Reef

Data code: KQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered by
the US Navy; however, it is awash the majority of the time, so it is
not usable and is uninhabited

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Kingman Reef:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and
1938

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

KIRIBATI

@Kiribati:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, straddling
the equator, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia; note
- on 1 January 1995, Kiribati unilaterally moved the International
Date Line from the middle of the country to include its easternmost
islands and make it the same day throughout the country

Geographic coordinates: 1 25 N, 173 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 717 sq km
land: 717 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands

Area - comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,143 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Banaba 81 m

Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops : 51%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to
March; occasional tornadoes

Environment - current issues: heavy pollution in lagoon of south
Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices
such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean
Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands
in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia and
Nauru

@Kiribati:People

Population: 82,449 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.85% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.79 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.71 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years : NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 51.15 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.35 years
male: 60.56 years
female : 64.37 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.17 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
adjective: I-Kiribati

Ethnic groups: Micronesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 53%, Protestant (Congregational) 41%,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985 est.)

Languages: English (official), Gilbertese

Literacy: NA

@Kiribati:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati
conventional short form: Kiribati
note : pronounced kiribas
former: Gilbert Islands

Data code: KR

Government type: republic

National capital: Tarawa

Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands
note: in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts,
Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21
island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang,
Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton,
Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa,
Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina

Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Constitution: 12 July 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President (Beretitenti) Teburoro TITO (since 1 October
1994); Vice President (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti) Tewareka TENTOA (since
12 October 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
head of government: President (Beretitenti) Teburoro TITO (since 1
October 1994); Vice President (Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti) Tewareka TENTOA
(since 12 October 1994); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
the House of Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
note - the House of Assembly chooses the presidential candidates from
among their members and then those candidates compete in a general
election; election last held 30 September 1994 (next to be held by NA
September 1998); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Teburoro TITO elected president; percent of vote -
Teburoro TITO 51.2%, Tewareka TENTOA 18.3%, Roniti TEIWAKI 16.0%,
Peter Taberannang TIMEON 14.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly or Maneaba Ni
Maungatabu (41 seats; 39 elected by popular vote, one ex officio
member, and one nominated to represent Banaba; members serve four-year
terms)
elections : last held 22 July 1994 (next to be held by NA July 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Maneaban Te Mauri 13, National Progressive Party 7, independents 19

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges at all levels are appointed
by the president; High Court, judges at all levels are appointed by
the president

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party, Teatao
TEANNAKI; Christian Democratic Party, Teburoro TITO; New Movement
Party, leader NA; Liberal Party, Tewareka TENTOA; Maneaban Te Mauri
Party, Roniti TEIWAKI
note : there is no tradition of formally organized political parties
in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups
because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party
structures

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Kiribati does not have an embassy
in the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Kiribati; the ambassador to the Marshall Islands is accredited to
Kiribati; Honolulu is a honorary consul

Flag description: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird
flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three
horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the ocean

Economy

Economy - overview: A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls,
Kiribati has few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate
deposits were exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and
fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has
fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP growth has declined from
about 10% in 1988 to about 2.6% in 1995. Economic development is
constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and
remoteness from international markets. The financial sector is at an
early stage of development. Foreign financial aid, largely from the UK
and Japan, is a critical supplement to GDP, equal in amount to 25%-50%
of GDP in recent years. Remittances from overseas I-Kiribati account
for more than $5 million each year.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $62 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 11%
industry: 4%
services: 85% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.1% (1994 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7,870 economically active, not including subsistence farmers
(1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $32.5 million
expenditures: $54.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: fishing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: 0.7% (1992 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 5,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 10 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes,
vegetables; fish

Exports:
total value: $6.3 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: copra 50%, seaweed 16%, fish 15%
partners: Denmark, Fiji, US

Imports:
total value : $38.6 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous
manufactured goods, fuel
partners: Australia 40%, Japan 13%, Fiji 10%, NZ 6%, US 4% (1994)

Debt - external: $2 million (December 1989 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $4.725 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $2.175
million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2835 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: NA

@Kiribati:Communications

Telephones: 1,400 (1984 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
note: Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative
Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 15,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 0 (1988 est.)

