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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 19 out of 47

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Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 55.6%
male: 62.5%
female : 48.6% (1995 est.)

@Guatemala:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala

Data code: GT

Government type: republic

National capital: Guatemala

Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula,
El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa,
Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San
Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986
note: suspended 25 May 1993 by President SERRANO; reinstated 5 June
1993 following ouster of president

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alvaro Enrique ARZU Irigoyen (since 14
January 1996); Vice President Luis Alberto FLORES Asturias (since 14
January 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
head of government: President Alvaro Enrique ARZU Irigoyen (since 14
January 1996); Vice President Luis Alberto FLORES Asturias (since 14
January 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 12 November 1995; runoff held 7 January 1996 (next
to be held NA November 2000)
election results : Alvaro Enrique ARZU Irigoyen elected president;
percent of vote - Alvaro Enrique ARZU Irigoyen (PAN) 51.2%, Jorge
PORTILLO Cabrera (FRG) 48.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de
la Republica (80 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held on 12 November 1995 to select 80 new congressmen
(next to be held in November 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAN
43, FRG 21, FDNG 6, DCG 4, UCN 3, UD 2, MLN 1
note: on 11 November 1993 the congress approved a procedure that
reduced its number from 116 seats to 80; the procedure provided for a
special election in mid-1994 to elect an interim congress of 80
members to serve until replaced in the November 1995 general election;
the plan was approved in a general referendum in January 1994 and the
special election was held on 14 August 1994

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia);
additionally the Court of Constitutionality is presided over by the
President of the Supreme Court, judges are elected for a five-year
term by Congress

Political parties and leaders: National Centrist Union or UCN [Juan
AYERDI Aguilar]; Christian Democratic Party or DCG [Alfonso CABRERA
Hidalgo]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen];
National Liberation Movement or MLN [Mario SANDOVAL Alarcon]; Social
Democratic Party or PSD [Sergio FLORES Cruz]; Revolutionary Party or
PR [Carlos CHAVARRIA Perez]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG
[Efrain RIOS Montt]; Democratic Union or UD [Jose CHEA Urruela]; New
Guatemalan Democratic Front or FDNG [Rafael ARRIAGA Martinez]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Coordinating Committee of
Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or
CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM; Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO;
Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Alliance Against Impunity or
AAI; leftist movement of former guerrillas known as Guatemalan
National Revolutionary Union or URNG has four main factions -
Guerrilla Army of the Poor or EGP; Revolutionary Organization of the
People in Arms or ORPA; Rebel Armed Forces or FAR; Guatemalan Labor
Party or PGT/O; note - signed peace treaty with government on 29
December 1996; URNG formally disbanded 29-30 March 1997

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro Miguel LAMPORT Kelsall
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 745-4952 through 4954
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald J. PLANTY (18 July 1996)
embassy: 7-01 Avenida la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: APO AA 34024
telephone : (502) 331-1541
FAX: (502) 334-8477

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist
side), white, and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the
white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the
national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE
SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all
superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords
and framed by a wreath

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on family and corporate
agriculture, which accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 60% of the
labor force, and supplies two-thirds of exports. Manufacturing and
construction, predominantly in private hands, account for about 20% of
GDP and 18% of the labor force. In both 1990 and 1991, the economy
grew by 3%, the fourth and fifth consecutive years of mild growth. In
1992 growth picked up to almost 5% as government policies favoring
competition and foreign trade and investment took stronger hold. In
1993-94, despite political unrest, this momentum continued, foreign
investment held up, and annual growth averaged 4%. Strong
international prices for Guatemala's traditional commodity exports
featured 4.9% growth in 1995; growth receded to 3% in 1996. Given the
markedly uneven distribution of land and income, the government faces
major obstacles in its program of economic modernization and the
reduction of poverty.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,460 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 20%
services: 55%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10.9% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.1 million (1995 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 58%, services 14%, manufacturing 14%,
commerce 7%, construction 4%, transport 2.6%, utilities 0.3%, mining
0.1% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 4.9%; underemployment 30%-40% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.25 billion (1995)
expenditures : $1.35 billion, including capital expenditures of $385
million (1995)

Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals,
petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 973,500 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3.229 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 255 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans,
cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens

Exports:
total value: $1.81 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, sugar, bananas, cardamom, beef
partners: US 30%, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Germany, Honduras

Imports:
total value : $3.11 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain,
fertilizers, motor vehicles
partners: US 44%, Mexico, Venezuela, Japan, Germany

Debt - external: $3.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $274 million (1994)

Currency: 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: free market quetzales (Q) per US$1 - 6.0527 (January
1997), 6.0495 (1996), 5.8103 (1995), 5.7512 (1994), 5.6354 (1993),
5.1706 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guatemala:Communications

Telephones: 210,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: fairly modern network centered in the city of
Guatemala
domestic: NA
international : connected to Central American Microwave System;
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 0, shortwave 15

Radios: 400,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 25

Televisions: 475,000 (1993 est.)

@Guatemala:Transportation

Railways:
total : 884 km (102 km privately owned)
narrow gauge: 884 km 0.914-m gauge (single track)

Highways:
total: 12,795 km
paved: 3,519 km (including 135 km of expressways)
unpaved : 9,276 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable
during high-water season

Pipelines: crude oil 275 km

Ports and harbors: Champerico, Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, San
Jose, Santo Tomas de Castilla

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 446 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 318
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 5
under 914 m: 309 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 128
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m : 119 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 2,741,575 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,791,136 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 129,408 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $128.3 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.8% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: border with Belize in dispute; talks to
resolve the dispute are ongoing

Illicit drugs: transit country for cocaine shipments; illicit producer
of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; the
government has an active eradication program for cannabis and opium
poppy
______________________________________________________________________

GUERNSEY

(British crown dependency)

@Guernsey:Geography

Location: Western Europe, islands in the English Channel, northwest of
France

Geographic coordinates: 49 28 N, 2 35 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 194 sq km
land: 194 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller
islands

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 50 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone : 12 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of
days are overcast

Terrain: mostly level with low hills in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Sark 114 m

Natural resources: cropland

Land use:
arable land : NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port

@Guernsey:People

Population: 63,731 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 5,703; female 5,584)
15-64 years: 67% (male 20,883; female 21,702)
65 years and over : 15% (male 3,959; female 5,900) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.54 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.65 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.38 years
male: 75.44 years
female: 81.43 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Channel Islander(s)
adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups: UK and Norman-French descent

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist,
Congregational, Methodist

Languages: English, French, Norman-French dialect spoken in country
districts

Literacy: NA

@Guernsey:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Bailiwick of Guernsey
conventional short form: Guernsey

Data code: GK

Dependency status: British crown dependency

Government type: NA

National capital: Saint Peter Port

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: English law and local statute; justice is administered
by the Royal Court

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief
Vice-Admiral Sir John COWARD (since NA 1994) and Bailiff Mr. Graham
Martyn DOREY (since February 1992)
cabinet: Advisory and Finance Committee (other committees) appointed
by the Assembly of the States
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; lieutenant
governor appointed by the queen; bailiff appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States (60 seats, 33
popularly elected; members serve six-year terms)
elections: last held 20 April 1994 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - all independents

Judicial branch: Royal Court

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)

Flag description: white with the red cross of Saint George (patron
saint of England) extending to the edges of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Financial services account for about 55% of total
income. Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and
cut flowers, have been declining. Bank profits (1992) registered a
record 26% growth. Fund management and insurance are the two other
major income generators.

