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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 21 out of 47

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ships by type: chemical tanker 1, container 1, oil tanker 1,
refrigerated cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 84 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 60
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 50 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 24
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 21 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no regular armed forces; Police, Coast Guard; note
- Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense
Force (IDF) headquartered at Keflavik

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 70,833 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 62,601 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: none

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Denmark, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
______________________________________________________________________

INDIA

@India:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 3,287,590 sq km
land: 2,973,190 sq km
water: 314,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 14,103 km
border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km,
China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain
along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron
ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas,
diamonds, petroleum, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 56%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures : 4%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 480,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
earthquakes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents
and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of
agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the
country; huge and rapidly growing population is overstraining natural
resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes

@India:People

Population: 966,783,171 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 173,420,822; female 163,433,648)
15-64 years: 61% (male 304,048,569; female 281,625,342)
65 years and over: 4% (male 22,536,104; female 21,718,686) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.72% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.19 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.87 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population : 1.07 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 65.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.41 years
male: 61.68 years
female: 63.18 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.29 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%

Religions: Hindu 80%, Muslim 14%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist
0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%

Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important
language for national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi
the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali
(official), Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official),
Urdu (official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada
(official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official),
Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official),
Hindustani a popular variant of Hindu/Urdu, is spoken widely
throughout northern India
note : 24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous
other languages and dialects, for the most part mutually
unintelligible

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 52%
male: 65.5%
female: 37.7% (1995 est.)

@India:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India

Data code: IN

Government type: federal republic

National capital: New Delhi

Administrative divisions: 25 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman
and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,
Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa,
Gujarat, Haryana, Himachel Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka,
Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim,
Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 26
January (1950)

Constitution: 26 January 1950

Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 25 July 1992);
Vice President Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 21 August 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister I.K. GUJRAL (since 21 April 1997)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of
elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of
the states for a five-year term; vice president elected by both houses
of Parliament; prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the
majority party following legislative elections
election results: Shankar Dayal SHARMA elected president; percent of
electoral college vote - NA; Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN elected vice
president; percent of Parliament vote - NA; I.K. GUJRAL elected prime
minister; percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the
Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than
250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the
remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and
territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's
Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2
appointed; members serve five-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held 27 April through May 1996
(next to be held NA 2001)
election results : People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - BJP and allies 194, Congress I Party 140, Janata Dal
Party 44, CPI/M 32, Tamil Maanila Congress 20, Dravida Munnetra
Kazagham 17, SP 17, Teluga Desam (Naidu) 16, CPI 11, RSP 5, Asom Gana
Parishad 5, Congress (Tiwari) 4, AIFB 3, Muslim League 2, Madhya
Pradesh Vikas Congress 2, Karnataka Congress Party 1, independents and
other regional parties 30

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), A. B.
VAJPAYEE; Congress (I) Party, Sitaram KESRI, president; Janata Dal
Party, Laloo Prasad YADAV; Janata Dal (Ajit), Ajit SINGH; Communist
Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), Harkishan Singh SURJEET; Tamil Maanila
Congress, G. K. MOOPANAR; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party
in Tamil Nadu), M. KARUNANIDHI; Samajwadi Party (SP), Mulayam Singh
YADAV (president), Om Prakash CHAUTALA, Devi LAL; Telugu Desam (Naidu)
(a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), Chandrababu NAIDU; Communist
Party of India (CPI), Indrajit GUPTA; Revolutionary Socialist Party
(RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY; Asom Gana Parishad, Prafulla Kumar MAHANTA;
Congress (Tiwari), Arjun SINGH and N.D. TIWARI; All India Forward Bloc
(AIFB), Prem Dutta PALIWAL (chairman), Chitta BASU (general
secretary); Muslim League, G. M. BANATWALA; Madhya Pradesh Vikas
Congress, Madhavro SCINDIA; Karnataka Congress Party, S. BANGARAPPA;
Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY; Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM;
Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Vinod MISHRA;
Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the
Punjab; National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and
Kashmir), Farooq ABDULLAH; Bihar Peoples Party, Lovely ANAND; Samata
Party (formerly Janata Dal members), George FERNANDES; Indian National
League, Suliaman SAIT; Kerala Congress (Mani faction), K. M. MANI
note: subsequent to the election, the following parties were dissolved
- Congress (Tiwari), Madhya Pradesh Vikas Congress, and Karnataka
Congress Party