@Kiribati:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 655 km (1995 est.)
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km

Waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands

Ports and harbors: Banaba, Betio, English Harbor, Kanton

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,248 GRT/4,496 DWT
ships by type : oil tanker 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 20 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force (carries
out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; small police
posts are on all islands)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

KOREA, NORTH

@Korea, North:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula
bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South
Korea

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 127 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 120,540 sq km
land: 120,410 sq km
water: 130 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Mississippi

Land boundaries:
total: 1,673 km
border countries: China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km

Coastline: 2,495 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
military boundary line : 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive
economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and
aircraft without permission are banned

Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys;
coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m

Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

Land use:
arable land : 14%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 61%
other : 23% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 14,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: late spring droughts often followed by severe
flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall

Environment - current issues: localized air pollution attributable to
inadequate industrial controls; water pollution; inadequate supplies
of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
Sea

Geography - note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and
Russia; mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible, and
sparsely populated

@Korea, North:People

Population: 24,317,004 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 3,672,851; female 3,528,590)
15-64 years: 66% (male 7,996,814; female 8,068,347)
65 years and over : 4% (male 372,818; female 677,584) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.68% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 22.27 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.43 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.55 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.6 years
male : 67.5 years
female: 73.85 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups: racially homogeneous

Religions: Buddhism and Confucianism, some Christianity and syncretic
Chondogyo
note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent;
government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of
religious freedom

Languages: Korean

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Korean
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1990 est.)

@Korea, North:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea
conventional short form: North Korea
local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk
local short form: none
note: the North Koreans generally use the term "Choson" to refer to
their country
abbreviation : DPRK

Data code: KN

Government type: Communist state; one-man dictatorship

National capital: P'yongyang

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3
special cities* (si, singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang
Province), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo
(South Hamgyong Province), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province),
Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City),
Kangwon-do (Kangwon Province), Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City),
P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan Province), P'yongan-namdo (South
P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si* (P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do
(Yanggang Province)

Independence: 9 September 1948
note: 15 August 1945, date of independence from the Japanese and
celebrated in North Korea as National Liberation Day

National holiday: DPRK Foundation Day, 9 September (1948)

Constitution: adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972,
revised again in April 1992

Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese
influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: KIM Chong-il [de facto]; note - President KIM Il-song
was reelected without opposition 24 May 1990 and died 8 July 1994
leaving his son KIM Chong-il as designated successor; however the son
has not assumed the titles that his father held and no new elections
have been held or scheduled
head of government : Acting Premier HONG Song-nam (since NA February
1997)
cabinet: State Administration Council appointed by the Supreme
People's Assembly
elections: premier elected by the Supreme People's Assembly
election results: HONG Song-nam elected acting premier; percent of
Supreme People's Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly or Ch'oego
Inmin Hoeui (687 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections : last held 7-9 April 1990 (next to be held NA); note - the
term of the Assembly expired in April 1995 without a new election and
it has not been convened since the death of KIM Il-song in July 1994
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - the
KWP approves a single list of candidates who are elected without
opposition; minor parties hold a few seats

Judicial branch: Central Court, judges are elected by the Supreme
People's Assembly

Political parties and leaders: major party - Korean Workers' Party
(KWP), KIM Chong-il, secretary, Central Committee; Korean Social
Democratic Party, KIM Pyong-sik, chairman; Chondoist Chongu Party, YU
Mi-yong, chairwoman

International organization participation: ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO,
ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO,
ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - North Korea has a
Permanent Mission to the UN in New York, headed by KIM Hyong-u

Diplomatic representation from the US: none

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple
width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of
the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star

