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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have
their stonghold in the ethnically diverse north - General DOSTAM's
National Islamic Movement controls several northcentral provinces and
Commander MASOOD controls the ethnic Tajik majority areas of the
northeast

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there are
local Shari'a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Taliban (Religious Students Movement),
Mohammad OMAR; Supreme Defense Council of Afghanistan [comprised of
Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul Rashid
DOSTAM; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI and
Ahmad Shah MASOOD; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity
Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI]; other smaller parties are Hizbi
Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi
Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami
Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of
Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic
Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI;
Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation
Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic
Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic
Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic
Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI

Political pressure groups and leaders: tribal elders represent
traditional Pashtun leadership; Afghan refugees in Pakistan,
Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Peshawar,
Pakistan-based groups such as the Coordination Council for National
Unity and Understanding in Afghanistan (CUNUA), Ishaq GAILANI; Writers
Union of Free Afghanistan (WUFA), A. Rasul AMIN; Mellat (Social
Democratic Party), leader NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Yar Mohammed
MOHABBAT
chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770, 3771
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516
consulate(s) general : New York
consulate(s): Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul has
been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem
features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and
below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder
Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed
scimitars

Economy

Economy - overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked
country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and
goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political
and military upheavals during more than 17 years of war, including the
nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February
1989). During the war one-third of the population fled the country,
with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6
million refugees. Now, only 750,000 registered Afghan refugees remain
in Pakistan and about 1.2 million in Iran. Another 1 million have
probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Gross
domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 17 years
because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade
and transport. Millions of people continue to suffer from insufficient
food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation remains a serious
problem throughout the country, with one estimate putting the rate at
240% in Kabul in 1996. Numerical data are likely to be either
unavailable or unreliable.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 56%
industry: 15%
services: 29%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 240% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.1 million
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%,
construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
coal, copper

Electricity - capacity: 371,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 670 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 35 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool,
mutton

Exports:
total value: $80 million (1996 est.)
commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides
and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
partners : FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports:
total value : $150 million (1996 est.)
commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea,
Germany

Debt - external: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA; about $56 million in UN aid plus additional bilateral
aid and aid in kind (1996)
note: US provided $450 million in bilateral assistance (1985-93); US
continues to contribute to multilateral assistance through the UN
programs of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide
range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 17,000 (December 1996), 7,000
(January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991);
note - these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than
the official exchange rate, which is a fixed rate of 50.600 afghanis
to the dollar

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan:Communications

Telephones: 31,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : very limited telephone and telegraph service
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: 1.8 million (1996 est.); note - about 60% of families own a
radio

Television broadcast stations: NA
note: one television station run by Jumbesh faction provides
intermittent service

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Afghanistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 24.6 km
broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad
transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways:
total: 21,000 km
paved: 2,793 km
unpaved: 18,207 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to
about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan
to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 33 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
under 914 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: NA; note - the military does not exist on a
national basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense
Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force
(Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized
among the various groups

Military manpower - military age: 22 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 5,813,298 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 3,118,004 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 231,250 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some support from RABBANI and MASOOD to
anti-government Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; support to
Islamic militants worldwide by some factions; question over which
group should hold Afghanistan's seat at the UN

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest illicit opium producer after
Burma (1,230 metric tons in 1996 - down 2% from 1995) and a major
source of hashish
______________________________________________________________________

ALBANIA

@Albania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian
Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 28,750 sq km
land: 27,400 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 720 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia,
173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point : Maja e Korabit 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
timber, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along
southwestern coast

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

Population: 3,299,757 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 575,087; female 534,618)
15-64 years: 60% (male 927,791; female 1,068,922)
65 years and over: 6% (male 80,135; female 113,204) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.9% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 21.96 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.54 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 68.28 years
male: 65.24 years
female: 71.55 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1%
(official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy:
definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 72%
male: 80%
female: 63% (1955 est.)

@Albania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth);
Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje,
Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet,
Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje,
Vlore
note: some new administrative units may have been created

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's
Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by
popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April
1992)
head of government: Prime Minister of the interim National
Reconciliation Government Bashkim FINO (since 12 March 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held NA 1992 (next to be held NA March 1997);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results : Sali BERISHA elected president; percent of People's
Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor
(140 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some
by proportional vote for four-year terms)
elections: last held 26 May 1996 (next tentatively scheduled for 29
June 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP
122, PS 10, RP 3, UHP 3, Balli Kombetar 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is
elected by the People's Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Socialist Party or PS
(formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman];
Democratic Party or PD [Tritan SHEHU]; Albanian Republican Party or PR
[Sabri GODO]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Skender GJINUSHI];
Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Neritan CEKA, chairman]; Unity for
Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]; Movement for
Democracy Party or LDP [ruled by committee of Genc RULI, Alfred
SERREQI, Dashimir SHEHI, Maksim KONOMI]; Balli Kombetar [Hysen SELFO]

