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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 17 out of 47

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elected, 4 appointed by the president)
elections: last popular election held 2 January 1997 (next to be held
NA)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
APRC 33, UDP 7, NRP 2, PDOIS 1, independents 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation
and Construction or APRC [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH]; National
Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic
Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA];
United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]; note - in August
1996 the government banned the following from participation in the
elections of 1996: People's Progressive Party or PPP [former President
Dawda K. JAWARA (in exile)], and two opposition parties - the National
Convention Party or NCP [former vice president Sheriff DIBBA (in
exile)] and the Gambian People's Party or GPP [Hassan Musa CAMARA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad
interim Malamin K. JUWARA
chancery: Suite 1000, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1399, 1379, 1425
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gerald Wesley SCOTT
embassy: Fajara, Kairaba Avenue, Banjul
mailing address: P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul
telephone : [220] 392856, 392858, 391970, 391971
FAX: [220] 392475

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with
white edges, and green

Economy

Economy - overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other
natural resources and has a limited agricultural base. About 75% of
the population depends on crops and livestock for its livelihood.
Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of peanuts,
fish, and hides. Reexport trade normally constitutes a major segment
of economic activity, but the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in
January 1994 made Senegalese goods more competitive and hurt the
reexport trade. The Gambia has benefited from a rebound in tourism in
1996 after its decline in response to the military's takeover in July
1994. Short-run economic progress remains highly dependent on
sustained bilateral and multilateral aid and on government willingness
to reduce intervention in market processes.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 27%
industry: 15%
services: 58% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 400,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services
18.9%, government 6.1%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $88.6 million
expenditures: $98.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: processing peanuts, fish, and hides; tourism; beverages;
agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking; clothing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 30,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 65 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 74 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava
(tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats; forest and fishing
resources not fully exploited

Exports:
total value : $127 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: peanuts and peanut products 70%, fish, cotton lint, palm
kernels
partners: Japan, Senegal, Hong Kong, France, Switzerland, UK,
Indonesia

Imports:
total value: $201 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery
and transport equipment
partners: China, Cote d'Ivoire, France, UK, Germany

Debt - external: $419 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: bilateral $36.1 million; multilateral $34.7 million (1994)

Currency: 1 dalasi (D) = 100 butut

Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1 - 9.875 (November 1996), 9.546
(1995), 9.576 (1994), 9.129 (1993), 8.888 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@The Gambia:Communications

Telephones: 11,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: adequate network of microwave radio relay and open wire
international: microwave radio relay links to Senegal and
Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 180,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@The Gambia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,640 km
paved: 932 km
unpaved : 1,708 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 400 km

Ports and harbors: Banjul

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, National Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 276,923 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 139,531 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $14 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.8% (FY93/94)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of boundary with Senegal is
indefinite
______________________________________________________________________

GAZA STRIP

Introduction

Current issues: The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13
September 1993, provides for a transitional period not exceeding five
years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the
West Bank. Permanent status negotiations began on 5 May 1996. Under
the DOP, Israel agreed to transfer certain powers and responsibilities
to the Palestinian Authority, which includes a Palestinian Legislative
Council elected in January 1996, as part of interim self-governing
arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A transfer of powers and
responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho has taken place
pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement on the Gaza
Strip and the Jericho Area and in additional areas of the West Bank
pursuant to the Israel-PLO 28 September 1995 Interim Agreement. The
DOP provides that Israel will retain responsibility during the
transitional period for external security and for internal security
and public order of settlements and Israelis. Permanent status is to
be determined through direct negotiations which began on 5 May 1996.

@Gaza Strip:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Israel

Geographic coordinates: 31 25 N, 34 20 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 360 sq km
land: 360 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:
total: 62 km
border countries : Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with current status subject to the
Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be
determined through further negotiation

Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

Terrain: flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda) 105 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 39%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 120 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: desertification; salination of fresh
water

Environment - international agreements:
party to : none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: there are 24 Israeli settlements and civilian land
use sites in the Gaza Strip (August 1996 est.)