Political pressure groups and leaders: various separatist groups
seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy; numerous religious
or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam Sena, Ananda
Marg, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
BIS (pending member), C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIH, UNOMIL, UNU, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Naresh CHANDRA
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note -
Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3972
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Frank G. WISNER
embassy: Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : [91] (11) 600651
FAX: [91] (11) 6872028
consulate(s) general: Bombay, Calcutta, Chennai (Madras), Mumbai

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white,
and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white
band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk
centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: India's economy is a mixture of traditional
village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of
modern industries, and a multitude of support services. A large share
of the population, perhaps as much as 40%, remains too poor to afford
an adequate diet. The policy in the 1980s of fueling economic growth
through high government expenditure proved unsustainable, however, and
in the wake of an international payments crisis in 1991 India has been
transforming its semi-socialist, insular economy into a more open,
market-oriented economy. Production, trade, and investment reforms
since 1991 have provided new opportunities for Indian businesspersons
and an estimated 200 million plus middle class consumers. New Delhi
has stimulated exports, attracted foreign investment, and revived
confidence in India's economic prospects. GDP growth exceeded 6% in
1995 and in 1996. Most of the country's external fundamentals -
including the current account balance and reserves (now about $19
billion) - are healthy. Even so, the Indian Government needs to
restore the early momentum of reform, especially by continuing
reductions in the extensive remaining government regulations. The
government will also have to deal with rising government expenditures
and higher debt servicing which could create a debt trap by the turn
of the century. Even if a series of weak coalition governments come to
power in the next few years and are unable to push reforms
aggressively, parts of the economy that have already benefited from
deregulation will continue to grow. Moreover, the country can build on
other strengths, including its diverse industrial base, large
scientific and technical pool, its well-developed legal system, and
its large middle class.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.538 trillion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 30%
industry : 28%
services: 42% (1993/94)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10.3% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 370 million (1995 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65% or more, services 4%, manufacturing and
construction 3%, communications and transport 3%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $34 billion
expenditures: $52.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96)

Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel,
transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 11.2% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 83.288 million kW 1996)

Electricity - production: 380 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 419 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea,
sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry;
fish catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks India among the
world's top 10 fishing nations

Exports:
total value : $30.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: clothing, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals,
leather manufactures, cotton yarn, and fabric
partners: US, Japan, Germany, UK, Hong Kong

Imports:
total value: $34.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, machinery, gems,
fertilizer, chemicals
partners: US, Germany, Saudi Arabia, UK, Belgium, Japan

Debt - external: $97.9 billion (March 1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.237 billion (1993); US ODA bilateral commitments
$171 million; US Ex-Im bilateral commitments $680 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA bilateral commitments $2.48 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid $200 million; World Bank (IBRD) multilateral commitments
$2.8 billion; Asian Development Bank (AsDB) multilateral commitments
$760 million; International Finance Corporation (IFC) multilateral
commitments $200 million; other multilateral commitments $554 million
(1995-96)

Currency: 1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise

Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 35.872 (January 1997),
35.433 (1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918
(1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@India:Communications

Telephones: 9.8 million (1995)

Telephone system: probably the least adequate telephone system of any
of the industrializing countries; three of every four villages have no
telephone service; only 5% of India's villages have long-distance
service; poor telephone service significantly impedes commercial and
industrial growth and penalizes India in global markets; slow
improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and
private-public investors, but demand for communication services is
also growing rapidly
domestic : local service is provided mostly by open wire and obsolete
electromechanical and manual switchboard systems; within the last 10
years a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced
for local service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by open
wire, coaxial cable, and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since
1985, however, significant trunk capacity has been added in the form
of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system with over 100
earth stations
international : satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean Region); submarine cables to Malaysia and
UAE

Radio broadcast stations: AM 96, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 70 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 274 (government controlled)

Televisions: 33 million (1992 est.)

