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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 23 out of 47

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international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region), and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); submarine cables to
China, Philippines, Russia, and US (via Guam)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 318, FM 58, shortwave 0

Radios: 97 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 12,350 (1 kW or greater 196)

Televisions: 100 million (1993 est.)

@Japan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 23,670.7 km
standard gauge : 2,893.1 km 1.435-m gauge (entirely electrified)
narrow gauge: 89.8 km 1.372-m gauge (89.8 km electrified); 20,656.8 km
1.067-m gauge (10,383.6 km electrified); 31 km 0.762-m gauge (3.6 km
electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total: 1,144,360 km
paved : 846,826 km (including 5,860 km of expressways)
unpaved: 297,534 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas
1,800 km

Ports and harbors: Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate,
Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro,
Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo,
Tomakomai

Merchant marine:
total: 773 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,026,322
GRT/21,941,516 DWT
ships by type: bulk 178, cargo 56, chemical tanker 7, combination bulk
6, combination ore/oil 6, container 38, liquefied gas tanker 39, oil
tanker 254, passenger 8, passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 38,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 43, short-sea passenger 23, specialized tanker
2, vehicle carrier 73
note: Japan owns an additional 1,579 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 54,474,380 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas,
Burma, Cayman Islands, Hong Kong, Honduras, South Korea, Kuwait,
Liberia, Malta, Malaysia, Panama, Philippines, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Singapore, Thailand, US, and Vanuatu (1996 est.)

Airports: 164 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 162
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 35
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 60 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 12 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan
Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air
Force)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 31,549,081 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 27,107,305 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 835,296 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $48.5 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY96/97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and
the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now
administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed
with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and
Taiwan
______________________________________________________________________

JARVIS ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Jarvis Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Hawaii to the Cook Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 22 S, 160 03 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total : 4.5 sq km
land: 4.5 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 23 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for
seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

@Jarvis Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: Millersville settlement on western side of island occasionally
used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it was
abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical
Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use
permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

@Jarvis Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jarvis Island

Data code: DQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered by
the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as
part of the National Wildlife Refuge System

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Jarvis Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one
boat landing area in the middle of the west coast and another near the
southwest corner of the island

Transportation - note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the
west coast

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

JERSEY

(British crown dependency)

@Jersey:Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of
France

Geographic coordinates: 49 15 N, 2 10 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 117 sq km
land: 117 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 70 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 143 m

Natural resources: agricultural land

Land use:
arable land : 57%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 43%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about
30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

@Jersey:People

Population: 88,510 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 18% (male 7,995; female 7,435)
15-64 years: 68% (male 30,009; female 30,523)
65 years and over: 14% (male 5,170; female 7,378) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.73% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.64 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.17 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.11 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population : 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 78.51 years
male: 75.78 years
female: 81.55 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Channel Islander(s)
adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups: UK and Norman-French descent

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New
Church, Methodist, Presbyterian

Languages: English (official), French (official), Norman-French
dialect spoken in country districts

Literacy: NA

@Jersey:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
conventional short form : Jersey

Data code: JE

Dependency status: British crown dependency

Government type: NA

National capital: Saint Helier

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief Sir
Michael WILKES (since NA 1995) and Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE
(since NA 1995)
cabinet : committees appointed by the Assembly of the States
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; lieutenant
governor and bailiff appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States (57 seats, 53
elected including 12 senators popularly elected for six-year terms,
half retiring every third year, 12 constables popularly elected
triennially, and 29 deputies popularly elected triennially)
elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 52

Judicial branch: Royal Court, judges elected by an electoral college
and the bailiff

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)

Flag description: white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick
(patron saint of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based largely on financial
services, agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes,
and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to
the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and
represents an important export earner. Milk products go to the UK and
other EU countries. In 1986 the finance sector overtook tourism as the
main contributor to GDP, accounting for 40% of the island's output. In
recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate
in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed
alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material
and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of
Jersey's food needs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry : NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $643.7 million
expenditures: $597.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 50,000 kW standby
note: electricity supplied by France