GDP: $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7% (1988)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 3%-4% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $257.9 million
expenditures: $235.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: tomatoes, greenhouse flowers, sweet peppers,
eggplant, other vegetables, fruit; Guernsey cattle

Exports: $NA
commodities: tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant,
other vegetables
partners: UK (regarded as internal trade)

Imports: $NA
commodities: coal, gasoline, and oil
partners: UK (regarded as internal trade)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Guernsey (ŁG) pound = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Guernsey pounds (ŁG) per US$1 - 0.6023 (January 1997),
0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664
(1992); note - the Guernsey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guernsey:Communications

Telephones: 41,850 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : NA
international: 1 submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Guernsey:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint Peter Port, Saint Sampson

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

GUINEA

@Guinea:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone

Geographic coordinates: 11 00 N, 10 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 245,860 sq km
land : 245,860 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 3,399 km
border countries: Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Liberia
563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km

Coastline: 320 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to
November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with
northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point : Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium,
hydropower, fish

Land use:
arable land : 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 59%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 930 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility
during dry season

Environment - current issues: deforestation; inadequate supplies of
potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion;
overfishing, overpopulation in forest region

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Guinea:People

Population: 7,405,375 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 1,625,046; female 1,632,953)
15-64 years : 53% (male 1,928,853; female 2,019,180)
65 years and over: 3% (male 83,165; female 116,178) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 41.95 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 18.23 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: in prior years Guinea received several hundred thousand refugees
from the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone, some of whom are now
returning to their own countries

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 131.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.54 years
male: 43.15 years
female : 47.99 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.66 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean

Ethnic groups: Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller tribes 10%

Religions: Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%

Languages: French (official), each tribe has its own language

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.9%
male: 49.9%
female: 21.9% (1995 est.)

@Guinea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea

Data code: GV

Government type: republic

National capital: Conakry

Administrative divisions: 33 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture) and 1 national capital* (capitale d'etat); Beyla, Boffa,
Boke, Conakry*, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah,
Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia,
Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola,
Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele,
Tougue, Yomou
note: the 33 prefectures may have been subsumed by four new
first-order administrative divisions called administrative regions
(regions administrative, singular - region administrative) named
Guinee-Forestiere, Guinee-Maritime, Haute-Guinee, and Moyenne-Guinee

Independence: 2 October 1958 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April (1984)

Constitution: 23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)

Legal system: based on French civil law system, customary law, and
decree; legal codes currently being revised; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Lansana CONTE (head of military government
since 5 April 1984, elected president 19 December 1993);
head of government : Prime Minister Sidia TOURE (since July 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected
president; election last held 19 December 1993 (next to be held NA
December 1998); the prime minister was appointed by President CONTE
election results: Lansana CONTE' elected president; percent of vote -
Lansana CONTE' (PUP) 51.7%, Alpha CONDE' (RPG) 19.55%, Mamadou Boye
BA' (UNR) 13.37%, Siradiou DIALLO (PRP) 11.86%; note - the country's
first-ever multi-party elections for president

Legislative branch: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale Populaire (114 seats; members are elected by direct popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections : last held 11 June 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PUP
71, RPG 19, PRP 9, UNR 9, UPG 2, PDG 1, UNP 1, PDG/RDA 1, other 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: political parties were legalized on 1
April 1992; of the more than 40 with legal status, the following won
seats in the legislature in the 11 June 1995 elections
pro-government : Party for Unity and Progress or PUP [Gen. Lansana
CONTE']
other: Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union for a
New Republic or UNR [Mamadou Boye BA']; Party for Renewal and Progress
or PRP [Siradiou DIALLO]; Union for Progress of Guinea or UPG
[Sec.-Gen. Jean-Marie DORE]; Democratic Party of Guinea or PDG-AST
[Ahmed Sekou TOURE]; National Union for the Prosperity of Guinea or
UNPG [Lt.Col. Facine TOURE]; Democratic Party of Guinea - African
Democratic Rally or PDG - RDA [El Hadj Ismael Mohamed Gassim GUSHEIN]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Mohamed Aly THIAM
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-9420
FAX: [1] (202) 483-8688

