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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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demobilized but still exist on paper until/unless constitutionally
abolished

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,430,855 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 774,835 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 71,003 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA; note - mainly for police
and security activities

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana en route
to the US and Europe
______________________________________________________________________

HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD ISLANDS
McDonald Islands]

(territory of Australia)

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the Indian Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica

Geographic coordinates: 53 06 S, 72 31 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total : 412 sq km
land: 412 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 2 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 101.9 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: Heard Island - bleak and mountainous, with a quiescent
volcano; McDonald Islands - small and rocky

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Big Ben 2,745 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: Heard Island is dominated by a dormant volcano called
Big Ben

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: primarily used for research stations

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:People

Population: uninhabited

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Territory of Heard Island and McDonald
Islands
conventional short form: Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Data code: HM

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered by the
Ministry for Sport, Territories, and Local Government

National capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Heard Island and McDonald Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY)

@Holy See (Vatican City):Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)

Geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 27 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 0.44 sq km
land : 0.44 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 3.2 km
border countries: Italy 3.2 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with
hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : unnamed location 19 m
highest point: unnamed location 75 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (urban area)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution, Environmental Modification

Geography - note: urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's
smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and
Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial
rights

@Holy See (Vatican City):People

Population: 850 (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: none
adjective: none

Ethnic groups: Italians, Swiss

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian, Latin, various other languages

@Holy See (Vatican City):Government

Country name:
conventional long form: The Holy See (State of the Vatican City)
conventional short form: Holy See (Vatican City)
local long form: Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)
local short form: Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)

Data code: VT

Government type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

National capital: Vatican City

Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope, 22 October (1978)
(John Paul II)
note: Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Executive branch:
chief of state : Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October
1978)
head of government: Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo Cardinal
SODANO (since NA 1991)
cabinet: Pontifical Commission appointed by Pope
elections: pope elected for life by the College of Cardinals; election
last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the
current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope
election results: Karol WOJTYLA elected pope

Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: none (exclusive of influence
exercised by church officers)

International organization participation: IAEA, ICFTU, Intelsat, IOM
(observer), ITU, OAS (observer), OSCE, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR,
UPU, WIPO, WToO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Agostino
CACCIAVILLAN
chancery : 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond L. FLYNN
embassy: Villa Domiziana, Via Delle Terme Deciane 26, Rome 00153
mailing address: PSC 59, APO AE 09624
telephone : [39] (6) 46741
FAX: [39] (6) 5758346, 57300682

Flag description: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white
with the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in
the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: This unique, noncommercial economy is supported
financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman
Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist
mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or
somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city of
Rome.

Labor force: NA
by occupation: dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay
workers who live outside the Vatican

Budget:
revenues : $175.5 million
expenditures: $175 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and
staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

Electricity - capacity: 5,000 kW standby
note : electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Currency: 1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1568.1 (January 1997),
1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993),
1,232.4 (1992); note - the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian
lira which circulates freely

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Holy See (Vatican City):Communications

Telephones: 2,000

Telephone system: automatic exchange
domestic: tied into Italian system
international: uses Italian system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

@Holy See (Vatican City):Transportation

Railways:
total: 862 meters; note - connects to Italy's network at Rome's Saint
Peter's station
narrow gauge: 862 meters 1.435-m gauge

Highways: none; all city streets

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal
Guards are posted at entrances to Vatican City

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

HONDURAS

@Honduras:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
El Salvador and Nicaragua

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 86 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 112,090 sq km
land : 111,890 sq km
water: 200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,520 km
border countries: Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922
km

Coastline: 820 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m

Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore,
antimony, coal, fish

Land use:
arable land : 15%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 14%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 740 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; damaging
hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast

Environment - current issues: urban population expanding;
deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for
agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion
hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices
such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de
Yojoa (the country's largest source of freshwater) with heavy metals
as well as several rivers and streams

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Honduras:People

Population: 5,751,384 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 42% (male 1,237,549; female 1,194,598)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,549,400; female 1,574,075)
65 years and over: 4% (male 93,695; female 102,067) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.55% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 32.63 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population : 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 68.81 years
male: 66.38 years
female: 71.37 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.26 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian
7%, black 2%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority

Languages: Spanish, Amerindian dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 72.7%
male : 72.6%
female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

@Honduras:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras

Data code: HO

Government type: republic

National capital: Tegucigalpa

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) plus probable Central District (Tegucigalpa); Atlantida,
Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco
Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira,
Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982

Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of
English common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (since 27
January 1994); First Vice President General (Ret.) Walter LOPEZ;
Second Vice President Juan DE LA CRUZ Avelar; Third Vice President
Guadeloupe JEREZANO; note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government
head of government: President Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (since 27
January 1994) First Vice President General (Ret.) Walter LOPEZ; Second
Vice President Juan DE LA CRUZ Avelar; Third Vice President Guadeloupe
JEREZANO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 28 November 1993 (next to be held NA November 1997)
election results: Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez elected president;
percent of vote - Carlos Roberto REINA Idiaquez (PLH) 53%, Oswaldo
RAMOS Soto (PNH) 41%, other 6%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional
(128 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year
terms)
elections : last held on 27 November 1993 (next to be held November
1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNH 53%, PLH 41%, PDCH
1.0%, PINU-SD 2.5%, other 2.5%; seats by party - PLH 71, PNH 55,
PINU-SD 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica),
judges are elected for four-year terms by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PLH), Carlos FLORES
Facusse, president; National Party of Honduras (PNH), Oswaldo RAMOS
Soto, president; National Innovation and Unity Party (PINU), Olban
VALLADARES, president; Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Efrain DIAZ
Arrivillaga, president

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Association of
Honduran Campesinos (ANACH); Honduran Council of Private Enterprise
(COHEP); Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH); National Union of
Campesinos (UNC); General Workers Confederation (CGT); United
Federation of Honduran Workers (FUTH); Committee for the Defense of
Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH); Coordinating Committee of Popular
Organizations (CCOP)

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
MINURSO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto FLORES Bermudez
chancery: 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702, 2604, 5008, 4596
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Boston, Detroit, and Jacksonville

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James Francis CREAGAN (29 July 1996)
embassy : Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone: [504] 36-9320, 38-5114
FAX: [504] 36-9037

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern
centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the
former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El
Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white
band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle
encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA
CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the
Western Hemisphere. Agriculture employs nearly two-thirds of the labor
force and produces two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low.
Manufacturing, mining, and construction account for 30 % of GDP and
generate 20% of exports. Basic problems include rapid population
growth, high underemployment, inflation, a lack of basic services, a
large and inefficient public sector, and the dependence of the export
sector mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price
fluctuations.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 28%
industry: 30%
services: 42% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 25.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.3 million
by occupation: agriculture 62%, services 20%, manufacturing 9%,
construction 3%, other 6% (1985)

Unemployment rate: 15%; underemployed about 40% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $655 million
expenditures: $850 million, including capital expenditures of $150
million (1997 est.)

Industries: sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1992 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 605,900 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 2.742 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 361 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp;

Exports:
total value: $2.401 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber
partners : US 65%, Germany 7%, Japan 7%, Spain 3%, Belgium 2%

Imports:
total value: $3.133 billion (c.i.f. 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw
materials, chemical products, manufactured goods, fuel and oil,
foodstuffs
partners : US 50%, Guatemala 5%, Japan 5%, Mexico 3%, El Salvador 3%

Debt - external: $4.6 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1 (end of period) - 13.0330
(January 1997), 12.8694 (1996), 10.3432 (1995), 9.4001 (1994), 7.2600
(1993), 5.8300 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Honduras:Communications

Telephones: 105,000 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: inadequate system
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 176, FM 0, shortwave 7

Radios: 2.115 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 28

Televisions: 400,000 (1992 est.)