@India:Transportation

Railways:
total: 62,462 km (11,793 km electrified; 12,617 km double track)
broad gauge: 37,824 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 20,653 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,985 km 0.762-m and 0.610-m
gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total : 2,009,600 km
paved: 1,006,810 km
unpaved: 1,002,790 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 3,005 km; petroleum products 2,687 km; natural
gas 1,700 km (1995)

Ports and harbors: Calcutta, Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal
Nehru, Kandla, Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam

Merchant marine:
total : 306 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,832,647
GRT/11,376,028 DWT
ships by type: bulk 132, cargo 59, chemical tanker 8, combination bulk
3, combination ore/oil 3, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 8, oil
tanker 75, passenger-cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
passenger 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 290 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 249
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 48
1,524 to 2,437 m : 59
914 to 1,523 m: 68
under 914 m: 62 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 41
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 37 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 15 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, various security or
paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, and
Coast Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 258,172,895 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 151,693,072 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 10,465,427 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundaries with Bangladesh and China in
dispute; status of Kashmir with Pakistan; water-sharing problems with
downstream riparian Pakistan over the Indus (Wular Barrage);
Bangladesh and India signed a treaty 12 December 1996 to share water
from the Ganges

Illicit drugs: world's largest licit producer of opium for the
pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is
diverted to illicit international drug markets; major transit country
for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit
producer of hashish and methaqualone; produced 47 metric tons of
illicit opium in 1996
______________________________________________________________________

INDIAN OCEAN
[Map of Indian Ocean]

@Indian Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Antarctica, Asia, and
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 80 00 E

Map references: World

Area:
total : 73.6 million sq km
note: includes Arabian Sea, Bass Straight, Bay of Bengal, Great
Australian Bight, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of
Malacca, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than eight times the size of the US;
third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but
larger than the Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 66,526 km

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon
(June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and
October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in
the southern Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular
system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of
surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric
pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in
the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents,
while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air
results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and
currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and
subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean
Ridge, and Ninety East Ridge

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Java Trench -7,258 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel
aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Natural hazards: ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme
south near Antarctica from May to October

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea,
Persian Gulf, and Red Sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to : none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of
Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the
Lombok Strait

@Indian Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
Codes appendix

Economy

Economy - overview: The Indian Ocean provides major sea routes
connecting the Middle East, Africa, and East Asia with Europe and the
Americas. It carries a particularly heavy traffic of petroleum and
petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and
Indonesia. Its fish are of great and growing importance to the
bordering countries for domestic consumption and export. Fishing
fleets from Russia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian
Ocean, mainly for shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are
being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and
western Australia. An estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil
production comes from the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy
minerals and offshore placer deposits are actively exploited by
bordering countries, particularly India, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri
Lanka, and Thailand.

@Indian Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international : submarine cables from India to UAE and Malaysia and
from Sri Lanka to Djibouti and Indonesia

@Indian Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Calcutta (India), Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban
(South Africa), Jakarta (Indonesia), Madras (India), Melbourne
(Australia), Mumbai (Bombay; India), Richard's Bay (South Africa)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
______________________________________________________________________

INDONESIA

@Indonesia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and
the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total : 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,602 km
border countries: Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior
mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber,
bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland : 62%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 45,970 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis,
earthquakes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited);
straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes
from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

@Indonesia:People

Population: 209,774,138 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 31% (male 33,313,149; female 32,367,905)
15-64 years: 65% (male 67,824,993; female 68,226,617)
65 years and over: 4% (male 3,557,886; female 4,483,588) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.39 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.06 years
male: 59.89 years
female: 64.34 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal
Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Religions: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%,
Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay),
English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is
Javanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78% (1995 est.)

@Indonesia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form : Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Data code: ID

Government type: republic

National capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular -
propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular -
daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus
ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi,
Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan
Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa
Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi
Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera
Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December
1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949
and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of
age

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968)
and Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March
1968) and Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March
1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president and vice president elected by consensus by the
People's Consultative Assembly for five-year terms; election last held
11 March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1998)
election results : Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO elected president by consensus
by the People's Consultative Assembly; Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO
elected vice president by consensus by the People's Consultative
Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan
Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 400 elected by popular vote, 100
are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms;
note - beginning with the elections in May 1997, the composition of
the DPR will change to 425 elected representatives and 75 appointed
representatives)
elections: last held 8 June 1992 (next scheduled for 29 May 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 68%, PPP 17%, PDI
15%; seats by party - Golkar 282, PPP 62, PDI 56
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan
Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly selected members;
it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president
and to approve the broad outlines of national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), the judges are
appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Golkar (de facto ruling political party
based on functional groups), HARMOKO, general chairman; Indonesia
Democracy Party (PDI - federation of former Nationalist and Christian
Parties), SOERJADI, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation
of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, OPEC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP,
UNTAES, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arifin Mohamad SIREGAR
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Jakarta
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520
telephone : [62] (21) 344-2211
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the
flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

