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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to
maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important
export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural
population. The economy has come back from the recession of 1990-92,
which had been caused by economic overheating, depressed foreign
markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and
the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and gas had been
exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finns voted in an
October 1994 referendum to enter the EU, and Finland officially joined
the Union on 1 January 1995. Attempts to cut the unacceptably high
rate of unemployment and increasing integration with Western Europe
will dominate the economic picture over the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $97.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $19,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 7%
industry: 37%
services: 56% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.7% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 2.533 million
by occupation: public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%,
finance, insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and
forestry 8.6%, transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

Unemployment rate: 16.6% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $25.9 billion
expenditures: $35 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995
est.)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper
refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 14.14 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 60.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 12,373 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle;
annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value: $29.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: paper and pulp, machinery, chemicals, metals, timber
partners: EU 46.5% (Germany 13.4%, UK 10.3%), Sweden 11%, US 7.2%,
Japan 2.1%, FSU 8.6% (1994)

Imports:
total value : $23.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and
fabrics, fodder grains
partners : EU 44% (Germany 15%, UK 8.3%), Sweden 10.4%, US 7.6%, Japan
6.5%, FSU 10.3 (1994)

Debt - external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid:
donor : ODA, $355 million (1993)

Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 4.7765 (January 1997), 4.5936
(1996), 4.3667 (1995), 5.2235 (1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Finland:Communications

Telephones: 2.5 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system: good service from cable and microwave radio relay
network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international : 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access
to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth
station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note -
Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic
countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 105, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.98 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 235

Televisions: 1.92 million (1995 est.)

@Finland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,895 km
broad gauge: 5,895 km 1.524-m gauge (1,993 km electrified; 480 km
double- or more-track) (1995)

Highways:
total: 77,722 km
paved: 48,965 km (including 394 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,757 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable
for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports and harbors: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu,
Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:
total : 94 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,066,918 GRT/1,091,309
DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 22, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 12,
passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 31,
short-sea passenger 12, vehicle carrier 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 156 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 151
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m : 91 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea
Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,298,576 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,068,503 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 32,985 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.9 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for Latin American cocaine
for the West European market
______________________________________________________________________

FRANCE

@France:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English
Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the
Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 2 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 547,030 sq km
land : 545,630 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km
note: includes only metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas
administrative divisions

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,892.4 km
border countries: Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy
488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573
km

Coastline: 3,427 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and
hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures : 20%
forests and woodland: 27%
other : 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 16,300 sq km (1995 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment - current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air
pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from
urban wastes, agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Desertification

Geography - note: largest West European nation; occasional strong,
cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral

@France:People

Population: 58,609,285 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,712,739; female 5,449,139)
15-64 years : 65% (male 19,178,683; female 19,126,672)
65 years and over: 16% (male 3,687,216; female 5,454,836) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.98 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.08 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.38 years
male: 74.44 years
female: 82.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.66 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African,
Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North
African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and
languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
Flemish)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1980 est.)

@France:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form : Republique Francaise
local short form: France

Data code: FR

Government type: republic

National capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region);
Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne,
Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine,
Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie,
Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note: metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including the
"territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and is subdivided into
96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments
(French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the overseas
territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis
and Futuna
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht
Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Lionel JOSPIN (since 3 June 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
suggestion of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 23 April and 7 May 1995 (next to be held by May
2002); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Jacques CHIRAC elected president; percent of vote,
second ballot - Jacques CHIRAC 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN 47.36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (321 seats - 296 for metropolitan France, 13 for
overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals
abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to
serve nine-year terms; elected by thirds every three years) and the
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; members are
elected under a single-member majoritarian system to serve five-year
terms)
elections: Senate - last held 24 September 1995 (next to be held
September 1998); National Assembly - last held 25 May-1 June 1997
(next to be held NA May 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - RPR 94, UDF 127, PS 75, PCF 15, other 10; National Assembly -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS 245, RPR 140, UDF
109, PCF 37, PRS 13, Ecologists 8, MDC 7, LDI-MPF 1, FN 1, various
left 9, various right 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation, judges
are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of
the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR [Alain
JUPPE, president]; Union for French Democracy or UDF (coalition of PR,
FD, RAD, PPDF) [Francois LEOTARD]; Republican Party or PR [Francois
LEOTARD]; Democratic Force or FD [Francois BAYROU]; Socialist Party or
PS [Lionel JOSPIN]; Radical Party or RRRS [Andre ROSSINOT, Aymeri de
MONTESQUIEU]; Communist Party or PCF [Robert HUE]; National Front or
FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; The Greens [Dominique VOYNET]; Generation
Ecology or GE [Brice LALONDE]; Citizens Movement or MDC [Jean Pierre
CHEVENEMENT]; National Center of Independents and Peasants or CNIP
[Jean-Antoine GIANSILY]; Radical Socialist Party or PRS; Movement for
France or LDI-MPF