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD,
ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Lublin DILJA
chancery: Suite 1000, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942, 8187
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Marisa R. LINO (15 July 1996)
embassy: Rruga E. Labinoti 103, Tirane
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20
FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: An extremely poor country by European standards,
Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market
economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression
accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in
1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain
stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to
renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which
exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997
- which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's
adult population - triggered unrest in much of the south in early
1997. The economy continues to be buoyed by remittances of some 20% of
the labor force which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These
remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade
deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially
improving peasant incomes. Overall economic performance is likely to
be substantially worse in 1997; inflation will easily top 50% and GDP
may drop by 5% or more.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,290 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 56%
industry: 21%
services: 23% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 17.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000 emigrant workers
and 261,000 domestically unemployed)
by occupation : agriculture (nearly all private) 49.5%, private sector
22.2%, state (nonfarm) sector 28.3% (including state-owned industry
7.8%); note - includes only those domestically employed

Unemployment rate: 13% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $624 million
expenditures : $996 million, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil,
cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.533 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3.86 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,221 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wide range of temperate-zone crops and
livestock

Exports:
total value: $205 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude
oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
partners: Italy, US, Greece, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Imports:
total value: $680 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

Debt - external: $500 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 150.00 (May 1997), 104.50 (1996),
92.70 (1995), 94.62 (1994), 102.06 (1993), 75.03 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Albania:Communications

Telephones: 55,000

Telephone system:
domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it
to build fences
international : inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave
radio relay from the Tirane exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 300,000 (1993 est.)

@Albania:Transportation

Railways:
total : 670 km
standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 15,500 km
paved: 4,650 km
unpaved: 10,850 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid,
and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64
km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
total: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,201 GRT/57,938
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 11 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 738,082 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 600,403 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 31,823 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% to 2.0% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Albanian Government supports protection
of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders; Albanian
majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians
in Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to
public-sector jobs and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest
Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and
cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium
and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking
organizations active in Central and Eastern Europe
______________________________________________________________________

ALGERIA

@Algeria:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 6,343 km
border countries : Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 2%
other : 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud
slides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other
poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage,
petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading
to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in
particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and
fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

Population: 29,830,370 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 39% (male 5,923,391; female 5,712,088)
15-64 years: 57% (male 8,619,009; female 8,450,774)
65 years and over: 4% (male 525,556; female 599,552) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 28.01 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.76 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.62 years
male : 67.5 years
female: 69.79 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.48 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.6%
male: 73.9%
female : 49% (1995 est.)

@Algeria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
Shabiyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

National capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note -
referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into
law 7 December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Liamine ZEROUAL (appointed president 31
January 1994, elected president 16 November 1995)
head of government : Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 31 December
1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 16 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results : Liamine ZEROUAL elected president; percent of vote
- Liamine ZEROUAL 61.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; suspended
since 1992) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the
members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect
vote; members serve six-year terms; created as a result of the
constitutional revision of November 1996)
elections : National People's Assembly - first-round held 26 December
1991; second round canceled by the military after President BENDJEDID
resigned 11 January 1992, effectively suspending the assembly (next
election scheduled for 5 June 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - the
fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first
round of the 1991 elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed
April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile
in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Boualem BENHAMOUDA,
secretary general; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED,
secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland); Movement of a Peaceful
Society (Hamas), Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman; Rally for Culture and
Democracy (RCD), Said SAADI, secretary general; Algerian Renewal Party
(PRA), Noureddine BOUKROUH, chairman; Nahda Movement (Al Nahda),
Abdallah DJABALLAH, president; Democratic National Rally (RND),
Abdelkader BENSALAH, chairman; Movement for Democracy in Algeria
(MDA), Ahmed Ben BELLA
note : the government established a multiparty system in September
1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new
party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
(observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ramtane LAMAMRA
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX : [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
embassy : 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-12-55
FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and
white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the
crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the
state religion)

Economy

Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of
GDP, and almost all export earnings; Algeria has the fifth-largest
reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas
exporter; and it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts
to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab
world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the
country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a
comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve economic stabilization
and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite
substantial progress toward economic adjustment, in 1992 the reform
drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In
September 1993, a new government was formed, and one priority was the
resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process.
Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and burdened with a heavy
foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with
the IMF in April 1994. Following a Paris Club debt rescheduling in
1995, a robust harvest, and elevated oil prices, the economy
experienced a strong recovery and key economic improvements. Recent
and planned investments in developing hydrocarbon resources are likely
to increase growth and export earnings.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $115.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 50%
services: 38% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 19.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.8 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and
public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%,
transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $14.3 billion
expenditures: $17.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 6.01 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 18.7 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 583 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus,
fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports:
total value: $11 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97%
partners: Italy 18.8%, US 14.8%, France 11.8%, Spain 8%, Germany 7.9%
(1995 est.)