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tibor P. NAGY, Jr. (5 July 1996)
embassy : Rue KA 038, Conakry
mailing address: B. P. 603, Conakry
telephone: [224] 41 15 20, 41 15 21, 41 15 23
FAX: [224] 41 15 22

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side),
yellow, and green; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia;
similar to the flag of Rwanda, which has a large black letter R
centered in the yellow band

Economy

Economy - overview: Although possessing major mineral, hydropower, and
agricultural resources, Guinea remains one of the poorest countries in
the world. The agricultural sector employs 80% of the work force.
Guinea possesses over 25% of the world's bauxite reserves and is the
second largest bauxite producer. The mining sector accounted for about
75% of exports in 1995. Long run improvements in government fiscal
arrangements, literacy, and the legal framework are needed if the
country is to move out of poverty. Except in the mining industry,
foreign investment remains minimal.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $950 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 24%
industry: 31%
services: 45% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.1% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.4 million (1983)
by occupation: agriculture 80.0%, industry and commerce 11.0%,
services 5.4%, civil service 3.6%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $519 million
expenditures: $947 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: bauxite, gold, diamonds; alumina refining; light
manufacturing and agricultural processing industries

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 113,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 300 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 40 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels,
cassava (tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats;
timber

Exports:
total value: $725 million (1995 est.)
commodities: bauxite, alumina, diamonds, gold, coffee, fish,
agricultural products
partners : Belgium-Luxembourg 27%, US 15%, Ireland 10%, Spain 10%
(1994)

Imports:
total value: $775 million (1995 est.)
commodities: petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport
equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
partners: France 20%, Cote d'Ivoire 16%, US 7%, Belgium-Luxembourg 7%,
Hong Kong 6%, Germany 4% (1994)

Debt - external: $3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Guinean francs (FG) per US$1 - 1,004.0 (January 1997),
1,006.8 (November 1996), 991.4 (1995), 976.6 (1994), 955.5 (1993),
902.0 (1992)
note: the official exchange rate of the Guinean franc was set and
quoted weekly against the US dollar until end-October 1993; since 1
November 1994, the exchange rate is determined in the interbank market
for foreign exchange

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guinea:Communications

Telephones: 18,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: poor to fair system of open-wire lines, small
radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay
system
domestic : microwave radio relay and radiotelephone communication
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 257,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 65,000 (1993 est.)

@Guinea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,086 km
standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (includes 662 km in common carrier
service from Kankan to Conakry)

Highways:
total: 30,270 km
paved: 4,964 km
unpaved: 25,306 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Ports and harbors: Boke, Conakry, Kamsar

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard), Air
Force, Republican Guard, Presidential Guard, paramilitary National
Gendarmerie, National Police Force (Surete National)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,684,999 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 850,053 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $50 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

GUINEA-BISSAU

@Guinea-Bissau:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea and Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 12 00 N, 15 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 36,120 sq km
land: 28,000 sq km
water: 8,120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of
Connecticut

Land boundaries:
total: 724 km
border countries: Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy
season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season
(December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location in the northeast corner of the country
300 m

Natural resources: fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, unexploited
deposits of petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures : 38%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility
during dry season; brush fires

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
overgrazing; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Guinea-Bissau:People

Population: 1,178,584 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 251,873; female 250,950)
15-64 years: 54% (male 304,116; female 338,489)
65 years and over : 3% (male 15,771; female 17,385) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.33% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 39.17 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 15.85 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 113.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.71 years
male: 47.05 years
female: 50.42 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.26 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guinea-Bissauan(s)
adjective: Guinea-Bissauan

Ethnic groups: African 99% (Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%,
Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 30%, Christian 5%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 54.9%
male : 68%
female: 42.5% (1995 est.)