Economy

Economy - overview: Indonesia's sound macroeconomic management,
combined with an emphasis on rapid deregulation and encouragement of
private investment resulted in real GDP growth in 1991-96 averaging
about 7%. This was impressive, but not sufficient to cut
underemployment while absorbing the 2.3 million workers annually
entering the labor force. Foreign investment has boosted manufacturing
output and exports in recent years. The economy's growth is driven by
continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Plantation crops - rubber and
palm oil - and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both
export and job generation. Industrial output is based on diverse
natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals,
and coal. Japan remains Indonesia's most important customer and
supplier of aid. Growth in 1996 was led by industry, transport, and
tourism. Strong growth should continue in 1997 assuming no sharp rise
in political uncertainty.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $779.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,770 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 17%
industry: 42%
services: 41% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 67 million
by occupation: agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%, construction 4%,
transport and communications 3%, other 28% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% official rate; underemployment 40% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $41.5 billion
expenditures: $41.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $16
billion (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement,
chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 13.9% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 16.27 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 58.31 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 276 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber,
cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products; poultry,
beef, pork, eggs

Exports:
total value: $49.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactures 51.9%, fuels 26.4%, foodstuffs 12.7%, raw
materials 9.0%
partners: Japan 27.1%, US 13.9%, Singapore 8.3%, South Korea 6.4%,
Taiwan 3.9%, China 3.8%, Hong Kong 3.6% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $42.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactures 75.3%, raw materials 9.0%, foodstuffs 7.8%,
fuels 7.7%
partners: Japan 22.7%, US 11.7%, Germany 6.9%, South Korea 6.0%,
Singapore 5.8%, Australia 5.0%, Taiwan 4.5% (1995)

Debt - external: $110 billion (yearend 1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $5.5 billion (FY97/98 est.)

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (Rp)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 2,393.0 (January
1997), 2,342.3 (1996), 2,248.6 (1995), 2,160.8 (1994), 2,087.1 (1993),
2,029.9 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Indonesia:Communications

Telephones: 1,276,600 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net;
domestic satellite communications system
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 618, FM 38, shortwave 0

Radios: 28.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 11.5 million (1992 est.)

@Indonesia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km
double track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total : 378,000 km
paved: 171,990 km
unpaved: 206,010 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km,
Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas
1,703 km (1989)

Ports and harbors: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang,
Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang

Merchant marine:
total: 465 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,185,353 GRT/3,191,792
DWT
ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 267, chemical tanker 8, container 9,
liquefied gas tanker 5, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 102, passenger
6, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger
6, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 4 (1996 est.)

Airports: 413 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 386
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m : 297 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 58,556,503 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 34,439,340 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,295,832 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.3 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY97/98)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor
Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two
islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use;
possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle
heroin
______________________________________________________________________

IRAN

@Iran:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf,
and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 1.648 million sq km
land: 1.636 million sq km
water: 12,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 5,440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper
432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan
909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline: 2,440 km
note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural prolongation
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the
Persian Gulf
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point : Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use:
arable land : 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures : 27%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 94,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms;
earthquakes along the Western border

Environment - current issues: air pollution, especially in urban
areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial
effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution
in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

@Iran:People

Population: 67,540,002 (July 1997 est.)
note: includes 917,078 non-nationals (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 15,292,783; female 14,423,911)
15-64 years : 52% (male 17,880,617; female 17,254,711)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,378,395; female 1,309,585) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.12% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 32.51 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.39 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.82 years
male: 66.47 years
female: 69.23 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.52 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Iranian(s)
adjective: Iranian

Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani
8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 10%, Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Baha'i 1%

Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic
dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%,
other 2%

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 72.1%
male: 78.4%
female: 65.8% (1994 est.)