Economy

Economy - overview: More than 90% of this command economy is
socialized; agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned
industry produces 95% of manufactured goods. State control of economic
affairs is unusually tight even for a communist country because of the
small size and homogeneity of the society and the strict rule of KIM
Il-song in the past and now his son, KIM Chong-il. Economic growth
during the period 1984-88 averaged 2%-3%, but output declined by an
average of 4%-5% annually during 1989-96 because of systemic problems
and disruptions in socialist-style economic relations and
technological links with the former USSR and China. The leadership has
insisted on maintaining its high level of military outlays from a
shrinking economic pie. Moreover, a serious drawdown in inventories
and critical shortages in the energy sector have led to increasing
interruptions in industrial production. Abundant mineral resources and
hydropower have formed the basis of industrial development since World
War II. Manufacturing is centered on heavy industry, including
military industry, with light industry lagging far behind. Despite the
use of improved seed varieties, expansion of irrigation, and the heavy
use of fertilizers, North Korea has not yet become self-sufficient in
food production. Indeed, a shortage of arable lands, several years of
poor harvests, systemic inefficiencies, a cumbersome distribution
system, and extensive floods in 1995-96 have resulted in recurring
food shortages. Substantial grain shipments from Japan and South Korea
are offsetting a portion of the losses. North Korea remains far behind
South Korea in economic development and living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $900 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 60%
services: 15% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 9.615 million
by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $19.3 billion
expenditures : $19.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Industries: military products; machine building, electric power,
chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc,
lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: -7% to -9% (1992 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 9.5 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 35.96 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,394 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses;
cattle, pigs, pork, eggs

Exports:
total value: $805 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural and
fishery products, manufactures (including armaments)
partners : China, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Hong Kong, Russia

Imports:
total value: $1.24 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities : petroleum, grain, coking coal, machinery and equipment,
consumer goods
partners: China, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, Russia, Singapore

Debt - external: $8 billion (1992 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: small amounts of grant aid from South Korea, Japan, US and other
countries

Currency: 1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.15 (May 1994), 2.13
(May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December
1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Korea, North:Communications

Telephones: 30,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: system is believed to be available principally for
government business
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
and 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region); other international
connections through Moscow and Beijing

Radio broadcast stations: AM 18, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.5 million

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 400,000 (1992 est.)

@Korea, North:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,000 km
standard gauge : 4,095 km 1.435-m gauge (3,500 km electrified; 159 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 665 km 0.762-m gauge
dual gauge: 240 km (standard and broad gauge) (1996 est.)

Highways:
total: 23,000 to 30,000 km
paved : 1,725 km
unpaved: 21,275 to 28,275 km (1990 est.)

Waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only

Pipelines: crude oil 37 km

Ports and harbors: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung), Kimch'aek,
Kosong, Najin, Namp'o, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi),
Ungsang, Wonsan

Merchant marine:
total : 99 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 641,090 GRT/899,243 DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 83, combination bulk 1, oil tanker 2,
passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, short-sea passenger 2
note: North Korea owns an additional 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 58,435 DWT operating under the registries of Cambodia,
Honduras, and Poland (1996 est.)

Airports: 49 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 6 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Korean People's Army (includes Army, Navy, Air
Force), Civil Security Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 6,928,338 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 4,188,070 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 200,136 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5 billion to $7 billion (1995
est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 25% (1995 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of boundary with China is
indefinite; Demarcation Line with South Korea
______________________________________________________________________

KOREA, SOUTH

@Korea, South:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula
bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea, south of North Korea

Geographic coordinates: 37 00 N, 127 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 98,480 sq km
land: 98,190 sq km
water: 290 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 238 km
border countries: North Korea 238 km

Coastline: 2,413 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf : not specified
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm; 3 nm in the Korea Strait

Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
highest point : Halla-san 1,950 m

Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops : 2%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 65%
other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods;
earthquakes in southwest

Environment - current issues: air pollution in large cities; water
pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; drift
net fishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Korea, South:People

Population: 45,948,811 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 5,515,667; female 4,925,479)
15-64 years: 71% (male 16,579,117; female 16,096,684)
65 years and over : 6% (male 1,067,663; female 1,764,201) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 16.17 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.14 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.6 years
male : 70.01 years
female: 77.69 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean

Ethnic groups: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)

Religions: Christianity 49%, Buddhism 47%, Confucianism 3%, pervasive
folk religion (shamanism), Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way),
and other 1%

Languages: Korean, English widely taught in high school

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99.3%
female: 96.7% (1995 est.)