@Guinea-Bissau:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau
local long form: Republica de Guine-Bissau
local short form: Guine-Bissau
former: Portuguese Guinea

Data code: PU

Government type: republic, multiparty since mid-1991, formerly highly
centralized

National capital: Bissau

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao);
Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali

Independence: 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 September (1974)

Constitution: 16 May 1984, amended 4 May 1991 (currently undergoing
revision to liberalize popular participation in the government)

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (initially assumed
power 14 November 1980)
head of government: Prime Minister Manuel da Costa SATURNINO (since 5
November 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held NA August 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Joao Bernardo VIEIRA elected president; percent of
vote - Joao Bernardo VIEIRA 52%, Kumba YALLA 48%

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly or
Assembleia Nacional Popular (100 seats; members are popularly elected
to serve five-year terms)
elections : last held 3 July and 7 August 1994 (next to be held NA
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 46.0%, RGB-MB
19.2%, PRS 10.3%, UM 12.8%, FLING 2.5%, PCD 5.3%, PUSD 2.9%, FCG 0.2%,
others 0.8%; seats by party - PAIGC 62, RGB 19, PRS 12, UM 6, FLING 1

Judicial branch: none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council
of Ministers

Political parties and leaders: African Party for the Independence of
Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [President Joao Bernardo VIEIRA,
leader]; Front for the Liberation and Independence of Guinea or FLING
[Francois Kankoila MENDY]; Guinea-Bissau Resistance-Bah Fatah Movement
or RGB-MB [Domingos FERNANDES Gomes]; Guinea Civic Forum or FCG
[Antonieta Rosa GOMES]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD
[Vi'tor MANDINGA]; Social Renovation Party or PRS [Koumba YALLA,
leader]; Union for Change Coalition or UM [Joao da COSTA, Pres.];
United Social Democratic Party or PUSD [Vi'tor Sau'de MARIA]

International organization participation: ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB,
ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary),
UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Rufino Jose MENDES
chancery: 918 16th Street NW, Mezzanine Suite, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 872-4222
FAX: [1] (202) 872-4226

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peggy BLACKFORD
embassy : Bairro de Penha, Bissau
mailing address: C.P. 297, 1067 Codex, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
telephone: [245] 252273, 252274, 252275, 252276
FAX: [245] 252282

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green
with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black
five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in
the world. Farming and fishing are the main economic activities.
Cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and fish are the primary exports.
Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at present because
of a weak infrastructure and the high cost of development. Although
Guinea-Bissau won an IMF Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility in
1996, recent political instability and overspending have undermined
the progress of economic reform and delayed disbursements of donor
aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $950 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 44%
industry: 8%
services: 48% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 45.4% (1995)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 22,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 30 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 29 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), cashew
nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; fishing and forest potential not
fully exploited

Exports:
total value: $33 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: cashews 95%, fish, peanuts, palm kernels, sawn lumber
(1994)
partners: Spain 35%, India 30%, Thailand 10%, Italy 10% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $52.4 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, petroleum products,
machinery and equipment (1994)
partners: Thailand 27%, Portugal 23%, Japan 6%, Cote d'Ivoire 7%
(1995)

Debt - external: $816 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1 - 33,910 (December
1996), 26,373 (1996), 18,073 (1995), 12,892 (1994), 10,082 (1993),
6,934 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guinea-Bissau:Communications

Telephones: 3,000 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: poor system
domestic: combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, and
radiotelephone communications
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 40,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Guinea-Bissau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 4,350 km
paved: 444 km
unpaved: 3,906 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce

Ports and harbors: Bissau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 16 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m : 8 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; includes
Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 268,000 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 152,948 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $9 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.5% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

GUYANA

@Guyana:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Suriname and Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 5 00 N, 59 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 214,970 sq km
land: 196,850 sq km
water : 18,120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Idaho

Land boundaries:
total: 2,462 km
border countries: Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km, Venezuela 743 km

Coastline: 459 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental
margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two
rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)

Terrain: mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Roraima 2,835 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp,
fish

Land use:
arable land : 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 84%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat during rainy
seasons