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by France

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; meat, dairy
products

Exports: $NA
commodities: light industrial and electrical goods, foodstuffs,
textiles
partners: UK

Imports: $NA
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals
partners: UK

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Jersey pound (J) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (J) per US$1 - 0.6023 (January 1997),
0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664
(1992); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Jersey:Communications

Telephones: 61,447 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : 3 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Jersey:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved : NA km

Ports and harbors: Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

JOHNSTON ATOLL

(territory of the US)

@Johnston Atoll:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third
of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 169 30 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 2.8 sq km
land: 2.8 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 10 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds
with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Summit Peak 5 m

Natural resources: NA; guano deposits worked until depletion about
1890; none remains in 1997

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean;
Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been
expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island
(Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; closed to the
public; former nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll
Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation

@Johnston Atoll:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are 1,200 US military and civilian contractor personnel
(January 1997 est.)

@Johnston Atoll:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Johnston Atoll

Data code: JQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered by
the US Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA
and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior
as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

National capital: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services
to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity - capacity: NA kW
note : electricity supplied by the base operating support contractor

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by the base operating support contractor

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

@Johnston Atoll:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: 52 telephone lines; excellent system
domestic: 60-channel submarine cable, 22 DSN circuits by satellite,
Autodin with standard remote terminal, digital telephone switch,
Military Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), UHF/VHF air-ground
radio, a link to the Pacific Consolidated Telecommunications Network
(PCTN) satellite
international : NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 5 channels, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: commercial satellite television system,
16 channels

Televisions: NA

@Johnston Atoll:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Johnston Island

Airports: 1

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

JORDAN

@Jordan:Geography

Location: Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 89,213 sq km
land: 88,884 sq km
water: 329 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,619 km
border countries : Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 728 km,
Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline: 26 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great
Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Jabal Ram 1,754 m

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures : 9%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 85% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 630 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Jordan:People

Population: 4,324,638 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 968,833; female 921,158)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,188,248; female 1,125,527)
65 years and over : 3% (male 60,876; female 59,996) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.6% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 35.95 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 3.88 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.69 years
male: 70.81 years
female: 74.68 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.94 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Jordanian(s)
adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper
and middle classes

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.6%
male : 93.4%
female: 79.4% (1995 est.)

@Jordan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form: Al Urdun
former: Transjordan

Data code: JO

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Amman

Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az
Zarqa', Irbid, Ma'an

Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution: 8 January 1952

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review
of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HUSSEIN bin Talal Al-Hashimi (since 2 May 1953)
head of government : Prime Minister Abd al-Salam al-MAJALI (since 19
March 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with
the king
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
appointed by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma
consists of the House of Notables or Majlis al-A'ayan (a 40-member
body appointed by the king from designated categories of public
figures; members serve four-year terms) and the House of
Representatives (80 seats; members elected by popular vote on the
basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 8 November 1993 (next
to be held NA November 1997
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - IAF 16, Jordanian National Alliance Party 4,
Al-Yaqazah Party 2, Al-Watan Party 2, Al-'Ahd Party 2, Jordanian Arab
Democratic Party 2, Al-Mustaqbal Party 1, Jordanian Arab Socialist
Ba'th Party 1, Jordanian Democratic Progressive Party 1, Jordanian
People's Democratic Party-Hashd 1, Jordanian Socialist Democratic
Party 1, independents 47
note : the House of Representatives has been convened and dissolved by
the king several times since 1974; in November 1989 the first
parliamentary elections in 22 years were held