@Gaza Strip:People

Population: 987,869 (July 1997 est.)
note: in addition, there are 5,000 Israeli settlers in the Gaza Strip
(August 1996 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 51% (male 261,014; female 248,236)
15-64 years: 46% (male 225,707; female 224,483)
65 years and over: 3% (male 12,281; female 16,148) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 6.59% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 49.85 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.2 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 20.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 72.46 years
male: 71.12 years
female : 73.87 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.68 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Palestinian Arab and other 99.4%, Jewish 0.6%

Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 98.7%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish
0.6%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many
Palestinians), English (widely understood)

Literacy: NA

@Gaza Strip:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Gaza Strip
local long form: none
local short form: Qita Ghazzah

Data code: GZ

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic progress in the Gaza Strip has been
hampered by tight Israeli security restrictions. In 1991 roughly 40%
of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the border by Israeli
industrial, construction, and agricultural enterprises, with worker
remittances supplementing GDP by roughly 50%. Gaza has depended upon
Israel for nearly 90% of its external trade. The Persian Gulf crisis
and its aftershocks has dealt blows to Gaza since August 1990. Worker
remittances from the Gulf states have dropped, unemployment and
popular unrest have increased, and living standards have fallen. The
withdrawal of Israel from the Gaza Strip in May 1994 has added to the
set of adjustment problems. This series of disruptions has meant a
sharp decline in employment in Israel since 1991 and a drop in GDP as
a whole. An estimated 378,000 persons were in refugee camps in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% to -2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 33%
industry: 25%
services: 42% (1995 est., includes West Bank)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 11% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: construction 33.4%, agriculture 20.0%, commerce,
restaurants, and hotels 14.9%, industry 10.0%, other services 21.7%
(1991)
note: excluding Israeli settlers

Unemployment rate: 35% to 40% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $684 million
expenditures : $779 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996)
note: includes West Bank

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce textiles,
soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis
have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial
center

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by Israel

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note : electricity supplied by Israel

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: olives, citrus, other fruits, vegetables;
beef, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $235 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) (includes West Bank)
commodities: citrus
partners: Israel, Egypt, West Bank

Imports:
total value : $1.55 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.) (includes West Bank)
commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners: Israel, Egypt, West Bank

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 3.41 (May 1997),
3.2882 (1996), 3.0113 (1995), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301 (1993), 2.4591
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@Gaza Strip:Communications

Telephones: NA
note: 3.1% of Palestinian households have telephones

Telephone system:
domestic : NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA; note - 95% of Palestinian households have radios (1992
est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA; note - 59% of Palestinian households have televisions
(1992 est.)

@Gaza Strip:Transportation

Railways:
total: NA km; note - one line, abandoned and in disrepair, little
trackage remains

Highways:
total : NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: small, poorly developed road network

Ports and harbors: Gaza

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)
note: new international airport under construction and scheduled to
open in June 1997

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: NA

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli
occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian
Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further
negotiation
______________________________________________________________________

GEORGIA

Introduction

Current issues: Beset by ethnic and civil strife since independence in
1991, Georgia began to stabilize in 1994. Separatist conflicts in
Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been dormant since spring 1994,
although political settlements remain elusive. Russian peacekeepers
are deployed in both regions and a UN Observer Mission is operating in
Abkhazia. As a result of these conflicts, Georgia still has about
250,000 internally displaced people. In 1995, Georgia adopted a new
constitution and conducted generally free and fair nationwide
presidential and parliamentary elections. In 1996, the government
focused its attention to implementing an ambitious economic reform
program and professionalizing its parliament. Violence and organized
crime were sharply curtailed in 1995 and 1996, but corruption remains
rife.

@Georgia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey
and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 69,700 sq km
land : 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,461 km
border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
Turkey 252 km

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the
north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland
opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east;
good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m

Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore,
copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow
for important tea and citrus growth

Land use:
arable land : 9%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi;
heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate
supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Georgia:People

Population: 5,160,042 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 581,370; female 558,390)
15-64 years : 66% (male 1,640,361; female 1,766,319)
65 years and over: 12% (male 231,698; female 381,904) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.09% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.82 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.88 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.96 years
male: 61.59 years
female : 68.49 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri
5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Orthodox 75% (Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian
Orthodox 10%), Muslim 11%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%

Languages: Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%,
other 7%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 100%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

@Georgia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form : Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: GG