Imports:
total value : $10.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer goods
partners: France 29%, Spain 10.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 8%, Germany 5.6%
(1995 est.)

Debt - external: $32 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $420 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 57.136 (January 1997),
54.749 (1996), 47.663 (1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993), 21.836
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Algeria:Communications

Telephones: 862,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: excellent service in north but sparse in south; domestic
satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth
stations are planned)
international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1
Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Algeria:Transportation

Railways:
total : 4,772 km
standard gauge: 3,616 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways:
total: 102,424 km
paved : 70,570 km (including 6,080 km of expressways)
unpaved: 31,854 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas
2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
total : 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 925,261 GRT/1,094,281
DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas
tanker 11, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea
passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 119 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 66
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m : 24
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 17 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 53
2,438 to 3,047 m : 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial
Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 7,666,961 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,700,502 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 337,630 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.3 billion (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: part of southeastern region claimed by
Libya; land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993
______________________________________________________________________

AMERICAN SAMOA

(territory of the US)

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 199 sq km
land: 199 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry
season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal
plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland : 70%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in
the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater
harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas
and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 61,819 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.72% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 35.23 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.91 years
male: 71.03 years
female: 74.85 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.16 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: American Samoan(s)
adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other
5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages), English
note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 97% (1980 est.)

@American Samoa:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form: American Samoa
abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US;
administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial
and International Affairs

Government type: NA

National capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997)
and Lieutenant Governor Togiola Tulafono (since 3 January 1997)
cabinet: NA
elections: governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November
1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: Tauese P. SUNIA elected governor of American Samoa;
percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 51%, Peter REID
(Independent) 49%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of
the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by
popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains
Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats;
members are elected from local chiefs who serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 November 1996 (next
to be held NA November 1998); Senate - last held 3 November 1996 (next
to be held 7 November 2000)
election results : House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - NA
note: American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of
Representatives; elections last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held
NA November 1998); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as
delegate

Judicial branch: High Court, chief justice and associate justices are
appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior

Political parties and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is
based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and
white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two
traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is strongly linked to the US,
with which American Samoa conducts the great bulk of its foreign
trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the
private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna
canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers.
Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist
industry. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to
American Samoa's economic well-being. According to one observer,
attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are
restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and
its devastating hurricanes.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $128 million (1991 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (1991 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA %

Labor force:
total: 14,400 (1990)
by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget:
revenues: $97 million ($43 million in local revenue and $54 million in
grant revenue)
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 33,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 100 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,743 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro,
breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy farming

Exports:
total value: $306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: canned tuna 93%
partners : US 99.6%

Imports:
total value: $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products
7%, machinery and parts 6%
partners : US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note : important financial support from the US

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa:Communications

Telephones: 9,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular phone
services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 8,000 (1993 est.)

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 350 km
paved: 150 km
unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu,
Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ANDORRA

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 450 sq km
land: 450 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 125 km
border countries : France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Riu Valira 840 m
highest point : Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 56%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain
meadows contributes to soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 64,000 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14% (male 4,788; female 4,452)
15-64 years : 74% (male 25,291; female 21,807)
65 years and over: 12% (male 3,903; female 3,759) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.72% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.67 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.16 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 83.45 years
male : 80.53 years
female: 86.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA

@Andorra:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form : Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that
retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are
the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are
represented locally by officials called veguers

National capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular -
parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes,
Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) and
Spanish Episcopal Coprince Monseigneur Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31
January 1971); note - each coprince is represented by a veguer
(current names NA)
head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne
(since 21 December 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council designated by the executive council
president
elections: executive council president elected by the General Council
and formally appointed by the coprinces; election last held 16
February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
president; percent of General Council vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or
Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct
popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to
represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held February 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%,
ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party - UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) two
civil judges appointed by the veguers, one appeals judge appointed by
the coprinces alternately; Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo
de Urgel (Spain); Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal des Cortes
presided over by the two civil judges, one appeals judge, the veguers,
and two members of the General Council

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group or AND [Oscar
RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS]; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA];
New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU]; Andorran National Coalition or
CNA [Antoni CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc
MATEU]; Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA
[Marc FORNE]; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UDO
note : there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent
Representative to the UN)
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate
General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina
Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (343) 280-2227; FAX:
(343) 205-7705; note - Consul General Maurice S. PARKER makes periodic
visits to Andorra