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Al-Ahrar (Liberals) Party, Ahmad
al-ZU'BI, secretary general; Al-Taqaddumi (Progressive) Party, Fawwaz
al-ZUBI, secretary general; Constitutional Jordanian Arab Front Party,
Milhim al-TALL, leader; Democratic Arab Islamic Movement Party-Du'a',
Yusuf ABU BAKR, secretary general; Islamic Action Front (IAF), Ishaq
al-FARHAN, secretary general; Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'th Party,
Taysir al-HIMSI, command first secretary; Jordanian Communist Party
(JCP), Ya'qub ZAYADIN, secretary general; Jordanian Democratic Popular
Unity Party, 'Azmi al-KHAWAJA, secretary general; Jordanian People's
Democratic Party-Hashd, Salim al-NAHHAS, secretary general; Jordanian
Unionist Democratic Party, 'Isa MADANAT (secretary general), Ali AMIR
(secretary general), Munis al-RAZZAZ (secretary general); Pan-Arab
Action Front Party, Muhammad al-ZU'BI, secretary general; Progressive
Arab Ba'th Party, Mahmud al-MA'AYITAH, command secretary; Al-Mustaqbal
(Future) Party, Sulayman 'ARAR, secretary general; Jordanian Arab
Partisans Party, Muhammad al-MAJALI, leader, Muhammad al-SHURAYDAH,
secretary general; Jordanian Peace Party, leader NA; Ansar Party,
leader NA; Ummah Party, leader NA; Arab Land Party, leader NA
note: in 1995, the Jordanian Arab Democratic Party, the Jordanian
Democratic Progressive Party, and the Jordanian Socialist Democratic
Party merged to form the Jordanian Unionist Democratic Party, Isa
MADANAT, Ali AMIR, Munis al-RAZZAZ, secretaries general; in May 1997
the following parties - Al-'Ahd (Pledge) Party, 'Abd al-Hadi
al-MAJALI, secretary general; Al-Watan (Homeland) Party, 'Akif
al-FAYIZ, leader; Al-Yaqazah (Awakening) Party, 'Abd al-Ra'uf
al-RAWABIDAH, secretary general; Democratic Arab Unionist Party-Wa'd,
Anis al-MU'ASHIR, secretary general; Jordanian Arab Masses Party, 'Abd
al-Khaliq SHATAT, secretary general; Jordanian National Alliance
Party, Mijhim al-KHURAYSHAH, secretary general; Popular Unity
Party-the Unionists, Mustafa AL-'ISAWI, secretary general; and the
Progress and Justice Party, 'Ali al-SA'D, secretary general - merged
to form the National Constitutional Party, 'Abd al Hadi AL-MAJALI,
secretary general

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFCTU, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM III,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTAES,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Fayez A. TARAWNEH
chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 966-2664
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wesley W. EGAN, Jr.
embassy: Jabel Amman, Amman
mailing address : P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; APO AE 09892-0200
telephone: [962] (6) 820101
FAX: [962] (6) 820159

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white,
and green with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a small white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star
represent the seven fundamental laws of the Koran

Economy

Economy - overview: Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate
supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil and coal.
Jordan benefited from increased Arab aid during the oil boom of the
late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual real GNP growth averaged
more than 10%. In the remainder of the 1980s, however, reductions in
both Arab aid and worker remittances slowed real economic growth to an
average of roughly 2% per year. Imports - mainly oil, capital goods,
consumer durables, and food - outstripped exports, with the difference
covered by aid, remittances, and borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian
Government began debt-rescheduling negotiations and agreed to
implement an IMF-supported program designed to gradually reduce the
budget deficit and implement badly needed structural reforms. The
Persian Gulf crisis that began in August 1990, however, aggravated
Jordan's already serious economic problems, forcing the government to
shelve the IMF program, stop most debt payments, and suspend
rescheduling negotiations. Aid from Gulf Arab states, worker
remittances, and trade contracted; and refugees flooded the country,
producing serious balance-of-payments problems, stunting GDP growth,
and straining government resources. The economy rebounded in 1992,
largely due to the influx of capital repatriated by workers returning
from the Gulf, but the recovery was uneven in 1994-96. The government
is implementing the reform program adopted in 1992 and continues to
secure rescheduling and write-offs of its heavy foreign debt. Debt,
poverty, and unemployment remain Jordan's biggest on-going problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 28%
services : 66% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 600,000 (1992)
by occupation: industry 11.4%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels
10.5%, construction 10.0%, transport and communications 8.7%,
agriculture 7.4%, other services 52.0% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $2.7 billion
expenditures: $2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $630
million (1997 est.)

Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 1.07 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 4.76 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,173 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, citrus, tomatoes, melons,
olives; sheep, goats, poultry

Exports:
total value : $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products,
manufactures
partners: India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, EU, Indonesia, UAE

Imports:
total value: $4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities : crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, food, live
animals, manufactured goods
partners: EU, US, Iraq, Japan, Turkey

Debt - external: $7.3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $238 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.7090 (January
1997), 0.7090 (1996), 0.7005 (1995), 0.6987 (1994), 0.6928 (1993),
0.6797 (1992)
note: since May 1989, the dinar has been pegged to a basket of
currencies

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Jordan:Communications

Telephones: 81,500 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: adequate telephone system
domestic : microwave radio relay, cable, and radiotelephone links
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio
relay to Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria; microwave radio relay to
Lebanon is inactive; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 and 1 TV receive-only satellite link

Televisions: 350,000 (1992 est.)

@Jordan:Transportation

Railways:
total : 676 km
narrow gauge: 676 km 1.050-m gauge; note - an additional 110 km
stretch of the old Hejaz railroad is out of use

Highways:
total: 6,750 km
paved: 6,750 km
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 209 km

Ports and harbors: Al 'Aqabah

Merchant marine:
total: 3 bulk ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,651 GRT/67,515 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal
Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air
Force); Ministry of the Interior's Public Security Force (falls under
JAF only in wartime or crisis situations)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,043,324 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 743,712 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 46,760 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $589 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8.2% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Juan de Nova Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-third of the way between Madagascar and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 S, 42 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 4.4 sq km
land : 4.4 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about seven times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth the of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 10 m

Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 90%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: wildlife sanctuary

@Juan de Nova Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Juan de Nova Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Juan de Nova Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Juan de Nova

Data code: JU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Juan de Nova Island:Transportation

Railways:
total: NA km; short line going to a jetty

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar
______________________________________________________________________

KAZAKSTAN

@Kazakstan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

Geographic coordinates: 48 00 N, 68 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total : 2,717,300 sq km
land: 2,669,800 sq km
water: 47,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 12,012 km
border countries: China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846
km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Kazakstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea
(1,894 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the
plains in western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
highest point: Zhengis Shingy 7,439 m

Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal,
iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum,
lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 11%
permanent pastures: 57%
forests and woodland : 4%
other: 16% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 22,000 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes in the south, mudslides around Almaty

Environment - current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites
associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are
found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and
animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the
two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for
irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of
chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then
picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in
the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals
and salinization from faulty irrigation practices

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: landlocked

@Kazakstan:People

Population: 16,881,793 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 30% (male 2,536,307; female 2,462,742)
15-64 years: 63% (male 5,219,618; female 5,480,693)
65 years and over: 7% (male 392,374; female 790,059) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.24% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.36 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.97 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.5 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 57.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 63.79 years
male: 58.32 years
female : 69.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.14 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kazakstani(s)
adjective: Kazakstani

Ethnic groups: Kazak (Qazaq) 46%, Russian 34.7%, Ukrainian 4.9%,
German 3.1%, Uzbek 2.3%, Tatar 1.9%, other 7.1% (1996)

Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Languages: Kazak (Qazaq) official language spoken by over 40% of
population, Russian official language spoken by two-thirds of
population and used in everyday business

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Kazakstan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kazakstan
conventional short form: Kazakstan
local long form : Qazaqstan Respublikasy
local short form: none
former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: KZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Almaty (according to a September 1995 presidential
decree, the capital is to be moved to Aqmola)

Administrative divisions: 16 oblystar (singular - oblys) and 1 city
(qalalar, singular - qala)*; Almaty Qalasy*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola
Oblysy, Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral),
Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent),
Pavlodar Oblysy, Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy,
Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk),
Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavl), Taldyqorghan Oblysy, Torghay
Oblysy, Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz)
note: on 3 May 1997, President NAZARBAYEV that the total number of
oblasts would be reduced to 14; administrative divisions have the same
names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the
administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 October (1991); Republic Day,
16 December (1991)