Government type: republic

National capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 53 rayons (raionebi, singular - raioni), 9
cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous
republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika);
Abashis, Abkhazia (Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika)** (Sokhumi),
Adigenis, Ajaria (Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika)** (Bat'umi),
Akhalgoris, Akhalk'alak'is, Akhalts'ikhis, Akhmetis, Ambrolauris,
Aspindzis, Baghdat'is, Bolnisis, Borjomis, Chiat'ura*, Ch'khorotsqus,
Ch'okhatauris, Dedop'listsqaros, Dmanisis, Dushet'is, Gardabanis,
Gori*, Goris, Gurjaanis, Javis, K'arelis, Kaspis, Kharagaulis,
Khashuris, Khobis, Khonis, K'ut'aisi*, Lagodekhis, Lanch'khut'is,
Lentekhis, Marneulis, Martvilis, Mestiis, Mts'khet'is, Ninotsmindis,
Onis, Ozurget'is, P'ot'i*, Qazbegis, Qvarlis, Rust'avi*, Sach'kheris,
Sagarejos, Samtrediis, Senakis, Sighnaghis, T'bilisi*, T'elavis,
T'erjolis, T'et'ritsqaros, T'ianet'is, Tqibuli*, Ts'ageris,
Tsalenjikhis, Tsalkis, Tsqaltubo*, Vanis, Zestap'onis, Zugdidi*,
Zugdidis
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991)

Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
(previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992,
Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of
Parliament 11 October 1992; elected president 5 November 1995); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
(previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992,
Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of
Parliament 11 October 1992; elected president 5 November 1995); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA April 2001)
election results: Eduard SHEVARDNADZE elected president; percent of
vote - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 74%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council or Umaghiesi Sabcho
(235 seats; members are elected to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA November
2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - CUG 24%, NDP 8%, All
Georgia Revival Union 7%, all other parties received less than 5%
each; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Citizens Union of Georgia or CUG
[Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, Zurab ZHVANIA, general secretary]; National
Democratic Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTARIA]; United
Republican Party, umbrella organization for parties including the GPF
and the Charter 1991 Party [Notar NATADZE, chairman]; Georgian Popular
Front or GPF [Nodar NATADZE, chairman]; Charter 1991 Party [Tedo
PAATASHVILI]; Georgian Social Democratic Party or GSDP [Guram
MUCHAIDZE, secretary general]; All Georgia Union for Revival [Alsan
ABASHIDZE]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Irakli SHENGELAYA];
Democratic Georgia Union or DGU [Avtandil MARGIANI]; National
Independence Party or NIP [Irakliy TSERETELI, chairman]; Georgian
Monarchists' Party or GMP [Temur ZHORZHOLIANI]; Greens Party; Agrarian
Party of Georgia or APG [Roin LIPARTELIANI]; United Communist Party of
Georgia or UCP [Panteleimon GIORGADZE, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: supporters of ousted President
Zviad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January 1994) remain a source of
opposition; separatist elements in the breakaway region of Abkhazia

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE
chancery: (temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC
20005
telephone: [1] (202) 393-5959
FAX : [1] (202) 393-4537

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William H. COURTNEY
embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : 995-32-989-967 or 995-32-933-803 (operator assisted)
FAX: tie-line FAX 997-0200; 933-759 or 938-951

Flag description: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist
side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white
below

Economy

Economy - overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved
around Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and
grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small
industrial sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and
textiles. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including
natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy
resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has
suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and
World Bank, has made substantial economic gains in 1995-96, pushing
GDP growth and slashing inflation. Georgia had been suffering from
acute energy shortages, although energy deliveries improved in 1996.
Georgia is pinning its hopes for long-term recovery on the development
of an international transportation corridor through the key Black Sea
ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi. The decision in 1996 to construct an
early Caspian oil pipeline through Georgia underscores the viability
of such a corridor and may spur greater western investment in the
economy. A growing trade deficit and political uncertainties cloud the
short-term economic picture.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.1 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 11% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,350 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 70.4%
industry: 10.2%
services: 19.4% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 13.3% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.2 million (1996)
by occupation: industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry
25%, other 44% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 21% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, foundry equipment,
electric locomotives, tower cranes, electric welding equipment,
machinery for food preparation and meat packing, electric motors,
process control equipment, trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes,
chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4.56 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 7.1 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,095 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes;
small livestock sector

Exports:
total value: $356 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products;
diverse types of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles;
chemicals; fuel re-exports
partners : Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria (1996)

Imports:
total value: $647 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts,
transport equipment
partners: Russia, Turkey, Azerbaijan (1996); note - EU and US send
humanitarian food shipments

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $28 million (1993)
note : commitments, 1992-95, $1,200 million ($675 million
disbursements)