@Honduras:Transportation

Railways:
total: 595 km
narrow gauge: 190 km 1.067-m gauge; 128 km 1.057-m gauge; 277 km
0.914-m gauge
note: in 1993, there was a total of 988 km of track (1995)

Highways:
total: 15,100 km
paved: 3,050 km
unpaved: 12,050 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft

Ports and harbors: La Ceiba, Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San
Lorenzo, Tela, Puerto Lempira

Merchant marine:
total: 251 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 714,755 GRT/1,066,043
DWT
ships by type: bulk 28, cargo 153, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
1, container 5, liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 3, oil
tanker 21, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 22,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; Russia owns 8 ships, Vietnam 3,
North Korea 2, Greece 1, Japan 1, Singapore 1, Iran 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 107 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 88
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 5
under 914 m: 78 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 19 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, Public
Security Forces (FUSEP)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,370,116 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 816,054 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 66,304 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42.5 million (1997)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: about 1.5% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: land boundary dispute with El Salvador
mostly resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice
(ICJ) decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras,
and Nicaragua likely would be required; maritime boundary dispute with
Nicaragua

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit
producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally
for local consumption
______________________________________________________________________

HONG KONG

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Hong Kong:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 1,092 sq km
land: 1,042 sq km
water: 50 sq km

Area - comparative: six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 30 km
border countries: China 30 km

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy
from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland : 22%
other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution from rapid
urbanization

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: more than 200 islands

@Hong Kong:People

Population: 6,547,189 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 629,981; female 584,807)
15-64 years: 71% (male 2,319,009; female 2,348,794)
65 years and over: 10% (male 299,503; female 365,095) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.59% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.72 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.79 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 18.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.71 years
male: 75.98 years
female: 81.62 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.33 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, other 5%

Religions: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%

Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population : 92.2%
male: 96%
female: 88.2% (1996 est.)

@Hong Kong:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Hong Kong
abbreviation : HK

Data code: HK

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK; note - scheduled to
revert to China on 1 July 1997

Government type: NA

National capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK; the UK signed an
agreement with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China
on 1 July 1997; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect
Hong Kong's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)

Constitution: the Letters Patent together with the Royal Instructions
form the written constitution of Hong Kong; new Basic Law approved in
March 1990 in preparation for scheduled reversion to China on 1 July
1997

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent
residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven
years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 professionals of
electoral college and functional constituencies

Executive branch:
chief of state : Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
Christopher Francis PATTEN (since 9 July 1992); Chief Secretary Anson
CHAN Fang On-Sang (since 29 November 1993)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (60 seats; 30
indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 20 elected by popular
vote, and 10 elected by election committee; members serve four-year
terms); note - the Legislative Council will be replaced by a
provisional legislature on 1 July 1997
elections: indirect and direct elections last held 17 September 1995;
note - elections for the first post-reversion Legislative Council are
scheduled to be held in 1998
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Democratic Party 21, Liberal Party 10, Democratic Alliance for the
Betterment of Hong Kong 6, other parties and independents 23; note -
subsequent to the election, there has been a change in the
distribution of seats; the new distribution is as follows - Democratic
Party 19, Liberal Party 10, Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of
Hong Kong 6, other parties and independents 25

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Martin LEE, chairman;
Liberal Party, Allen LEE, chairman; Democratic Alliance for the
Betterment of Hong Kong, TSANG Yuk-shing, chairman; Hong Kong
Democratic Foundation, Dr. Patrick SHIU Kin-ying, chairman

Political pressure groups and leaders: Association for Democracy and
People's Livelihood (ADPL), Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal
Democratic Federation, HU Fa-kuang, chairman; Federation of Trade
Unions (pro-China), LEE Chark-tim, president; Hong Kong and Kowloon
Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions
(pro-democracy), LEE Cheuk-yan, chairman; Hong Kong General Chamber of
Commerce; Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Federation
of Hong Kong Industries; Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong
Kong; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union, CHEUNG Man-kwong,
president; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic
Movement in China, Szeto WAH, chairman

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, BIS (pending
member), CCC, ESCAP (associate), ICFTU, IMO (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Richard A. BOUCHER
consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, FPO AP 96522-0002
telephone: [852] 2523-9011
FAX : [852] 2845-1598