Constitution: adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first
post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the
Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990-91, president since 1 December
1991); State Secretary Abish KEKILDAYEV (since 30 October 1996) is
second in rank to the president
head of government: Prime Minister Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN (since 12
October 1994) and First Deputy Prime Minister Akhmetzhan YESIMOV
(since 24 October 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 2000); note -
President NAZARBAYEV's term was extended to the year 2000 by a
nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995; state secretary (created by
presidential decree) is appointed by the president; prime minister and
first deputy prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV elected president without
opposition; percent of vote - NA
note: President NAZARBAYEV has expanded his presidential powers by
decree: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and
dismiss the government, dissolve parliament, call referenda at his
discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47
seats; 7 senators are appointed by the president; other members are
popularly elected, two each from each oblast and Almaty, to serve
four-year terms) and the Majilis (67 seats; members are popularly
elected to serve four-year terms); note - with the oblasts being
reduced to 14, the Senate will eventually be reduced to 37
elections: Senate - (indirect) last held 5 December 1995 (next to be
held NA 1999); Majilis - last held 9 December and 23 December 1995
(next to be held NA 1999)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - party members 13, no party affiliation 34, of which
"independent" state officials 25, nominated by the president 7,
elected by popular vote 15; Majilis - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - party members 22, no party affiliation 45

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7
members)

Political parties and leaders: Alash National Freedom Party party
[Aron ATABEK]; People's Unity Party or PUP (was Union of People's
Unity) [Akhan BIZHANOV, chairman]; Democratic Party [Tulegen ZHUKEYEV
and Altynbek SARSENBAYEV, cochairmen]; People's Congress of Kazakstan
or NKK [Olzhas SULEYMENOV, chairman]; AZAMAT Movement [Petr SVOIK,
Murat AUEZOV, and Galym ABILSAITOV, cochairmen]; Communist Party or
KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN, first secretary]; National Democratic Party
[Kamal ORMANTAYEV, chairman]; AZAT party [Toleubek KARAMENDIN,
chairman]; Labor movement [Madel ISMAILOV, chairman]; Peasant Union of
the Republic Kazakstan or KPU; Republican People's Slavic
Movement-Harmony or Lad [Aleksander SAMARKIN, chairman]; Party for
Social Justice and Economic Revival "Tagibat"; Social Democratic Party
of Kazakstan or SDPK [Dos KUSHIMOV, cochairman]; People's Cooperative
Party [Umirzak SARSENOV, chairman]; Organization of Veterans;
Republican Party; Russian Center [Nina SIDOROVA, chairwoman]; Russian
Cossacks [Vladimir DESYATOV, head (ataman)]; Pensioners Movement or
Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Independent Trade Union Center
[Leonid SOLOMIN, president]; Kazakstani-American Bureau on Human
Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Democratic Committee on
Human Rights [Baretta YERGALIEVA, chairwoman]; Independent Miners
Union [Victor GAIPOV, president]; The Almaty-Helsinki Foundation for
Human Rights [Ninel FOKINA, chairwoman]; Legal Development of
Kazakstan [Vitaliy VORONOV, chairman]

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE,
ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bolat K. NURGALIYEV
chancery: (temporary) 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC
20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-4504 through 4507
FAX: [1] (202) 333-4509

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador A. Elizabeth JONES
embassy: 99/97 Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakstan 480012
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3272) 63-39-21, 50-76-23, 50-76-26
FAX : [7] (3272) 63-38-83

Flag description: sky blue background representing the endless sky and
a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the
center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow

Economy

Economy - overview: Kazakstan, the second largest of the former Soviet
states in territory, possesses enormous untapped fossil fuel reserves
as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also
has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands
accommodating both livestock and grain production. Kazakstan's
industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these
natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building
sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural
machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR and the
collapse of demand for Kazakstan's traditional heavy industry products
have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with
the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-96 the pace of
the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened,
resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector.
The December 1996 signing of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement
to build a new pipeline from Kazakstan's western Tengiz oil field to
the Black Sea increases prospects for substantially larger oil exports
in several years. The emigration of large numbers of skilled Slavic
managers and technicians from the northern industrial areas will hold
back future growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $48.6 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,880 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 30%
services : 58% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 28.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 6.9 million
by occupation: industry 27%, agriculture and forestry 23%, other 50%
(1996)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% includes only officially registered
unemployed; also large additional numbers of unemployed and
underemployed workers (December 1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures : $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc,
copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and
steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery,
electric motors, construction materials; much of industrial capacity
is shut down and/or is in need of repair