Currency: lari introduced September 1995 replacing the coupon

Exchange rates: lari per US$1 (end of period) - 1.28 (December 1996),
1.24 (December 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Georgia:Communications

Telephones: 672,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: poor service; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for
telephones (December 1990 est.)
domestic: NA
international: landline to CIS members and Turkey; satellite earth
station - 1 Eutelsat; leased connections with other countries via the
Moscow international gateway switch; international electronic mail and
telex service available

Radio broadcast stations: 2 national broadcast stations, 3 regional
broadcast stations

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: NA

@Georgia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,583 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 1,583 km 1.520-m gauge (1993)

Highways:
total: 21,000 km
paved: NA km
unpaved : NA km
note: Georgia reports 19,635 km of "hard surfaced" roads which combine
the lengths of paved and graveled roads; 1,365 km of unsurfaced or
dirt roads are reported separately (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440
km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

Merchant marine:
total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 183,202 GRT/292,021 DWT
ships by type : bulk 4, cargo 3, oil tanker 8 (1996 est.)

Airports: 28 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m : 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 6 (1994 est.)

Transportation - note: transportation network is in poor condition and
disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages;
network lacks maintenance and repair

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces,
National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,288,694 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,020,609 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 40,799 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 38.2 trillion coupons (1995);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates to
Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

GERMANY

@Germany:Geography

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 356,910 sq km
land : 349,520 sq km
water: 7,390 sq km
note: includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the
German Democratic Republic, and Berlin, following formal unification
on 3 October 1990

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 3,621 km
border countries : Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646
km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577
km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Freepsum Lake -2 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,962 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium,
copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

Land use:
arable land : 33%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 31%
other : 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities
and industries and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of
continued use of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain,
resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy
pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents
from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

Geography - note: strategic location on North European Plain and along
the entrance to the Baltic Sea

@Germany:People

Population: 82,071,765 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 6,652,245; female 6,315,479)
15-64 years: 68% (male 28,649,361; female 27,498,980)
65 years and over: 16% (male 4,772,547; female 8,183,153) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 8.98 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.82 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.81 years
male: 73.64 years
female: 80.16 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.24 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : German(s)
adjective: German

Ethnic groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%,
Poles 0.4%, other 4.6% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in
the former Yugoslavia)

Religions: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 1.7%,
unaffiliated or other 26.3%

Languages: German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1977 est.)
male: NA%
female : NA%

@Germany:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form : Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland

Data code: GM

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Berlin
note: the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of
years, with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
ministries even after parliament moves in 1999

Administrative divisions: 16 states (laender, singular - land);
Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg,
Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen,
Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt,
Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided
into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in
1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West
Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and
French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany)
proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone;
unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October
1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991

National holiday: German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990)

Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of
the united German people 3 October 1990

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Roman HERZOG (since 1 July 1994)
head of government: Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the proposal of the
chancellor
elections: president elected by the Federal Convention including
members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of members elected
by the Land Parliaments for a five-year term; election last held 23
May 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); chancellor elected by an absolute
majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last
held 16 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: Roman HERZOG elected president; percent of Federal
Convention vote - NA; Dr. Helmut KOHL reelected chancellor; percent of
Federal Assembly - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral chamber (no official name for the two
chambers as a whole) consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag
(656 seats usually, but 672 for the 1994 term; elected by direct
popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional
representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three
direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms)
and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (68 votes; state governments are
directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on
population and are required to vote as a block)
elections: Federal Assembly - last held 16 October 1994 (next to be
held by NA 1998); Federal Council - last held NA ( next to be held NA)
election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - CDU
34.2%, SPD 36.4%, Alliance 90/Greens 7.3%, CSU 7.3%, FDP 6.9%, PDS
4.4%, Republicans 1.9%; seats by party - CDU 244, SPD 252, Alliance
90/Greens 49, CSU 50, FDP 47, PDS 30; Federal Council - current
composition - votes by party - SPD-led states 41, CDU-led states 27

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court or
Bundesverfassungsgericht, half the judges are elected by the Bundestag
and half by the Bundesrat