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on
the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield
(bearing two junks below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK)
and a dragon (representing China) with another lion above the shield
and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield
note: to be replaced on 1 July 1997 by a red flag with a stylized,
white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with
few tariffs or nontariff barriers. Natural resources are limited, and
food and raw materials must be imported. Manufacturing and
construction account for about 18% of GDP. Goods and services exports
account for about 50% of GDP. Real GDP growth averaged a remarkable 8%
in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in 1989-90, and picked up to 4.2% in 1991,
5.0% in 1992, 5.2% in 1993, 5.5% in 1994, 4.8% in 1995, and 4.7% in
1996. A shortage of labor continues to put upward pressure on prices
and the cost of living. Prospects for 1997 remain bright so long as
major trading partners continue to be reasonably prosperous and so
long as investors feel China will support free market practices after
the takeover on 1 July 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $163.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $26,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 0.2%
industry: 18.4%
services: 81.4% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.251 million (1996)
by occupation: wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels
34.4%, services 19.8%, manufacturing 14.2%, financing, insurance, and
real estate 12.4%, transport and communications 5.1%, construction
2.1%, other 12% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $19 billion
expenditures: $14.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $289
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys,
watches, clocks

Industrial production growth rate: -2.6% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 10.32 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 25.14 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,716 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: fresh vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value : $197.2 billion (including reexports; f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical
appliances, watches and clocks, toys
partners: China 33%, US 22%, Japan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 3%, Singapore 3%
(1995)

Imports:
total value: $217.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials,
semimanufactures, petroleum; a large share is reexported
partners: China 36%, Japan 15%, Taiwan 9%, US 8%, Singapore 5%, South
Korea 5% (1995)

Debt - external: none (1996)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ - 7.730 (1996), 7.800
(1995), 7.800 (1994), 7.800 (1993), 7.741 (1992); note - linked to the
US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Hong Kong:Communications

Telephones: 3.31 million (1996)

Telephone system: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and
international services
domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic
network
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean
and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5
international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member
nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 3 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (British Broadcasting Corporation
repeater 1; British Forces Broadcasting Service repeater 1)

Televisions: 1.75 million (1992 est.)

@Hong Kong:Transportation

Railways:
total : 34 km
standard gauge: 34 km 1.435-m gauge (1996 est.)
note: also has 43 km of metro with 38 stations

Highways:
total: 1,717 km
paved : 1,717 km
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Hong Kong

Merchant marine:
total: 221 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,908,237 GRT/13,580,012
DWT
ships by type: bulk 124, cargo 31, combination bulk 4, combination
ore/oil 2, container 38, liquefied gas tanker 2, multifunction large
load carrier 2, oil tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 3
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 15 countries
among which are UK 50, South Africa 12, Belgium 10, China 9, Japan 8,
Bermuda 5, US 5, Israel 4, Germany 3, and Switzerland 3; Hong Kong
owns an additional 498 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,810,794
DWT that operate under the registries of The Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda,
Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Vanuatu

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)
note: new international airport under construction and will open in
1998

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Army, Royal Navy,
Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,884,488 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,427,567 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 46,601 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $207 million (FY92/93); note -
this represents 65% of the total cost of defending the colony, the
remainder being paid by the UK

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.2% (FY92/93)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK until 1 July
1997, when China will assume command

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment
and money-laundering center; increasing indigenous amphetamine abuse
______________________________________________________________________

HOWLAND ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Howland Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 48 N, 176 38 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 1.6 sq km
land : 1.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about three times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6.4 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a
narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 95%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate
vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

@Howland Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and
educators

@Howland Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Howland Island

Data code: HQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered by
the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as
part of the National Wildlife Refuge System

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Howland Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one
boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on
the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan - they
left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again;
the airstrip is no longer serviceable

Transportation - note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle
of the west coast that was partially destroyed during World War II,
but has since been rebuilt; named in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia
Earhart

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

HUNGARY

@Hungary:Geography

Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 2,009 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km,
Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the
Slovakian border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

Land use:
arable land: 51%
permanent crops : 2%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,060 sq km (1993 est.)