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist-controlled labor
union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, nearly 2.4 million
members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, about 800,000 members
(est.); independent labor union or Force Ouvriere, 1 million members
(est.); independent white-collar union or Confederation Generale des
Cadres, 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French
Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais) or CNPF or Patronat

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN,
EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G- 5,
G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIH, UNOMIG,
UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francois V. BUJON DE L'ESTANG
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX : [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN (died in office 2
February 1997)
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX : [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design
and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of
Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official
flag for all French dependent areas

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the four West European trillion-dollar
economies, the French economy features considerable state control over
its capitalistic market system. In running important industrial
segments (railways, airlines, electricity, telecommunications),
administering an exceptionally generous social welfare system, and
staffing an enormous bureaucracy, the state spends about 55% of GDP.
France has substantial agricultural resources and a diversified modern
industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of
modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in
agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy
products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP,
and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy.
Following stagnation and recession in 1991-93, French GDP expanded
2.4% in 1994 and in 1995 but at only 1.3% in 1996. Persistently high
unemployment still poses a major problem for the government, as will
the need to cut back on government spending to keep the economy
internationally competitive and enable France to qualify for European
Economic and Monetary Union, slated to introduce a common European
currency in January 1999. The government also has laid plans to sell
off much of its stake in the telecommunications and defense industries
in 1997 as part of its bid to make domestic companies more competitive
with foreign rivals. However, the socialist victory at the polls in
June 1997 casts doubt on France's future policy toward economic union
and privatization of domestic economic activity.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.22 trillion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,900 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 26.5%
services: 71.1% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.7% (1996)

Labor force:
total : 25.5 million
by occupation: services 69%, industry 26%, agriculture 5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 12.7% (1966)

Budget:
revenues: $250 billion
expenditures: $300 billion, including capital expenditures of $34
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 102.94 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 492.7 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 6,278 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine
grapes; beef, dairy products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks
among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

Exports:
total value: $275 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles
and clothing
partners: Germany 17%, Italy 9%, UK 9%, Spain 8%, Belgium-Luxembourg
8%, US 6%, Netherlands 4.5%, Japan 2%, Russia 0.7% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $255.5 billion f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
products, chemicals, iron and steel products
partners: Germany 17%, Italy 10%, US 8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8%, UK 8%,
Spain 7%, Netherlands 5%, Japan 3%, Russia 1.5% (1996)

Debt - external: $117.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor : ODA, $7.915 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@France:Communications

Telephones: 35 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive
introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5
antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat,
1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region); HF radiotelephone communications
with more than 20 countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 800 (mostly repeaters), shortwave
0

Radios: 49 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 846 (mostly repeaters)
note: Eutelsat receive-only TV service

Televisions: 29.3 million (1993 est.)

@France:Transportation

Railways:
total: 34,123 km
standard gauge: 33,524 km 1.435-m gauge; 32,275 km are operated by
French National Railways (SNCF); 13,741 km of SNCF routes are
electrified and 12,132 km are double- or multiple-tracked
narrow gauge : 599 km 1.000-m gauge
note: does not include 33 tourist railroads, totaling 469 km, many
being of very narrow gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 1,512,700 km
paved : 812,700 km (including 9,140 km of expressways)
unpaved: 700,000 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural
gas 24,746 km

Ports and harbors: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La
Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen,
Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

Merchant marine:
total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,038,151 GRT/1,441,498
DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 1,
container 7, liquefied gas tanker 3, multi-function large load carrier
1, oil tanker 13, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea
passenger 7, specialized tanker 1
note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships
in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) (1996
est.)