Industrial production growth rate: 0.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 17 million kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 58.9 billion kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,800 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, mostly spring wheat, cotton; wool, meat

Exports:
total value: $5.7 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain,
wool, meat, coal
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Netherlands, China

Imports:
total value : $6 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Germany

Debt - external: $3.5 billion (July 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $10 million (1993)
note: commitments, 1992-95, $4,780 million ($1,795 million
disbursements)

Currency: 1 Kazakstani tenge = 100 tiyn

Exchange rates: tenges per US$1 - 74.70 (January 1997), 67.30 (1996),
60.95 (1995), 35.54 (1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Kazakstan:Communications

Telephones: 2.2 million

Telephone system: service is poor
domestic: landline and microwave radio relay
international: international traffic with other former Soviet
republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and
with other countries by satellite and through 8 international
telecommunications circuits at the Moscow international gateway
switch; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and a new satellite
earth station established at Almaty of unknown type

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: 4.088 million (with multiple speakers for program diffusion
6.082 million)

Television broadcast stations: 1 broadcast station; Orbita (TV receive
only) earth station

Televisions: 4.75 million

@Kazakstan:Transportation

Railways:
total : 13,841 km in common carrier service; does not include
industrial lines
broad gauge: 13,841 km 1.520-m gauge (3,299 km electrified) (1992)

Highways:
total: 158,581 km
paved: NA km
unpaved : NA km (1994)
note: there are 87,572 km of public roads, maintained by governmental
highway maintenance organizations; the rest are privately maintained
by industrial organizations; of the total, 107,885 km are either paved
or otherwise surfaced for all-weather use

Waterways: 4,002 km on the Syrdariya River and Ertis River

Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas
3,480 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen
(Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)

Airports: 352 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 55
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m : 11
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 9 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 297
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m : 65
under 914 m: 190 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National
Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,416,061 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 3,526,153 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 154,520 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 18.9 billion tenges (1995);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet
determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: significant illicit cultivation of cannabis and limited
cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrone);
limited government eradication program; cannabis consumed largely in
the CIS; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia,
North America, and Western Europe from Southwest Asia
______________________________________________________________________

KENYA

@Kenya:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia
and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 582,650 sq km
land: 569,250 sq km
water: 13,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 3,446 km
border countries : Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km,
Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift
Valley; fertile plateau in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies,
fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 37%
forests and woodland : 30%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 660 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution from urban and
industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of
pesticides and fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Desertification

Geography - note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most
successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt.
Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of
scientific and economic value

@Kenya:People

Population: 28,803,085 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 44% (male 6,403,826; female 6,264,971)
15-64 years: 53% (male 7,682,401; female 7,696,504)
65 years and over: 3% (male 340,664; female 414,719) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.13% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 32.44 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.83 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 55.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.39 years
male : 54.21 years
female: 54.59 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.26 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba
11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian,
European, and Arab) 1%

Religions: Protestant (including Anglican) 38%, Roman Catholic 28%,
indigenous beliefs 26%, other 8%

Languages: English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous
languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 78.1%
male: 86.3%
female: 70% (1995 est.)

@Kenya:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form : Kenya
former: British East Africa

Data code: KE

Government type: republic

National capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued
with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1992

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic
law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982
making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October
1978); Vice President George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14
October 1978); Vice President George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote from among the members of
the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 29
December 1992 (next to be held by early 1998); vice president
appointed by the president
election results : President Daniel T. arap MOI reelected; percent of
vote - Daniel T. arap MOI 37%, Kenneth MATIBA (FORD-ASILI) 26%, Mwai
KIBAKI (DP) 19%, Oginga ODINGA (FORD-Kenya) 17%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (200 seats,
12 appointed by the president, 188 popularly elected members to serve
5-year terms)
elections: last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held between 1 April
1997 and 31 January 1998)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
KANU 100, FORD-Kenya 31, FORD-Asili 31, DP 23, smaller parties 3;
president nominates 12 additional members; note - as of 9 April 1996
seat distribution (among non-appointed seats) was: KANU 106,
FORD-Kenya 32, FORD-Asili 22, DP 22, smaller parties and vacancies 6
note : first multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law
in 1991