@Korea, South:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Korea
conventional short form: South Korea
local long form: Taehan-min'guk
local short form: none
note : the South Koreans generally use the term "Hanguk" to refer to
their country
abbreviation: ROK

Data code: KS

Government type: republic

National capital: Seoul

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 6
special cities* (gwangyoksi, singular and plural); Cheju-do,
Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo,
Inch'on-gwangyoksi*, Kangwon-do, Kwangju-gwangyoksi*, Kyonggi-do,
Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-namdo, Pusan-gwangyoksi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*,
Taegu-gwangyoksi*, Taejon-gwangyoksi*

Independence: 15 August 1948

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1948)

Constitution: 25 February 1988

Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law
systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President KIM Yong-sam (since 25 February 1993)
head of government : Prime Minister KO Kon (since 4 March 1997);
Deputy Prime Ministers KANG Kyong-sik (since 5 March 1997) and KWON
O-ki (since 20 December 1995)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime
minister's recommendation
elections: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year
term; election last held 18 December 1992 (next to be held 18 December
1997); prime minister appointed by the president; deputy prime
ministers appointed by the president on the prime minister's
recommendation
election results: KIM Yong-sam elected president; percent of vote -
KIM Yong-sam (DLP) 41.9%, KIM Tae-chung (DP) 33.8%, CHONG Chu-yong
(UPP) 16.3%, other 8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Kukhoe (299 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 11 April 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NKP
139, NCNP 79, ULD 50, DP 15, independents 16; note - the distribution
of seats as of December 1996 was NKP 155, NCNP 78, ULD 47, DP 12,
independents 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed by the
president subject to the consent of the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders:
majority party : New Korea Party (NKP), KIM Yong-sam, president
opposition: United Liberal Democratic Party (ULD), KIM Chong-pil,
president; Democratic Party (DP), YI Ki-taek, chairman; National
Congress for New Politics (NCNP), KIM Tae-chung, president

Political pressure groups and leaders: Korean National Council of
Churches; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation
of Student Associations; National Federation of Farmers' Associations;
National Council of Labor Unions; Federation of Korean Trade Unions;
Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean Industries; Korean
Traders Association; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS
(pending member), CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, OAS (observer), OECD,
OSCE (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAVEM III,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador PAK Kun-u
chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San
Francisco, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
embassy: 82 Sejong-Ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul
mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 15550, APO AP 96205-0001
telephone : [82] (2) 397-4114
FAX: [82] (2) 738-8845
consulate(s): Pusan

Flag description: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in
the center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I
Ching (Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field

Economy

Economy - overview: As one of the Four Dragons of East Asia, South
Korea has achieved an incredible record of growth. Three decades ago
its GDP per capita was comparable with levels in the poorer countries
of Africa and Asia. Today its GDP per capita is eight times India's,
15 times North Korea's, and already up with the lesser economies of
the European Union. This success has been achieved by a unique system
of guidance by an authoritarian government of what is essentially an
entrepreneurial process. The government has sponsored large-scale
adoption of technology and management from Japan and other modern
nations; has successfully pushed the development of export industries
while encouraging the import of machinery and materials at the expense
of consumer goods; and has pushed its labor force to a work effort
seldom matched anywhere even in wartime. Real GDP grew by an average
10% in 1986-91, then paused to a "mere" 5% in 1992-93, moved back up
to 8% in 1994 and 9% in 1995, and about 7% in 1996. With a much higher
standard of living and with a considerable easing of authoritarian
controls, the work pace has softened. Growth rates will probably slow
down over the medium term.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $647.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $14,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 45%
services: 47% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 20 million
by occupation: services and other 52%, mining and manufacturing 27%,
agriculture, fishing, forestry 21% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 1.9% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $69 billion
expenditures : $67 billion, including capital expenditures of $17
billion (1995 est.)