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union or CDU
[Helmut KOHL, chairman]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Theo WAIGEL,
chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Wolfgang GERHARDT, chairman];
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Oskar LAFONTAINE, chairman]; Alliance
'90/Greens [Gunda ROESTEL, Juergen TRITTIN, cochairpersons]; Party of
Democratic Socialism or PDS [Lothar BISKY, chairman]; Republikaner
[Rolf SCHLIERER, chairman]; National Democratic Party or NPD
[Ellen-Doris SCHERER]; Communist Party or DKP [Rolf PRIEMER and Heinz
STEHR, cochairpersons]

Political pressure groups and leaders: employers' organizations,
expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN,
EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM
(guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UPU, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG
chancery : 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
consulate(s): Wellington (American Samoa)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James D.
BINDENAGEL
embassy : Deichmanns Aue 29, 53170 Bonn
mailing address: APO AE 09080, PSC 117, Bonn
telephone: [49] (228) 3391
FAX: [49] (228) 339-2663
branch office : Berlin
consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig,
Munich

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red,
and gold

Economy

Economy - overview: Germany, the world's third-most powerful economy,
is gearing up for the European Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
One key economic priority is meeting the Maastricht criteria for entry
into EMU, a goal complicated by record unemployment and stagnating
growth. The government has implemented an austerity budget in its
attempt to get the deficit down to 3% of GDP as required by
Maastricht, but further cuts probably will be necessary and there is
little consensus among the parties or elites about next steps toward
that end. In recent years business and political leaders have become
increasingly concerned about Germany's apparent decline in
attractiveness as a business location. They cite the increasing
preference of German companies to locate new manufacturing facilities
- long the strength of the postwar economy - in foreign countries,
including the US, rather than in Germany, so they can be closer to
their markets and avoid Germany's high taxes and labor costs. At the
same time, Germany faces its own unique problem of bringing its
eastern area up to scratch after 45 years of communist rule. Despite
substantial progress toward economic integration, the eastern states
will continue to rely on the annual subsidy of approximately $100
billion from the western part into the next century. Assistance from
the west helped the east to average nearly 8% annual economic growth
in 1992-95, even though the overall German economy had averaged less
than 2% growth; growth in the east, however, tumbled to 2% in 1996,
with unemployment a particularly severe problem.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.7 trillion (western: purchasing
power parity - $1.56 trillion; eastern: purchasing power parity - $142
billion) (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (western 1.3%, eastern 2.0%) (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,400 (western:
purchasing power parity - $23,100; eastern: purchasing power parity -
$9,000) (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 34.5%
services: 64.4% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 38.7 million
by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 3%, services 56% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 10.8% (western 9.6%, eastern 15.9%) (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $755 billion
expenditures: $832.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: western: among world's largest and technologically
advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery,
vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; eastern:
metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine
building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: 1.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 109.73 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 529.1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,727 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: western: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets,
fruit, cabbage; cattle, pigs, poultry; eastern: wheat, rye, barley,
potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides

Exports:
total value: $501.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactures 88.2% (including machines and machine tools,
chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural
products 5.0%, raw materials 2.3%, fuels 1.0%, other 3.5% (1995)
partners: EU 57.7% (France 11.7%, UK 8.1%, Italy 7.6%, Netherlands
7.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 6.5%, Austria 5.5%), Eastern Europe 8.0%,
other West European countries 7.5%, US 7.3%, NICs 5.6%, Japan 2.5%,
OPEC 2.2%, China 1.4% (1996 est. for first 10 months)

Imports:
total value: $430.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactures 74.2%, agricultural products 9.9%, fuels
6.4%, raw materials 5.9%, other 3.6% (1995)
partners : EU 55.5% (France 10.8%, Netherlands 8.6%, Italy 8.4%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 6.6%, UK 6.4%, Austria 3.9%), Eastern Europe 8.7%,
other West European countries 7.2%, US 6.8%, Japan 5.3%, NICs 5.3%,
China 2.4%, OPEC 1.7%, other 7.1% (1995)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $9 billion (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige

Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.6043 (January 1997),
1.5048 (1996), 1.4331 (1995), 1.6228 (1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Germany:Communications

Telephones: 44 million

Telephone system: Germany has one of the world's most technologically
advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital
expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the
eastern part of the country is being rapidly modernized and integrated
with that of the western part
domestic: the region which was formerly West Germany is served by an
extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern
networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay,
and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely
available and includes roaming service to many foreign countries;
since the reunification of Germany, the telephone system of the
eastern region has been upgraded and enjoys many of the advantages of
the national system
international: satellite earth stations - 14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic
Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean
region), 2 Intersputnik (1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean
region); 6 submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone
communication centers; tropospheric scatter links

Radio broadcast stations: western - AM 80, FM 470, shortwave 0;
eastern - AM 23, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 70 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 246 (repeaters 6,000); note - there are
15 Russian repeaters in eastern Germany

Televisions: 44.8 million (1992 est.)