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, chief justice is appointed by the
president; High Court

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party : Kenya African National Union or KANU [President Daniel
Toroitich arap MOI]
opposition party: Forum for the Restoration of Democracy or FORD-Kenya
[Michael WAMALWA]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy or
FORD-Asili [Kenneth MATIBA]; Democratic Party of Kenya or DP [Mwai
KIBAKI]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic and other
Christian churches; unregistered SAFINA party with which prominent
naturalist Richard Leakey is associated; human rights groups; labor
unions

International organization participation: ACP, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM,
OAU, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOP, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Benjamin Edgar KIPKORIR
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX : [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Prudence B. BUSHNELL (17 July 1996)
embassy: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
mailing address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (2) 334141
FAX : [254] (2) 340838

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red,
and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield
covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center

Economy

Economy - overview: Since 1993, the government of Kenya has
implemented a program of economic liberalization and reform. Steps
have included the removal of import licensing and price controls,
removal of foreign exchange controls, fiscal and monetary restraint,
and reduction of the public sector through privatization of publicly
owned companies and downsizing the civil service. With the support of
the World Bank, IMF, and other donors, these reforms have led to a
turnaround in economic performance following a period of negative
growth in the early 1990s. Kenya's real GDP grew at 5% in 1995 and 4%
in 1996, and inflation remained under control. Substantial barriers to
growth and development remain, including electricity shortages, the
government's continued and inefficient dominance of key sectors,
endemic corruption, and the country's high population growth rate
(which has declined substantially in recent years).

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 29.7%
industry: 11.1%
services: 59.2% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8.78 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 75%-80%, non-agriculture 20%-25%

Unemployment rate: 35% urban (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.7 billion
expenditures : $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $620
million (FY95/96)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries,
textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), processing agricultural products;
oil refining, cement; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 810,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 3.48 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 125 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit,
vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

Exports:
total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: tea 35.7%, coffee 28.7%, petroleum products 8.6%
partners : Uganda 22.8%, UK 20.1%, Tanzania 19.1%, Germany 14.0%,
Netherlands 7.6%, US 6.1%

Imports:
total value: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 53%, petroleum and
petroleum products 23.7%, iron and steel 12.2%, raw materials, food
and consumer goods (1989)
partners : UK 21.3%, UAE 18%, Japan 14%, Germany, US

Debt - external: $7 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : multilateral $490 million; bilateral $433 million (1993
est.)

Currency: 1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 54.738 (January
1997), 57.115 (1996), 51.430 (1995), 56.051 (1994), 58.001 (1993),
32.217 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Kenya:Communications

Telephones: 357,251 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: in top group of African systems
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 260,000 (1993 est.)

@Kenya:Transportation

Railways:
total : 2,652 km
narrow gauge: 2,652 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 63,663 km
paved: 8,785 km
unpaved : 54,878 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya

Pipelines: petroleum products 483 km

Ports and harbors: Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa

Merchant marine:
total : 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,883 GRT/6,255 DWT
ships by type: oil tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 200 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 92
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 22
under 914 m: 63 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 108
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 95 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service
Unit of the Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 6,903,241 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,266,063 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $134 million (FY94/95)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.9% (FY94/95)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
coincide with international boundary

Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small, wild plots of marijuana
and qat (chat); transit country for South Asian heroin destined for
Europe and, sometimes, North America; Indian methaqualone also
transits on way to South Africa
______________________________________________________________________

KINGMAN REEF

(territory of the US)

@Kingman Reef:Geography

Location: Oceania, reef in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Geographic coordinates: 6 24 N, 162 24 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 1 sq km
land : 1 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

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