@Iran:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form: Iran
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form : Iran

Data code: IR

Government type: theocratic republic

National capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 25 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan);
Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr, Chahar
Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam,
Kerman, Kermanshahan, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi,
Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va
Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
note: there may be two new provinces named Qom and Qazvin

Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the
presidency and eliminate the prime ministership

Legal system: the Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: supreme leader (rahbar-e moazam) and functional chief
of state - Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali
Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
head of government: President Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI (since 3
August 1989); First Vice President Hasan Ebrahim HABIBI (since NA
August 1989)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with
legislative approval
elections: supreme leader appointed for life by the Council of
Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 11 June 1993 (next to be held 23 May 1997)
election results: Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI elected president;
percent of vote - Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI 63%

Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or
Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami (270 seats; members elected by popular vote
to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 8 March and 19 April 1996 (next to be held NA
March 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Iran has no political parties; the most
important political "groupings" are - Tehran Militant Clergy
Association, Secretary General Ayatollah Mohammad EMAMI-KASHANI;
Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA; Servants of Reconstruction (G-6), Mohammad
HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI, Hosein MARASHI

Political pressure groups and leaders: groups that generally support
the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Mojahedin of the
Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam,
and the Islamic Coalition Association; opposition groups include the
Liberation Movement of Iran and the Nation of Iran party; armed
political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the
government include Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's
Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan; the Society for the
Defense of Freedom

International organization participation: CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Iran has an
Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy, headed by Faramarz
FATH-NEJAD; address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy,
2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone: [1] (202)
965-4990

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - protecting power
in Iran is Switzerland

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word
Allah) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is
Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom
edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

Economy

Economy - overview: Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning,
state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village
agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures.
Under President RAFSANJANI, the government adopted a number of market
reforms to reduce the state's role in the economy, but most of these
changes have moved slowly or have been reversed because of political
opposition. In the early 1990s, Iran experienced a financial crisis
caused by an import surge that began in 1989 and general financial
mismanagement. In 1993-1994, Iran rescheduled $15 billion in debt,
with the bulk of payments due in 1996-97. The strong oil market in
1996 has helped ease financial pressures, however, and Tehran has so
far made timely debt service payments. In 1996, Iran's oil earnings -
which account for 85% of total export revenues - climbed 20% from the
previous year. Iran's financial situation will remain tight through
the end of the decade, and continued timely debt service payments will
depend, in part, on persistent strong oil prices during the next few
years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $343.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry : 37%
services: 42% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 23% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 15.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21% (1988 est.)
note: shortage of skilled labor; 1.38% of the population in the 15-64
age group is non-national (July 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: over 30% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other
construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining
and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 25.12 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 74.76 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,137 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets,
fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

Exports:
total value : $21.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum 85%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides, iron, steel
partners: Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg,
Spain, and Germany

Imports:
total value: $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs,
pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products
partners: Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, UAE, Russia, France

Debt - external: $30 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $40 million (1993)

Currency: 10 Iranian rials (IR) = 1 toman; note - domestic figures are
generally referred to in terms of the toman

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 1,755.12 (January 1997),
1,750.76 (1996), 1,747.93 (1995), 1,748.75 (1994), 1,267.77 (1993),
65.55 (1992); black market rate: 4,600 rials per US$1 (March 1997);
note - as of May 1995, the "official rate" of 1,750 rials per US$1 is
used for imports of essential goods and services and for oil exports,
whereas the "official export rate" of 3,000 rials per US$1 is used for
non-oil exports and imports not covered by the official rate

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

@Iran:Communications

Telephones: 3.02 million (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean Region); HF radio and
microwave radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan,
and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE

Radio broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 14.3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 3.9 million (1992 est.)

@Iran:Transportation

Railways:
total: 7,286 km
broad gauge: 94 km 1.676-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,192 km 1.435-m gauge (146 km electrified) (1996
est.)