Environment - current issues: water pollution from sewage and
agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Tropical Timber 94

@Guyana:People

Population: 706,116 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 115,120; female 110,741)
15-64 years: 63% (male 225,199; female 222,793)
65 years and over : 5% (male 14,563; female 17,700) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.78% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 18.71 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.02 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -16.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 51.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.27 years
male : 56.93 years
female: 61.74 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Guyanese

Ethnic groups: East Indian 51%, black and mixed 43%, Amerindian 4%,
white and Chinese 2%

Religions: Christian 57%, Hindu 33%, Muslim 9%, other 1%

Languages: English, Amerindian dialects

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98.1%
male: 98.6%
female: 97.5% (1995 est.)

@Guyana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Co-operative Republic of Guyana
conventional short form: Guyana
former: British Guiana

Data code: GY

Government type: republic

National capital: Georgetown

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni,
Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West
Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper
Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo

Independence: 26 May 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 23 February (1970)

Constitution: 6 October 1980

Legal system: based on English common law with certain admixtures of
Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Executive President Samuel HINDS (since March 1997);
replaced Cheddi JAGAN who died in office, March 1997
head of government: Prime Minister Janet JAGAN (since March 1997);
filled vacancy created when Samuel HINDS ascended to office of
Executive President following death of Cheddi JAGAN, March 1997
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible
to the legislature
elections: president elected by the majority party in the National
Assembly after legislative elections, which must be held within five
years; legislative elections last held 5 October 1992 (next to be held
NA 1997); prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (65 seats, 53
popularly elected; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 October 1992 (next to be held by October
1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - PPP 53.4%, PNC 42.3%, WPA
2%, TUF 1.2%; seats by party - PPP 36, PNC 26, WPA 2, TUF 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP),
People's National Congress (PNC), Hugh Desmond HOYTE; For a Good and
Green Guyana (GGG), Hamilton GREEN; Working People's Alliance (WPA),
Rupert ROOPNARINE; Democratic Labor Movement (DLM), Paul TENNASSEE;
People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Llewellyn JOHN; National
Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph BACCHUS; The United Force (TUF),
Manzoor NADIR; United Republican Party (URP), Leslie RAMSAMMY;
National Republican Party (NRP), Robert GANGADEEN; Guyana Labor Party
(GLP); Guyana Democratic Party (GDP), Asgar ALLY; Guyanese Organized
for Liberty and Democracy Party (GOLD), Anthony MEKDECI

Political pressure groups and leaders: Trades Union Congress (TUC);
Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO); Civil Liberties Action
Committee (CLAC)
note: the latter two organizations are small and active but not well
organized

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO
(subscriber), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Ali Odeen ISHMAEL
chancery : 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900, 6901
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Hugh SIMON
embassy: 99-100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown
mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown
telephone: [592] (2) 54900 through 54909, 57960 through 57969
FAX : [592] (2) 58497

Flag description: green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the
hoist side) superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow
black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow white border
between the yellow and the green

Economy

Economy - overview: In 1996, Guyana, one of the poorest countries in
the Western Hemisphere, posted its fifth straight year of economic
growth of 5% or better, with the advance led by gold and bauxite
mining and by sugar. Favorable growth factors have included expansion
in the key agricultural and mining sectors, a more favorable
atmosphere for business initiative, a more realistic exchange rate, a
moderate inflation rate, and the continued support of international
organizations. Serious underlying economic problems will continue.
Electric power has been in short supply and constitutes a major
barrier to future gains in national output. The government must
persist in efforts to manage its sizable external debt and extend its
privatization program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,490 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 49%
industry: 28%
services: 33% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 12% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $209 million
expenditures: $303 million, including capital expenditures of $109
million (1995 est.)

Industries: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp),
textiles, gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: 5.6% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 157,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 318 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 301 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugar, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef,
pork, poultry, dairy products; development potential exists for
fishing and forestry

Exports:
total value: $565 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : sugar, gold, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses
partners: Canada 33%, US 24%, UK 22% (1994 est.)