@Germany:Transportation

Railways:
total: 43,966 km
standard gauge : 43,531 km 1.435-m; 40,355 km are owned by Deutsche
Bahn AG (DB); 17,015 km of the DB system are electrified and 16,941 km
are double- or more-tracked
narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (DB operates 146 km of 1.000-m
gauge); 7 km 0.900-m gauge; 39 km 0.750-m gauge
note : in addition to the DB system there are 54 privately-owned
industrial or excursion railways, ranging in route length from 2 km to
632 km, with a total length of 3,465 km (1995)

Highways:
total: 639,800 km
paved: 504,800 km (including 11,013 km of expressways)
unpaved : 135,000 km all-weather, graveled (1993 est.)

Waterways: western - 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft
of 1,000-metric-ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine
and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea
and North Sea; eastern - 2,319 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural
gas 97,564 km (1988)

Ports and harbors: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne,
Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Lubeck, Magdeburg,
Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart

Merchant marine:
total : 450 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,402,437 GRT/6,649,382
DWT
ships by type: cargo 184, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 3,
combination ore/oil 1, container 195, liquefied gas tanker 8,
multifunction large-load carrier 6, oil tanker 12, passenger 4,
railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8,
short-sea passenger 8 (1996 est.)
note : includes ships from the former East Germany and West Germany

Airports: 613 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 544
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 63
1,524 to 2,437 m: 69
914 to 1,523 m: 51
under 914 m: 348 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 69
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m : 55 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 65 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm), Air Force,
Medical Corps, Border Police, Coast Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 20,918,653 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 17,939,494 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 450,147 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42.8 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest
Asian heroin and hashish, Latin American cocaine, and
European-produced synthetic drugs
______________________________________________________________________

GHANA

@Ghana:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote
d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 238,540 sq km
land : 230,020 sq km
water: 8,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 2,093 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877
km

Coastline: 539 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf : 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast;
hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central
area

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m

Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite,
manganese, fish, rubber

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops : 7%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to
March; droughts

Environment - current issues: recent drought in north severely
affecting agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife
populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake;
northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)

@Ghana:People

Population: 18,100,703 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 3,928,741; female 3,891,591)
15-64 years: 54% (male 4,775,610; female 4,939,664)
65 years and over : 3% (male 268,579; female 296,518) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.21% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 33.88 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.89 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.49 years
male : 54.47 years
female: 58.57 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.43 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic groups: black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%,
Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%

Languages: English (official), African languages (including Akan,
Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.5%
male: 75.9%
female : 53.5% (1995 est.)

@Ghana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast

Data code: GH

Government type: constitutional democracy

National capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central,
Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta,
Western

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution: new constitution approved 28 April 1992

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November 1992);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 3 November
1992); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet : Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to
approval by the Parliament
elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for
four-year terms; election last held 7 December 1996 (next to be held
NA 2000)
election results: Jerry John RAWLINGS elected president; percent of
vote - Rawlings 58.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (200 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 7 December 1996 (next to be held NA December
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC
126, NPP 65, PCP 5, PNC 1, to be determined 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress or NDC
[Dr. Huudu YAHAYA]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter Ala ADJETY];
People's Heritage Party or PHP [Alex ERSKINE]; National Convention
Party or NCP [Sarpong Kuman Kuman]; Every Ghanian Living Everywhere or
EGLE [Ashang OKINE]; Peoples Convention Party or PCP [P. K.
DONKOS-AYIFL, acting chairman]; Peoples National Convention or PNC
[Edward MAHAMA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Designate Harry SAWYERS
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX : [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward BRYNN
embassy: Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] (21) 775348
FAX: [233] (21) 775747

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the
flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