Highways:
total : 158,000 km
paved: 93,378 km (including 460 km of expressways)
unpaved: 64,622 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime
traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in
use

Pipelines: crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural
gas 4,550 km

Ports and harbors: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during
1980-88 war), Ahvaz, Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e 'Abbas, Bandar-e
Anzali, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni, Bandar-e Mah Shahr,
Bandar-e Torkeman, Jazireh-ye Khark, Jazireh-ye Lavan, Jazireh-ye
Sirri, Khorramshahr (limited operation since November 1992), Now Shahr

Merchant marine:
total: 132 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,436,384 GRT/6,095,124
DWT
ships by type: bulk 47, cargo 36, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk
2, container 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, multifunction large-load
carrier 6, oil tanker 22, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo
9, short-sea passenger 1
note: Iran owns an additional 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
141,992 DWT that operate under the registry of Cyprus (1996 est.)

Airports: 227 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 115
over 3,047 m: 32
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m : 29
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 25 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 112
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m : 98 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 12 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes
Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces), Revolutionary Guards
(includes Ground, Air, Navy, Qods, and Basij-mobilization-forces), Law
Enforcement Forces

Military manpower - military age: 21 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 15,700,662 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 9,332,944 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 650,804 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: according to official Iranian
data, Iran budgeted 8,283.9 billion rials for defense in 1997; note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using current
exchange rates could produce misleading results

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations
in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling
outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border
demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and
sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway; Iran occupies two islands
in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE: Lesser Tunb (called Tunb as
Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by
Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic by UAE and
Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); it jointly administers
with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE (called
Abu Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran)
- over which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since
1992, including access restrictions and a military build-up on the
island; the UAE has garnered significant diplomatic support in the
region in protesting these Iranian actions; Caspian Sea boundaries are
not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakstan, Russia, and
Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade; net opiate importer but also a key
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe
______________________________________________________________________

IRAQ

@Iraq:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and
Kuwait

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 44 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 437,072 sq km
land: 432,162 sq km
water : 4,910 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries:
total: 3,631 km
border countries : Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi
Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless
summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish
borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows which
melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central
and southern Iraq

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in
south; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Gundah Zhur 3,608 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland : 0%
other: 79% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 25,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms, floods

Environment - current issues: government water control projects have
drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by
drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable
population of Shi'a Muslims, who have inhabited these areas for
thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction
of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife
populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of
Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements with
upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation
(salinization) and erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified : Environmental Modification

@Iraq:People

Population: 22,219,289 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 5,353,088; female 5,181,960)
15-64 years: 50% (male 5,565,926; female 5,442,949)
65 years and over: 3% (male 314,705; female 360,661) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.62% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.52 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.33 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population : 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 57.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.38 years
male: 66.31 years
female: 68.5 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.26 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Iraqi(s)
adjective: Iraqi

Ethnic groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or
other 5%

Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or
other 3%

Languages: Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian,
Armenian

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58%
male: 70.7%
female : 45% (1995 est.)

@Iraq:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Iraq
conventional short form: Iraq
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
local short form: Al Iraq

Data code: IZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf,
Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar,
Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (provisional
Constitution); new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil
law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice
President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice
President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister SADDAM Husayn (since NA May 1994);
Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979); Deputy Prime
Minister Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Muhammad
Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
note: there is also a Revolutionary Command Council; Chairman SADDAM
Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri
elections: president and vice presidents elected by a two-thirds
majority of the Revolutionary Command Council; election last held 17
October 1995 (next to be held NA)
election results: SADDAM Husayn reelected president; percent of
Revolutionary Command Council vote - 99%; Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF and
Taha Yasin RAMADAN elected vice presidents; percent of Revolutionary
Command Council vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani
(250 seats; 30 appointed by SADDAM Husayn to represent the three
northern provinces of Dahuk, Arbil, and As Sulaymaniyah; 220 elected
by popular vote; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 24 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: Ba'th Party, SADDAM Husayn, central
party leader

Political pressure groups and leaders: political parties and activity
severely restricted; opposition to regime from disaffected members of
the Ba'th Party, Army officers, tribes, and Shi'a religious and ethnic
Kurdish dissidents; the Green Party (government-controlled)

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Iraq has an Interest
Section in the Algerian Embassy headed by Dr. Khairi O. T. AL ZUBAIDI;
address: Iraqi Interests Section, Algerian Embassy, 1801 P Street NW,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500; FAX: [1] (202)
462-5066