Imports:
total value: $589 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
partners : US 29%, Trinidad and Tobago 17%, Netherlands Antilles 17%,
UK 11%, (1994 est.)

Debt - external: $1.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1 - 140.3 (February
1997), 141.1 (December 1996), 140.4 (1996), 142.0 (1995), 138.3
(1994), 126.7 (1993), 125.0 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Guyana:Communications

Telephones: 33,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: fair system for long-distance calling
domestic : microwave radio relay network for trunk lines
international: tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 3, shortwave 1

Radios: 398,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (1995 est.)

Televisions: 32,000 (1992 est.)

@Guyana:Transportation

Railways:
total: 88 km
standard gauge: 40 km 1.435-m gauge (dedicated to ore transport)
narrow gauge: 48 km 0.914-m gauge (dedicated to ore transport)

Highways:
total: 7,820 km
paved: 571 km
unpaved : 7,249 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice, Demerara,
and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km,
100 km, and 80 km, respectively

Ports and harbors: Bartica, Georgetown, Linden, New Amsterdam, Parika

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,317 GRT/2,558 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 47 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m : 32 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Guyana Defense Force (GDF; includes Ground Forces,
Coast Guard, and Air Corps), Guyana People's Militia (GPM), Guyana
National Service (GNS)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 198,350 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 150,105 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $7 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: all of the area west of the Essequibo River
claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area between New (Upper
Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the
Courantyne)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics from South America -
primarily Venezuela - to the US and Europe; producer of cannabis
______________________________________________________________________

HAITI

@Haiti:Geography

Location: Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the
Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 275 km
border countries : Dominican Republic 275 km

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf : to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade
winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m

Natural resources: bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures : 18%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 44% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject
to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: extensive deforestation (much of the
remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and use as
fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic
(western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican
Republic)

@Haiti:People

Population: 6,611,407 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 1,451,550; female 1,409,056)
15-64 years : 53% (male 1,668,670; female 1,811,957)
65 years and over: 4% (male 134,366; female 135,808) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.39% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 33.12 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 15.25 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 49.49 years
male : 47.45 years
female: 51.63 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups: black 95%, mulatto plus white 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also
practice Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%,
Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)

Languages: French (official) 10%, Creole

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 45%
male: 48%
female: 42.2% (1995 est.)

@Haiti:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique d'Haiti
local short form: Haiti

Data code: HA

Government type: republic

National capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements, singular -
departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution: approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles
reinstated March 1989; in October 1991, government claimed to be
observing the constitution; return to constitutional rule, October
1994