Economy

Economy - overview: Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has
twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa.
Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial
and technical assistance. Ghana has made steady progress in
liberalizing its economy since 1983. Overall growth continued at a
rate of approximately 5% in 1995 and 1996, due largely to increased
gold, timber, and cocoa production - major sources of foreign
exchange. The economy, however, continues to revolve around
subsistence agriculture, which accounts for almost half of GDP and
employs 55% of the work force, mainly small landholders. In 1995-96,
Ghana has made mixed progress under a three-year structural adjustment
program in cooperation with the IMF. On the minus side, public sector
wage increases, regional peacekeeping commitments, and the containment
of internal unrest in the underdeveloped north have led to continued
inflationary deficit financing, depreciation of the cedi, and rising
public discontent with Ghana's austerity program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $27 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,530 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 46%
industry: 16%
services: 38% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 36% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.7 million
by occupation: agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales
and clerical 15.2%, professional 3.7%, services, transportation, and
communications 7.7%

Unemployment rate: 10% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.05 billion
expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $178
million (1993)

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.19 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 6.1 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 304 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca),
peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

Exports:
total value: $1.43 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: gold 39%, cocoa 31%, timber 6%, tuna, bauxite, aluminum,
manganese ore, and diamonds (1994 est.)
partners: UK, Germany, US, Togo, Netherlands, Japan

Imports:
total value: $1.84 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, consumer goods, foods,
intermediate goods
partners : UK, Nigeria, US, Germany, Japan, Netherlands

Debt - external: $5.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $472 million (1993)

Currency: 1 new cedi (C) = 100 pesewas

Exchange rates: new cedis per US$1 - 1,718.31 (October 1996), 1,200.43
(1995), 956.71 (1994), 649.06 (1993), 437.09 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ghana:Communications

Telephones: 70,000 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: poor to fair system
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (repeaters 8)

Televisions: 250,000 (1993 est.)

@Ghana:Transportation

Railways:
total: 953 km (undergoing major renovation)
narrow gauge : 953 km 1.067-m gauge (32 km double track) (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 37,561 km
paved: 9,353 km (including 21 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,208 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial
navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of
arterial and feeder waterways

Pipelines: 0 km

Ports and harbors: Takoradi, Tema

Merchant marine:
total : 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,900 GRT/37,240 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 12 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Palace Guard,
Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,254,386 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,365,286 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 178,560 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $30 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.8% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South
American cocaine destined for Europe and the US
______________________________________________________________________

GIBRALTAR

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Gibraltar:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar,
which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the
southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 36 11 N, 5 22 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:
total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km

Coastline: 12 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland : NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: limited natural freshwater resources, so
large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rain water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links
the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

@Gibraltar:People

Population: 28,913 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 3,121; female 2,725)
15-64 years: 66% (male 10,771; female 8,278)
65 years and over : 14% (male 1,629; female 2,389) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.48% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.45 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.78 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.3 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 1.16 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.01 years
male : 74.7 years
female: 81.47 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.23 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups: Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish

Religions: Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%,
other 3%), Muslim 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)

Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes),
Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: above 95%
male: NA%
female : NA%

@Gibraltar:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar

Data code: GI

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Gibraltar

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)

Constitution: 30 May 1969

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects resident
six months or more

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Admiral Sir Richard LUCE (NA February 1997)
head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the elected members
of the House of Assembly by the governor in consultation with the
chief minister
note: there is also a Gibraltar Council that advises the governor
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (18 seats, 15
elected; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 May 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - SD 53%, SL 42%, NP 3%;
seats by party - SD 8, SL 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or SL
[Joe BOSSANO]; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the Advancement
of Civil Rights or GCL/AACR [Adolfo CANEPA]; Gibraltar Social
Democrats or SD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar National Party or NP [Joe
GARCIA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Housewives Association; Chamber
of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization

International organization participation: Interpol (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: two horizontal bands of white (top, double width)
and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white
band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red
band

Economy

Economy - overview: Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping
trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international
conference center. The British military presence has been sharply
reduced and now contributes about 11% to the local economy. The
financial sector accounts for 15% of GDP; tourism, shipping services
fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. Because more
than 70% of the economy is in the public sector, changes in government
spending have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $205 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,600 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services : NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
by occupation : services 60%, industry 40%, agriculture NEGL

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $111.6 million
expenditures: $115.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995-96)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce;
support to large UK naval and air bases; tobacco, mineral waters,
beer, canned fish

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 33,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 90 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: none

Exports:
total value: $57 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods
41%, other 8%
partners : UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

Imports:
total value: $708 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
partners: UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands

Debt - external: $318 million (1987)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Gibraltar pound (ŁG) = 100 pence

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