Environment - current issues: an early-1996 government study
identified 179 areas that suffer from air pollution, 54 areas with
polluted soil, and 32 areas with polluted underground water; the study
estimated clean-up costs at $350 million, but the 1996 government
budget allocated only about $7 million for this purpose

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land
routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between
Ukraine and Mediterranean basin

@Hungary:People

Population: 10,232,404 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 924,864; female 881,728)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,419,485; female 3,541,823)
65 years and over: 14% (male 549,091; female 915,413) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.25% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.73 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.67 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.48 years
male : 66.06 years
female: 75.13 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak
0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist
and other 7.5%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female : 98% (1980 est.)

@Hungary:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag

Data code: HU

Government type: republic

National capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20
urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city**
(fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*,
Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*,
Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves,
Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*,
Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*,
Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*,
Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas,
Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August
(commemorates the coronation of King Stephen in 1000 AD)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19
April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for
individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime
minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight

Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based
on Western model

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously
interim president since 2 May 1990)
head of government : Prime Minister Gyula HORN (since 15 July 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the
recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a four-year
term; election last held 19 June 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the
president
election results: Arpad GONCZ elected president; a total of 335 votes
were cast by the National Assembly, Arpad GONCZ received 259; Gyula
HORN elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386
seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of
proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held on 8 and 29 May 1994 (next to be held May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MSzP
209, SzDSz 70, MDF 37, FKgP 26, KDNP 22, FiDeSz 20, other 2

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the
National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF
[Sandor LEZSAK, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKgP [Jozsef
TORGYAN, president]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Gyula HORN,
president]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY,
president]; Federation of Young Democrats or FiDeSz [Viktor ORBAN,
chairman]; Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE,
chairman]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Ivan SZABO,
chairman]
note: the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party or MSzMP
renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP
in October 1989; there is still a small MMP (Communist Party); the
MDNP was formed in March 1996 by breakaway members of the Hungarian
Democratic Forum

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gyorgy BANLAKI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX : [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald M. BLINKEN
embassy: V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest
mailing address: American Embassy Budapest, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone : [36] (1) 267-4400, 269-9331
FAX: [36] (1) 269-9326

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and green

Economy

Economy - overview: Hungary probably had the most Western-oriented
economy in East Europe before the transition to a market system began
in 1990, and Budapest made good progress in the initial years of
transition. The reform process slowed in 1993-94, however, in part
because of the May 1994 elections and the resulting change in
government. By 1994 the privatization of state firms had ground to a
halt, while both the budget and current account deficits soared to
unsustainable levels - about 8% and 10% of GDP, respectively. The
situation improved sharply in 1995: an austerity program introduced in
March reduced both deficits; and a renewed privatization effort later
in the year resulted in more than $3 billion worth of sales of state
firms to foreign investors - money used mostly to reduce Hungary's
large foreign debt. Real GDP increased 2.9% in 1994 - following
several years of steep decline - and about 1.5% in 1995 and only 0.5%
in 1996. Unemployment reached 14% in early 1993 before gradually
falling back to 11% in 1996. Inflation has oscillated; it reached 40%
in mid-1991, dropped to 17% in early 1994, jumped back to 31% by
mid-1995, and settled at 20% in 1996. Prospects for 1997 and 1998 are
good compared with the situation earlier. Most forecasters expect 2%
to 3% GDP growth in 1997 and slightly higher growth in 1998. Inflation
and unemployment are edging down. With the government still committed
to reform, both the budget and current account deficits are at IMF
target levels - about 4% of GDP. Budapest also is making good progress
in restructuring the pension, health, tax, education, and other
systems as part of the effort to decrease the role of government. This
dramatic shift in economic policy was rewarded in 1996 by the IMF,
which finally signed the standby agreement Budapest had sought, and by
the OECD, which welcomed Hungary as a member.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $74.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.3%
industry : 31.9%
services: 60.8% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 20% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 6.2 million (1996)
by occupation: services 58.7%, industry 34.7%, agriculture 6.6 (1996
est.)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10.2 billion
expenditures : $11 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed
foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor
vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 6.98 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 31.63 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,200 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar
beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $14.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: raw materials 39.5%, consumer goods 25.0%, agriculture
and food products 21.8%, machinery and equipment 11.3%, fuels and
electricity 2.4% (1995)
partners : EU 63.3% (Germany 28.8%, Austria 10.0%), Eastern Europe
19.7%, Russia 10.7% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $16.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: raw materials 42.3%, consumer goods 20.9%, machinery and
equipment 20.1%, fuels and electricity 10.8%, agricultural and food
products 5.9% (1995)
partners: EU 61.6% (Germany 23.6%, Austria 11.9%), Eastern Europe
22.2%, Russia 14.7% (1995)