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Rene Garcia PREVAL (since 7 February 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Rosny SMARTH (since March 1996)
cabinet : Cabinet; chosen by the prime minister in consultation with
the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held by December
2000); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Rene Garcia PREVAL elected president; percent of
vote - Rene Garcia PREVAL 88%, Leon JEUNE 2.5%, Victor BENOIT 2.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale
consists of the Senate (27 seats; members serve six-year terms;
one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (83
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 25 June 1995 with reruns on 13 August
and runoffs on 17 September (election held for nine seats 6 April
1997; runoffs to be held 25 May 1997 were postponed); Chamber of
Deputies - last held 25 June 1995 with reruns on 13 August and runoffs
on 17 September (next to be held NA 1999; byelections for two vacant
seats were held 6 April 1997; runoffs to be held 25 May 1997 were
postponed)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Lavalas Platform 17, FNDC 6, National Alliance for Democracy
and Progress 2, RDNP 1, independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent
of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lavalas Platform 67, FNCD 2,
CONACOM 1, PANPRA 1, MRN 2, MKN 1, PROP 1, UPD 2, independents 4,
vacant 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders: National Front for Change and Democracy
(FNCD), Evans PAUL and Turneb DELPE; National Cooperative Action
Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH; National Congress of Democratic
Movements (CONACOM), Victor BENOIT; Movement for the Installation of
Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc BAZIN; National Progressive
Revolutionary Party (PANPRA), Serge GILLES; National Patriotic
Movement of November 28 (MNP-28), Dejean BELIZAIRE; National
Agricultural and Industrial Party (PAIN), Louis DEJOIE; Movement for
National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene THEODORE; Haitian Christian
Democratic Party (PDCH), Fritz PIERRE; Assembly of Progressive
National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT; National Labor Party (PNT),
Remy ZAMOR; Mobilization for National Development (MDN), Hubert DE
RONCERAY; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti (MODELH),
Francois LATORTUE; Popular Organizations Gathering Power (PROP), Simon
JEAN-POIX; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner
COMEAU and Jean MOLIERE; Democratic Unity Confederation (KID), Evans
PAUL; National Lavalas Political Organization (OPL), Gerard
PIERRE-CHARLES; Open the Gate Party (PLB), Renaud BERNARDIN; Haitian
National Democratic Progressive Party (PNDPH), Turneb DELPE; Union of
Patriotic Democrats (UPD), Rockefeller GUERRE; Cooperative Action for
Economic Liberation (KLE), Leon JEUNE; Generation 2004, Claude
ROUMAIN; Alliance for the Liberation and Advancement of Haiti (ALAH),
Reynold GEORGES; Lavalas Political Platform or PPL (an alliance of OPL
and MOP) [Renaud BERNARDIN]; Haitian Democratic Party (PADEMH), Clark
PARENT; National Rally of Democratic Forces (RANFO), Jean Nazaire
THIDE, Marino ETIENNE; National Alliance for Democracy and Progress

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH); Federation of Workers Trade
Unions (FOS); Autonomous Haitian Workers (CATH); National Popular
Assembly (APN); Papaye Peasants Movement (MPP)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, Caricom
(observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LAES, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Jean CASIMIR
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090 through 4092
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William Lacy SWING
embassy : 5 Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
telephone: [509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, 22-0612
FAX: [509] 23-1641

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red
with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which
contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll
bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

Economy

Economy - overview: About 75% of the population lives in abject
poverty. Nearly 70% of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector,
which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming and employs
about two-thirds of the economically active work force. The country
has experienced little or no job creation since President PREVAL took
office in February 1996. Failure to reach agreements with
international sponsors have denied Haiti badly needed budget and
development assistance. Meeting aid conditions in 1997 will be
especially challenging in the face of mounting popular criticism of
reforms.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 34.8%
industry: 23%
services: 42.2% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 18% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 2.3 million
by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 25%, industry 9%
note : shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

Unemployment rate: 60% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $240 million (est.)
expenditures: $250 million including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Industries: sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, tourism,
light assembly industries based on imported parts

Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 216,500 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 379 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 33 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn,
sorghum; wood

Exports:
total value: $123 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%,
other 8%
partners: US 73.5%, EU 19.4% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $666 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%,
petroleum products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
partners: US 65.0%, EU 13.9% (1995)

Debt - external: $827 million (September 1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1 (end of period) - 16.260 (January
1997), 15.093 (1996), 16.160 (1995), 12.947 (1994), 12.805 (1993),
10.953 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Haiti:Communications

Telephones: 50,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: domestic facilities barely adequate, international
facilities slightly better
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 33, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: 320,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 32,000 (1992 est.)

@Haiti:Transportation

Railways:
total: 40 km (single track; privately owned industrial line) - closed
in early 1990's
narrow gauge : 40 km 0.760-m gauge

Highways:
total: 4,080 km
paved: 987 km
unpaved: 3,093 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable

Ports and harbors: Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Jeremie, Cayes,
Miragoane, Port-au-Prince, Port-de-Paix, Saint-Marc

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Haitian National Police (PNH)
note: the regular Haitian Army, Navy, and Air Force have been

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