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - the US has an
Interests Section in the Polish Embassy in Baghdad, which is in the
Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club); address: P. O.
Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad; telephone: [964] (1) 719-6138, 719-6139,
718-1840, 719-3791; FAX: [964] (1) 718-9297

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line
centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in
green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar
to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the
Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars
but no script and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also
similar to the flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the
white band

Economy

Economy - overview: The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central
planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade
while leaving some small-scale industry and services and most
agriculture to private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by
the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign
exchange earnings. In the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive
expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export
facilities by Iran, led the government to implement austerity measures
and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Iraq
suffered economic losses of at least $100 billion from the war. After
the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with
the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged
facilities. Agricultural development remained hampered by labor
shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land
reform and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although
accorded high priority by the government, also was under financial
constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent
international economic embargoes, and military action by an
international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically changed
the economic picture. Industrial and transportation facilities, which
suffered severe damage, have been partially restored. Oil exports are
at 25% of the prewar level following the implementation of UN Security
Council Resolution 986 in December 1996. Shortages of spare parts
continue. The UN-sponsored economic embargo has reduced exports and
imports and has contributed to the sharp rise in prices. The Iraqi
Government has been unwilling to abide by UN resolutions so that the
economic embargo could be removed. The government's policies of
supporting large military and internal security forces and of
allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have exacerbated
shortages. In accord with a UN resolution Iraq agreed to an
oil-for-food deal in 1996, under which it would export $2 billion
worth of oil in exchange for badly needed food and medicine. The first
oil was pumped in December 1996, and the first supplies of food and
medicine should arrive in March 1997. Per capita output for 1995-96
and living standards are well below the 1989-90 level, but any
estimates have a wide range of error.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $42 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 4.4 million (1989)
by occupation: services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%
note : severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about
1,600,000 (July 1990); since then, it has declined substantially

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials,
food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 6.83 million kW (1996)

Electricity - production: 31.8 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,362 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other
fruit, cotton; cattle, sheep

Exports: $NA
commodities: crude oil
partners: Jordan, Turkey (1996)

Imports: $NA
commodities: manufactures, food
partners: France, Turkey, Jordan, Vietnam, Australia (1996)

Debt - external: very heavy relative to GDP but amount unknown (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 0.3109 (fixed official
rate since 1982); black market rate - Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 -
1,200 (May 1997), 3,000 (December 1995); subject to wide fluctuations

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Iraq:Communications

Telephones: 632,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: reconstitution of damaged telecommunication
facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been
rebuilt
domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio
relay links
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region) and
1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to
Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait line is probably
nonoperational

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.02 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 13

Televisions: 1 million (1992 est.)

@Iraq:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,032 km
standard gauge: 2,032 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 46,500 km
paved: 39,990 km
unpaved: 6,510 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime
traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is
in use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for
shallow-draft watercraft; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by
shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the Persian Gulf
war

Pipelines: crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas
1,360 km

Ports and harbors: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have
limited functionality

Merchant marine:
total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 791,485 GRT/1,428,307 DWT
ships by type: cargo 14, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo
1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 101 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 85
over 3,047 m: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 16 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 8 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Republican Guard and Special Republican
Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force,
Internal Security Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,039,332 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 2,825,888 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 246,404 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations
in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling
outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border
demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and
sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; in November 1994, Iraq
formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been
spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993),
and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to
Bubiyan and Warbah islands; dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
______________________________________________________________________

IRELAND

@Ireland:Geography

Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of
Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 70,280 sq km
land: 68,890 sq km
water : 1,390 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 360 km
border countries: UK 360 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild
winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the
time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged
hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Carrauntoohill 1,041 m

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, petroleum, barite, copper,
gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 68%
forests and woodland : 5%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: water pollution, especially of lakes,
from agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Tropical Timber 94

Geography - note: strategic location on major air and sea routes
between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population
resides within 60 miles of Dublin

@Ireland:People

Population: 3,606,952 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 415,747; female 393,181)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,203,792; female 1,185,935)
65 years and over: 11% (male 173,566; female 234,731) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.33% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.98 years
male: 73.24 years
female: 78.89 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural)
adjective: Irish

Ethnic groups: Celtic, English

Religions: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other
1% (1981)

Languages: Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the
western seaboard, English is the language generally used

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98% (1981 est.)

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