Airports: 460 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 382
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 91
914 to 1,523 m : 73
under 914 m: 179 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 78
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m : 75 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (includes Marines), Navy (includes Naval Air),
Air Force (includes Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 14,800,821 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 12,315,337 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 394,362 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $47.7 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa
Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island;
Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles
claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana;
territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre and
Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and
France; in 1992 an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive
economic zone area of 12,348 sq km to settle the dispute; claims
Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of South American
cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin
______________________________________________________________________

FRENCH GUIANA

(overseas department of France)

@French Guiana:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 53 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 91,000 sq km
land: 89,150 sq km
water: 1,850 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,183 km
border countries : Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar,
kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 83%
other : 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe
thunderstorms; flooding

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana:People

Population: 156,946 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 32% (male 25,267; female 24,146)
15-64 years: 63% (male 54,051; female 45,489)
65 years and over: 5% (male 4,014; female 3,979) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.62% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 24.19 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.56 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 16.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.19 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 76.06 years
male: 72.84 years
female : 79.45 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.38 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: French Guianese (singular and plural)
adjective: French Guianese

Ethnic groups: black or mulatto 66%, white 12%, East Indian, Chinese,
Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: French

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83%
male: 84%
female: 82% (1982 est.)

@French Guiana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Guiana
conventional short form: French Guiana
local long form: none
local short form : Guyane

Data code: FG

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Pierre DARTOUT (since NA)
head of government: President of the General Council Stephan PHINERA
(since NA March 1994)
cabinet : NA
elections: representative of the French Government appointed by the
president of France on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior;
presidents of the General and Regional Councils are appointed by the
members of those councils, who vote on party lines

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
and a unicameral Regional Council or Conseil Regional (31 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: General Council - last held NA March 1994 (next to be held
NA 2000); Regional Council - last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held
NA 1998)
election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PSG 8, FDP 4, RPR 1, other left 2, other right 2,
other 2; Regional Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PSG 16, FDG 10, RPR 2, independents 3
note: one seat was elected to the French Senate on 24 September 1989
(next to be held NA September 1998); results - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - FDG 1; 2 seats were elected to the French
National Assembly on 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held 25 May-1
June 1997 - special election); results - percent of vote by party -
NA; seats by party - RPR 1, independent (left) 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel (highest local court
based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and
French Guiana)

Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party or PSG [Leone
MICHOTTE]; Socialist Party or PS [Jean BART] (may be a subset of PSG);
Nationalist Popular Party of Guyana (Parti Nationaliste Populaire
Guiana) or PNPG [Jose DORCY]; Union of Social Democrats (Union des
Socialistes Democates) or USD [Leon BERTRAND] (umbrella group of RPR
and UDF); Rally for the Republic or RPR [Leon BERTRAND]; Union for
French Democracy or UDF [R. CHOW-CHINE]; Guyana Democratic Front or
FDG [Georges OTHILY]; Walwari Committee [Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON];
Action Democrate Guiana or ADG [Andre LECANTE]; Forces de Progres or
FDP

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France
through subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at
Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most important economic
activities, with exports of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp)
accounting for more than 60% of total revenue in 1992. The large
reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an
expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export.
Cultivation of crops is limited to the coastal area, where the
population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent
on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem,
particularly among younger workers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $800 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1992)

Labor force:
total: 46,300 (1993)
by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry
21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

Unemployment rate: 24.1% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $180 million
expenditures: $350 million, including capital expenditures of $95
million (1994)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum,
gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 228,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 185 million kWh (1993 est.)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, vegetables,
bananas, sugar; cattle, pigs, poultry

Exports:
total value: $80 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
partners: France 52%, Spain 15%, US 5% (1992)

Imports:
total value: $610 million (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities : food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods,
producer goods, petroleum
partners: France 77%, Germany 11%, US 5% (1992)

Debt - external: $1.2 billion (1988)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@French Guiana:Communications

Telephones: 31,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fair open wire and microwave radio relay system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 79,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 22,000 (1992 est.)