Industries: electronics, automobile production, chemicals,
shipbuilding, steel, textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 11.9% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 31.67 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 155.89 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,563 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, root crops, barley, vegetables, fruit;
cattle, pigs, chickens, milk, eggs; fish catch of 2.9 million metric
tons, seventh largest in world

Exports:
total value : $130.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: electronic and electrical equipment, machinery, steel,
automobiles, ships; textiles, clothing, footwear; fish
partners: US 17%, EU 13%, Japan 12%

Imports:
total value: $150.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities : machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil,
steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains
partners: US 22%, Japan 21%, EU 13%

Debt - external: $93 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chun (theoretical)

Exchange rates: South Korean won (W) per US$1 - 849.88 (January 1997),
804.45 (1996), 771.27 (1995), 803.45 (1994), 802.67 (1993), 780.65
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Korea, South:Communications

Telephones: 16.6 million (1993)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international services
domestic: NA
international: fiber-optic submarine cable to China; satellite earth
stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 79, FM 46, shortwave 0

Radios: 42 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 256 (57 of which are 1 kW or greater)
(1987 est.)

Televisions: 9.3 million (1992 est.)

@Korea, South:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,081 km
standard gauge : 3,081 km 1.435-m gauge (560 km electrified) (1996
est.)

Highways:
total: 74,235 km
paved: 56,419 km (including 1,824 km of expressways)
unpaved: 17,816 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft

Pipelines: petroleum products 455 km; note - additionally, there is a
parallel petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) pipeline being
completed

Ports and harbors: Chinhae, Inch'on, Kunsan, Masan, Mokp'o, P'ohang,
Pusan, Ulsan, Yosu

Merchant marine:
total: 461 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,634,127 GRT/10,343,557
DWT
ships by type: bulk 123, cargo 124, chemical tanker 27, combination
bulk 3, combination ore/oil 1, container 71, liquefied gas tanker 13,
multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 68, refrigerated cargo
17, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier 11
note: South Korea owns an additional 254 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 12,744,507 DWT operating under the registries of Cyprus,
Liberia, Malta, Panama, Singapore, and Thailand (1996 est.)

Airports: 103 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 101
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 53 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 199 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, National
Maritime Police (Coast Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 13,730,520 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 8,775,136 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 397,167 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $17.4 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.3% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt
Rocks claimed by Japan
______________________________________________________________________

KUWAIT

@Kuwait:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and
Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 29 30 N, 45 45 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total : 17,820 sq km
land: 17,820 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 464 km
border countries: Iraq 242 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km

Coastline: 499 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point : unnamed location 306 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 8%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April,
they bring inordinate amounts of rain which can damage roads and
houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year, but are
most common between March and August

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities
provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

@Kuwait:People

Population: 1,834,269 (July 1997 est.)
note: includes 1,381,063 non-nationals (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 333,251; female 272,206)
15-64 years : 65% (male 772,612; female 421,205)
65 years and over: 2% (male 21,028; female 13,967) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.34% (1997 est.)
note : this rate reflects the continued post-Gulf crisis return of
expatriates

Birth rate: 21.54 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 2.28 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 24.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.22 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.83 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.51 male(s)/female
total population : 1.59 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.44 years
male: 74.43 years
female: 78.56 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.54 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kuwaiti(s)
adjective: Kuwaiti

Ethnic groups: Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian
4%, other 7%

Religions: Muslim 85% (Shi'a 30%, Sunni 45%, other 10%), Christian,
Hindu, Parsi, and other 15%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely spoken

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.6%
male : 82.2%
female: 74.9% (1995 est.)