Debt - external: $27.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $136 million (1993)
note : assistance received from OECD countries and international
organizations, $3,700 million (1990-93)

Currency: 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

Exchange rates: forints per US$1 - 166.100 (January 1997), 152.647
(1996), 125.681 (1995),105.160 (1994), 91.933 (1993), 78.988 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Hungary:Communications

Telephones: 2.16 million (1 January 1996) - there are 21.1 per 100
inhabitants, 54.1 per 100 households; mobile telephone services are
used by 267,000 subscribers

Telephone system: 14,213 telex lines; automatic telephone network
based on microwave radio relay system; the average waiting time for
telephones is expected to drop to one year by the end of 1997 (down
from over 10 years in the early 1990's); note - the former state-owned
telecommunications firm MATAV - now privatized and managed by a
US/German consortium - has ambitious plans to upgrade the inadequate
system, including a contract with the German firm Siemens and the
Swedish firm Ericsson to provide 600,000 new phone lines during
1996-98
domestic : microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and 1
Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 32, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 41 (Russian repeaters 8)

Televisions: 4.38 million (1993 est.)

@Hungary:Transportation

Railways:
total: 7,619 km
broad gauge: 35 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,408 km 1.435-m gauge (2,216 km electrified; 1,236 km
double track)
narrow gauge : 176 km 0.760-m gauge (1995)
note: Hungry and Austria jointly manage the cross-border
standard-gauge railway between Gyor, Sopron, Ebenfurti, and Vasut, a
distance of about 100 km

Highways:
total: 158,633 km
paved: 69,957 km (including 378 km of expressways)
unpaved: 88,676 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Budapest, Dunaujvaros

Merchant marine:
total: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,076 GRT/67,498
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 78 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 14
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 64
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m : 34 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Guard, Territorial Defense

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,631,781 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 2,099,109 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 78,828 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $550 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for
Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly
for amphetamines and methamphetamines
______________________________________________________________________

ICELAND

@Iceland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the
North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK

Geographic coordinates: 65 00 N, 18 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total: 103,000 sq km
land: 100,250 sq km
water: 2,750 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,988 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy
winters; damp, cool summers

Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields;
coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Hvannadalshnukur 2,119 m

Natural resources: fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 76% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: water pollution from fertilizer runoff;
inadequate wastewater treatment

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe;
westernmost European country; more land covered by glaciers than in
all of continental Europe

@Iceland:People

Population: 269,697 (July 1997 est.)
note: population data estimates based on average growth rate may
differ slightly from official population data because of volatile
migration rates

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 32,931; female 31,390)
15-64 years: 64% (male 87,993; female 86,107)
65 years and over: 12% (male 14,107; female 17,169) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.47% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.35 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.93 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.73 years
male: 76.68 years
female: 80.9 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.05 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Icelander(s)
adjective: Icelandic

Ethnic groups: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and
Celts

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3%, none 1% (1988)

Languages: Icelandic

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1976 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Iceland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Iceland
conventional short form: Iceland
local long form : Lyoveldio Island
local short form: Island