@French Guiana:Transportation

Railways: 0 km (1995)

Highways:
total: 1,817 km (national 432 km, departmental 385 km, community 1,000
km)
paved: 727 km
unpaved: 1,090 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and
coastal steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft

Ports and harbors: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 44,799 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 29,033 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani
and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption;
minor transshipment point to Europe
______________________________________________________________________

FRENCH POLYNESIA

(overseas territory of France)

@French Polynesia:Geography

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from South America to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 140 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 4,167 sq km (118 islands and atolls)
land: 3,660 sq km
water: 507 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than one-third the size of
Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Orohena 2,241 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures : 5%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 57% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional cyclonic storms in January

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French
Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the
Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Nauru

@French Polynesia:People

Population: 233,488 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 39,958; female 38,492)
15-64 years : 62% (male 75,450; female 69,441)
65 years and over: 4% (male 5,063; female 5,084) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.89% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.27 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.95 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.17 years
male: 69.81 years
female : 74.65 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.77 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : French Polynesian(s)
adjective: French Polynesian

Ethnic groups: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%,
metropolitan French 4%

Religions: Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%

Languages: French (official), Tahitian (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 14 and over can read and write, but definition of
literacy not available
total population: 98%
male : 98%
female: 98% (1977 est.)

@French Polynesia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of French Polynesia
conventional short form : French Polynesia
local long form: Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
local short form: Polynesie Francaise

Data code: FP

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1946

Government type: NA

National capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des
Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent,
and Iles Sous-le-Vent
note: Clipperton Island is administered by France from French
Polynesia

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Dominique BUR
(since NA)
head of government: President of the Territorial Government of French
Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 4 April 1991); President of the
Territorial Assembly Tinomana EBB (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of
the Territorial Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers
elections: high commissioner appointed by the president of France on
the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the
Territorial Government and the president of the Territorial Assembly
are elected by the members of the assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblee
Territoriale (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 May 1996 (next to be held NA March 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 22, Polynesian Liberation
Front 10, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4
note : one seat was elected to the French Senate on 24 September 1989
(next to be held NA September 1998); results - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - NA; two seats were elected to the French
National Assembly on 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held 25 May-1
June 1997 - special election); results - percent of vote by party -
NA; seats by party - People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Court of the First
Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Administrative Law
or Tribunal Administratif

Political parties and leaders: People's Rally for the Republic
(Tahoeraa Huiraatira) [Gaston FLOSSE]; Polynesian Union Party
(includes Te Tiarama and Here Ai'a Party) [Jean JUVENTIN]; Polynesian
Liberation Front (Tavini Huiraatira) [Oscar TEMARU]; New Fatherland
Party (Ai'a Api) [Emile VERNAUDON]; Independent Party (Ia Mana Te
Nunaa) [Jacques DROLLET]; Te Aratia Ote Nunaa [Tinomana EBB]; Haere i
Mua [Alexandre LEONTIEFF]; other small parties

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ,
ICFTU, SPC, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Flag description: two narrow red horizontal bands encase a wide white
band; centered on the white band is a disk with blue and white wave
pattern on the lower half and gold and white ray pattern on the upper
half; a stylized red, blue and white ship rides on the wave pattern;
the French flag is used for official occasions

Economy

Economy - overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military
personnel in the region, French Polynesia has changed from a
subsistence economy to one in which a high proportion of the work
force is either employed by the military or supports the tourist
industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP and is a primary
source of hard currency earnings. The territory will continue to
benefit from a five-year (1994-98) development agreement with France
aimed principally at creating new jobs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.76 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 18%
services: 78% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.5% (1994)

Labor force:
total: 118,744 (of which 70,044 are employed) (1988)
by occupation : agriculture 13%, industry 19%, services 68% (1992
est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $713 million
expenditures : $1.36 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: 320 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,409 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, vanilla, vegetables, fruits;
poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $245 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities : cultured pearls 53.8%, coconut products,
mother-of-pearl, vanilla, shark meat (1992)
partners: France 33%, US 8.5% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $967 million (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities : fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
partners: France 44.7%, US 13.9% (1994)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
- 98.48 (January 1997), 93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995), 100.94 (1994),
102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

@French Polynesia:Communications

Telephones: 33,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 116,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 35,000 (1992 est.)