@Kuwait:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : State of Kuwait
conventional short form: Kuwait
local long form: Dawlat al Kuwayt
local short form: Al Kuwayt

Data code: KU

Government type: nominal constitutional monarchy

National capital: Kuwait

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al Jahrah, Al Kuwayt, Hawalli, Al Farwaniyah

Independence: 19 June 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 25 February (1950)

Constitution: approved and promulgated 11 November 1962

Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in
personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: adult males who have been naturalized for 30 years or more
or have resided in Kuwait since before 1920 and their male descendants
at age 21
note: only 10% of all citizens are eligible to vote; in 1996,
naturalized citizens who do not meet the pre-1920 qualification but
have been naturalized for 30 years were eligible to vote for the first
time

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 31
December 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister and Crown Prince SAAD al-Abdallah
al-Salim Al Sabah (since 8 February 1978); First Deputy Prime Minister
SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 17 October 1992); Second
Deputy Prime Minister SALIM al-Sabah al-Salim Al Sabah (since 7
October 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister and
approved by the amir
elections: none; the amir is a hereditary monarch of the MUBARAK line
of the ruling Sabah family; prime minister and deputy prime ministers
appointed by the amir

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Umma (50
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 7 October 1996 (next to be held NA October 2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 50; note
- all cabinet ministers are also ex officio members of the National
Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: several political groups act as
de facto parties: Bedouins, merchants, Sunni and Shi'a activists, and
secular leftists and nationalists

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
BDEAC, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim Al SABAH
chancery: 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-0702
FAX : [1] (202) 966-0517

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER
embassy: Bneid al-Gar (opposite the Kuwait International Hotel),
Kuwait City
mailing address: P.O. Box 77, SAFAT, 13001 SAFAT, Kuwait; Unit 6900,
APO AE 09880-9000
telephone: [965] 539-5307 or 539-5308
FAX: [965] 538-0282

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red with a black trapezoid based on the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: Kuwait is a small and relatively open economy with
proved crude oil reserves of about 94 billion barrels - 10% of world
reserves. Kuwait has rebuilt its war-ravaged petroleum sector; its
crude oil production averaged 2 million barrels per day in 1996.
Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP, 90% of export revenues, and
75% of government income. Kuwait lacks water and has practically no
arable land, thus preventing development of agriculture. With the
exception of fish, it depends almost wholly on food imports. About 75%
of potable water must be distilled or imported. Because of its high
per capita income, comparable with Western European incomes, Kuwait
provides its citizens with extensive health, educational, and
retirement benefits. The bulk of the work force is non-Kuwaiti, living
at a considerably lower level. Per capita military expenditures are
among the highest in the world. The economy improved moderately in
1994-96, with the growth in industry and finance. The World Bank has
urged Kuwait to push ahead with privatization, including in the oil
industry, but the government will move slowly on opening the petroleum
sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $32.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 0%
industry : 42%
services: 58% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1 million (1994 est.)
by occupation: industry and agriculture 25%, services 25%, government
and social services 50% (1994 est.)
note: 72.07% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.8% (official 1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10 billion
expenditures : $14 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing,
construction materials, salt, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 6.99 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 21.76 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 12,793 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: practically no crops; extensive fishing in
territorial waters

Exports:
total value: $13.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : oil
partners: Japan 23%, India 16%, US 12%, Singapore 10%, Netherlands 10%
(1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: food, construction materials, vehicles and parts,
clothing
partners : US 24%, UK 14%, France 13%, Japan 10%, Germany 8% (1995
est.)