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow
band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the
flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in
the center

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny,
well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 10
million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free
status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative
advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France
and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods
and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status,
also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production
is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be
imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.
Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU
member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU
member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues : $138 million
expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 35,000 kW (1992)

Electricity - production: 140 million kWh (1992)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh; note - Andorra exports
most of its electricity to France and Spain

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat,
barley, oats, vegetables; sheep raising

Exports:
total value : $47 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners : France 49%, Spain 47%

Imports:
total value: $1 billion (1995)
commodities: consumer goods, food
partners: France, Spain, US 4.2%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100
centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 134.77 (January 1997),
126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Andorra:Communications

Telephones: 21,258 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : modern system with microwave radio relay connections
between exchanges
international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 10,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Andorra:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved : 71 km (1991 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ANGOLA

Introduction

Current issues: Civil war has been the norm since independence from
Portugal on 11 November 1975. A cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991
until October 1992 when the insurgent National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola (UNITA) refused to accept its defeat in
internationally monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout
much of the countryside. The two sides signed another peace accord on
20 November 1994 and the cease-fire is generally holding, but military
tensions persist and banditry is increasing. In order to bring armed
insurgents under government control the peace accord of 20 November
1994 provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the
Angolan armed forces. Military integration began in June 1996 and a
Government of National Unity and Reconciliation was installed in April
1997. Efforts which began in May 1997 to extend government into
UNITA-occupied areas are proceeding slowly. The original 7,200-man UN
peacekeeping force began a phased drawdown in late 1996. All UN
peacekeepers are scheduled to depart by September 1997 but a small UN
military observer force will probably remain in Angola through 1998.

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land : 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km of which
220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda province, Republic of
the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 20 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool,
dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper,
feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 43%
other : 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
the plateau

Environment - current issues: the overuse of pastures and subsequent
soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification;
deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both
international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel,
resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water
pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of
potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification

Geography - note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Congo
(Kinshasa)

@Angola:People

Population: 10,548,847 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,393,009; female 2,327,186)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,793,038; female 2,753,624)
65 years and over: 3% (male 131,720; female 150,270) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.06% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 44.11 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.24 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population : 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 135.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 47.32 years
male: 45.12 years
female: 49.64 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.27 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
(mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
(est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male : 56%
female: 28% (1990 est.)

@Angola:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system

National capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza
Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda
Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law;
recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use
of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September
1979)
head of government: Prime Minister Fernando Jose de Franca Vieira Dias
VAN DUNEM (since 8 June 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected without opposition
under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first
multiparty elections in 28-29 September 1992, the last elections to be
held, (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president
and answerable to the Assembly
election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making
a run-off election necessary between him and second-place Jonas
SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the
Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) disputed the results of the first
election; the civil war was resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (223 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results : percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
others 12%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the
Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of
Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], is the ruling party and has
been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of
Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI], is the largest opposition party and
engaged in years of armed resistance to the government
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the
Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC
(observer), ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu"
chancery: 1050 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 760, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX : [1] (202) 785-1258

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. STEINBERG
embassy: No. 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
mailing address: C.P. 6484, Luanda; American Embassy, Department of
State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 (pouch)
telephone : [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418
FAX: [244] (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black
with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within
half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and
sickle)

Economy

Economy - overview: Angola is an economy in disarray. Despite its
abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's
lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
80%-90% of the population but accounts for about 12% of GDP. Oil
production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy,
contributing about 50% to GDP. Notwithstanding the signing of a peace
accord in November 1994, sporadic violence continues, millions of land
mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their
fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be
imported. To take advantage of its rich resources - notably gold,
diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, arable land, and
large oil deposits - Angola will need to observe the cease-fire,
implement the peace agreement, and reform government policies. Despite
the high inflation and political difficulties, total output grew an
estimated 9% in 1996, largely due to increased oil production.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 56%
services: 32% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1,700% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.783 million economically active
by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment
affecting more than half the population (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $928 million
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar,
bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish
processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar;
textiles;

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 620,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.82 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 171 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock;
forest products; fish

Exports:
total value: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas,
coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
partners: US 70%, EU

Imports:
total value : $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment),
vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles and clothing;
substantial military supplies
partners : Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

Debt - external: $12.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $451 million (1994)

Currency: 1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: new kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 201,994 (November 1996),
900,000 (25 April 1995), 600,000 (10 January 1995), 90,000 (1 June
1994), 7,000 (16 December 1993), 3.884 (July 1993), 550 (April 1992)
note: black market rates - new Kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 1,900,000 (6
April 1995), 180,000 (1 June 1994), 50,000 (16 December 1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Angola:Communications

Telephones: 78,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and
business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and

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