Data code: IC

Government type: constitutional republic

National capital: Reykjavik

Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla) and
14 independent towns* (kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*,
Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla,
Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*,
Husavik*, Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasys-la,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla, Reykjavik*,
Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*, Skagafjardharsysla,
Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla, Sudhur-Mulasysla,
Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vesttmannaeyjar*, Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Vestur-Hunavatnssysla, Vestur-Isafjardharsysla,
Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic, 17
June (1944)

Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since 30 April 1991)
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 29 June 1996 (next to be held NA June 2000); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results : Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON elected president; percent
of vote - 41.4%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Althing (63 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held on 8 April 1995 (next to be held by April 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - Independence Party 37.1%,
Progressive Party 23.3%, Social Democratic Party 11.4%, Socialists
14.3%, People's Movement 7.2%, Women's Party 4.9%; seats by party -
Independence 25, Progressive 15, Social Democratic 7, Socialists 9,
People's Movement 4, Women's Party 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Haestirettur, justices are appointed
for life by the president

Political parties and leaders: Independence Party (conservative) or IP
[David ODDSSON]; Progressive Party (liberal) or PP [Halldor
ASGRIMSSON]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Sighvatur BJORGVINSSON];
People's Alliance (left socialist) or PA [Margret FRIMANNSDOTTIR];
Women's Party or WL [Kristin ASTGEIRSDOTTIR]; People's Movement
(centrist); National Awakening (People's Revival Party) or PR [Johanna
SIGURDARDOTTIR]

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Einar BENEDIKTSSON
chancery : Suite 1200, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 265-6653 through 6655
FAX: [1] (202) 265-6656
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Day Olin MOUNT (22 August 1996)
embassy: Laufasvegur 21, Reykjavik
mailing address : US Embassy, PSC 1003, Box 40, FPO AE 09728-0340
telephone: [354] 5629100
FAX: [354] 5629118

Flag description: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

Economy - overview: Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically
capitalistic, yet with an extensive welfare system, low unemployment,
and remarkably even distribution of income. The economy depends
heavily on the fishing industry, which provides 75% of export earnings
and employs 12% of the work force. In the absence of other natural
resources - except energy - Iceland's economy is vulnerable to
changing world fish prices. The economy remains sensitive to declining
fish stocks as well as to drops in world prices for its main exports:
fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon. The center-right
government plans to continue its policies of reducing the budget and
current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing
inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying
the economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The government
remains opposed to EU membership, primarily because of Icelanders'
concern about losing control over their fishing resources.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $19,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.6%
industry: 22.1%
services: 68.3% (1991)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 145,000 (1994)
by occupation: commerce, transportation, and services 60.0%,
manufacturing 12.5%, fishing and fish processing 11.8%, construction
10.8%, agriculture 4.0%, other 0.9% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $1.9 billion
expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $297
million (1994 est.)

Industries: fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon
production, geothermal power; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 1.75% (1991 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.1 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 17,181 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, turnips; cattle, sheep; fish catch
of about 1.1 million metric tons in 1992

Exports:
total value: $1.67 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: fish and fish products 75%, animal products, aluminum,
ferrosilicon, diatomite
partners: UK 19%, Germany 14%, US 12%, Japan 11%, Denmark 8%, France
7% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $1.62 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum
products, foodstuffs, textiles
partners: Germany 11%, Norway 10%, UK 10%, Denmark 9%, US 8%, Sweden
7% (1995)

Debt - external: $2.5 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 68.330 (January
1997), 66.500 (1996), 64.692 (1995), 69.944 (1994), 67.603 (1993),
57.546 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Iceland:Communications

Telephones: 143,600 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: adequate domestic service
domestic: the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic cables
and microwave radio relay links
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean),
1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note - Iceland shares
the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark,
Finland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 147 (transmitters and repeaters),
shortwave 0

Radios: 91,500 licensed (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (transmitters and repeaters)

Televisions: 96,100 licensed (1993 est.)

@Iceland:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 12,378 km
paved: 3,070 km
unpaved : 9,308 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Akureyri, Hornafjordur, Isafjordhur, Keflavik,
Raufarhofn, Reykjavik, Seydhisfjordhur, Straumsvik, Vestmannaeyjar

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,041 GRT/21,531 DWT

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