Debt - external: $8 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1 - 0.3010 (January 1997),
0.2994 (1996), 0.2984 (1995), 0.2976 (1994), 0.3017 (1993)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Kuwait:Communications

Telephones: 548,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: the civil network suffered some damage as a result
of the Gulf war, but most of the telephone exchanges were left intact
and, by the end of 1994, domestic and international telecommunications
had been restored to normal operation; the quality of service is
excellent
domestic: new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new
subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay,
coaxial cable, open wire and fiber-optic cable; a cellular telephone
system operates throughout Kuwait and the country is well supplied
with pay telephones
international: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi
Arabia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 2
Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 720,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 800,000 (1993 est.)

@Kuwait:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 4,360 km
paved: 3,510 km
unpaved : 850 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 877 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 165
km

Ports and harbors: Ash Shu'aybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Kuwait, Mina' 'Abd
Allah, Mina' al Ahmadi, Mina' Su'ud

Merchant marine:
total: 46 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,053,667 GRT/3,246,597
DWT
ships by type: cargo 10, container 3, liquefied gas tanker 7,
livestock carrier 4, oil tanker 21, vehicle carrier 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m : 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, Ministry of
Interior Forces, Coast Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 663,032 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 393,541 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 18,340 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.5 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 12.8% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: in November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the
UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been spelled out in
Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993), and 883 (1993);
this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and Warbah
islands; ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim islands disputed by
Saudi Arabia
______________________________________________________________________

KYRGYZSTAN

@Kyrgyzstan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 75 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 198,500 sq km
land: 191,300 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries:
total: 3,878 km
border countries: China 858 km, Kazakstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,099 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in
southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins
encompass entire nation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Kara-Daryya 132 m
highest point : Jengish Chokusu 7,439 m

Natural resources: abundant hydroelectric potential; significant
deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil,
and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead,
and zinc

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 44%
forests and woodland : 4%
other: 45% (1993 est.)
note : Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural growth walnut forest

Irrigated land: 9,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution; many people get their
water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result,
water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from
faulty irrigation practices

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Kyrgyzstan:People

Population: 4,512,809 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 829,888; female 812,056)
15-64 years: 58% (male 1,271,390; female 1,321,774)
65 years and over: 6% (male 101,616; female 176,085) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.05% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 22.27 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.59 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -13.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.97 years
male : 59.65 years
female: 68.49 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.73 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Ethnic groups: Kirghiz 52.4%, Russian 18%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian
2.5%, German 2.4%, other 11.8%

Religions: Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%

Languages: Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian - official
language
note: in March 1996, the Kyrgyzstani legislature amended the
constitution to make Russian an official language, along with Kirghiz,
in territories and work places where Russian-speaking citizens
predominate

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male : 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Kyrgyzstan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: none
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: KG

Government type: republic

National capital: Bishkek

Administrative divisions: 6 oblasttar (singular - oblast) and 1 city*
(singular - shaar); Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek),
Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty,
Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December; Independence Day, 31
August (1991)

Constitution: adopted 5 May 1993
note : amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national
referendum on 10 February 1996 significantly expands the powers of the
president at the expense of the legislature

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Apas JUMAGULOV (since NA December
1993)
cabinet : Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
elections last held 24 December 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results : Askar AKAYEV elected president; percent of vote -
Askar AKAYEV 75%; note - elections were held early which gave the two
opposition candidates little time to campaign; AKAYEV may have
orchestrated the "deregistration" of two other candidates, one of whom
was a major rival

Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Council or Zhogorku Kenesh
consists of the Assembly of People's Representatives (70 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the
Legislative Assembly (35 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: Assembly of People's Representatives - last held 5 February
1995 (next to be held NA 2000); Legislative Assembly - last held 5
February 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results : Assembly of People's Representatives - percent of
vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - not all of the 70
seats were filled at the 5 February 1995 elections; as a result,
run-off elections were held at later dates; the assembly meets twice
yearly; Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - NA; note - not all of the 35 seats were filled at the 5
February 1995 elections; as a result, run-off elections were held
note: the legislature became bicameral for the 5 February 1995
elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed for a 10-year
term by the Zhogorku Kenesh on recommendation of the president;
Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party or SDP;
Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV, chairman];
National Unity; Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan or PCK [Absamat
MASALIYEV, chairman]; Democratic Movement of Free Kyrgyzstan or ErK;
Republican Popular Party of Kyrgyzstan; Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan;
Ata Meken Party [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; ASABA [Chaprashty BAZARBAY];
Movement for the People's Salvation [Djumgalbek AMAMBAYEV]; Ashar
[Zhumagazy USUPOV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Unity Democratic
Movement; Peasant Party; Council of Free Trade Unions; Union of
Entrepreneurs; Agrarian Party; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights
[Ramazan DYRYIDAYEV]

International organization participation: AsDB, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO,
ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bakytbek ABDRISAYEV
chancery: 1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 338-5141
FAX : [1] (202) 338-5139

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eileen A. MALLOY
embassy: Erkindik Prospekt #66, Bishkek 720002
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3312) 22-26-93, 22-32-89
FAX: [7] (3312) 22-35-51

Flag description: red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40
rays representing the 40 Kirghiz tribes; on the obverse side the rays
run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the
sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized
representation of the roof of the traditional Kirghiz yurt

Economy

Economy - overview: Kyrgyzstan is a small, poor, mountainous country
with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, wool, and meat are
the main agricultural products and exports. Industrial exports
included gold, mercury, uranium, and hydropower. Kyrgyzstan has been
one of the most progressive countries of the former Soviet Union in
carrying out market reforms. Following a successful stabilization
program, which lowered inflation from 88% in 1994 to 32% for 1996,
attention is turning toward stimulating growth. Much of the
government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production
have been severe since the break up of the Soviet Union in December
1991, but by mid-1995 production began to recover and exports began to
increase. Pensioners, unemployed workers, and government workers with
salaries arrears continue to suffer. Foreign assistance plays a
substantial role in the country's budget. In 1996 the economy showed
strong signs that recovery was underway.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.8 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,290 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 35%
industry : 28%
services: 37% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 32% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.7 million
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 40%, industry and construction
19%, other 41% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% includes officially registered unemployed;
7.8% by ILO methodology (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes,
sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth
metals

Industrial production growth rate: 10.8% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.63 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 13.7 billion kWh (1996 est.)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,912 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wool, tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables,
grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle

Exports:
total value : $506 million (1996)
commodities: cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium,
hydropower; machinery; shoes
partners: China, UK, FSU

Imports:
total value: $890 million (1996)
commodities: grain, lumber, industrial products, ferrous metals, fuel,
machinery, textiles, footwear
partners: US, China, FSU

Debt - external: $584 million (of which $115 million to Russia) (1995
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $56 million (1993)
note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,695 million ($390 million
disbursements)

Currency: 1 Kyrgyzstani som (KGS) = 100 tyiyn

Exchange rates: soms (KGS) per US$1 - 14.6 (January 1997), 11.2
(yearend 1995), 10.6 (yearend 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Kyrgyzstan:Communications

Telephones: 342,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied
applications for household telephones
domestic: principally microwave radio relay
international: connections with other CIS countries by landline or
microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections
with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite
earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-run radio broadcast station

Radios: 825,000 (radio receiver systems with multiple speakers for
program diffusion 748,000)

Television broadcast stations: 1
note : receives Turkish broadcasts

Televisions: 875,000

@Kyrgyzstan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 370 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 370 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 18,560 km
paved: 16,890 km (including 140 km of expressways)
unpaved : 1,670 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 600 km (1990)

Pipelines: natural gas 200 km

Ports and harbors: Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)

Airports: 54 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 40
1,524 to 2,437 m : 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 32 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and
border troops), Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,109,139 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 900,105 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 44,447 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 151 million soms (1995); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial dispute with Tajikistan on
southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy,
mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia
and Western Europe from Southwest Asia
______________________________________________________________________

LAOS

@Laos:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, northeast of Thailand

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