@French Polynesia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 792 km
paved: 792 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mataura, Papeete, Rikitea, Uturoa

Merchant marine:
total : 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 32,127 GRT/53,710 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 1, passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated
cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 41 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 35
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 15 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m : 6 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: French Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
Gendarmerie

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS
and Antarctic Lands]

(overseas territory of France)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Geography

Location: South of Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, about
equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note - French
Southern and Antarctic Lands includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul,
Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, along
with the French-claimed sector of Antarctica, "Adelie Land"; the US
does not recognize the French claim to "Adelie Land"

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 S, 67 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 7,781 sq km
land: 7,781 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet and Iles
Kerguelen; excludes "Adelie Land" claim of about 500,000 sq km in
Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Delaware

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,232 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Ross on Kerguelen 1,850 m

Natural resources: fish, crayfish

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct
volcanoes

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: remote location in the southern Indian Ocean

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there were 134 (1996) mostly researchers whose numbers vary from
winter (July) to summer (January)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic
Lands
conventional short form: French Southern and Antarctic Lands
local long form: Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques
Francaises
local short form : Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises

Data code: FS

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1955;
administered by a high commissioner of the Republic

National capital: none; administered from Paris, France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles
Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes "Adelie Land"
claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing
meteorological and geophysical research stations and French and other
fishing fleets. The fish catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign
ships are exported to France and Reunion.

Budget:
revenues: $24.5 million
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996)

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@French Southern and Antarctic Lands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine:
total: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,535,552 GRT/4,382,987
DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 7, chemical tanker 7, container 11,
liquefied gas tanker 5, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker
22, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, specialized
tanker 1
note: a subset of the French register allowing French-owned ships to
operate under more liberal taxation and manning regulations than
permissible under the main French register (1996 est.)

Airports: none

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: "Adelie Land" claim in Antarctica is not
recognized by the US
______________________________________________________________________

GABON

@Gabon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator,
between Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 11 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 267,670 sq km
land: 257,670 sq km
water: 10,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,551 km
border countries: Cameroon 298 km, Republic of the Congo 1,903 km,
Equatorial Guinea 350 km

Coastline: 885 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 m

Natural resources: petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron
ore

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 77%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

@Gabon:People

Population: 1,190,159 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 199,730; female 199,369)
15-64 years: 61% (male 368,086; female 359,086)
65 years and over : 5% (male 31,475; female 32,413) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.47% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 28.11 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.39 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 87.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.05 years
male: 53.13 years
female : 50.06 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.85 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)
adjective: Gabonese

Ethnic groups: Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings
(Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke), other Africans and Europeans
154,000, including 6,000 French and 11,000 persons of dual nationality

Religions: Christian 55%-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist

Languages: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira,
Bandjabi

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.2%
male: 73.7%
female : 53.3% (1995 est.)

@Gabon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Gabonese Republic
conventional short form: Gabon
local long form: Republique Gabonaise
local short form: Gabon

Data code: GB

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
parties legalized 1990)

National capital: Libreville

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue,
Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo,
Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1960) (Gabon granted
full independence from France)

Constitution: adopted 14 March 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the
Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)
head of government : Prime Minister Paulin OBAME Nguema (since 9
December 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in
consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: President Omar BONGO reelected; percent of vote -
Omar BONGO 51%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of a Senate (91
seats) and a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats);
members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms
elections : National Assembly - last held in December 1996 (next to be
held in December 2001); Senate - last held 12 January 1997 (next to be
held in January 2002)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PDG 100, Morena-Bucherons/RNB 8, PUP 3, CLR 3, FAR 1,
UPG 1, USG 2, PGP 2; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PDG 51, RNB 17, PGP 4, ADERA 3, RDP 1, others 15
note: the provision of the constitution for the establishment of a
senate was implemented in the 12 January 1997 elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three
chambers - Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts; Constitutional
Court; Courts of Appeal (2); Court of State Security; County Courts

Political parties and leaders: Action Forum for Renewal or FAR [Leon
MBOU-YEMBI, secretary general]; Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR
[General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG,
former sole party [Simplice Guedet MANZELA, secretary general];
Gabonese Party for Progress or PGP [Pierre-Louis AGONDJO-OKAWE,
president]; Gabonese People's Union or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU];
Gabonese Socialist Union or USG [Dr. Serge Mba BEKALE]; National
Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks or Morena-Bucherons/RNB [Fr. Paul
M'BA-ABESSOLE]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA];
ADERA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA
chancery: Suite 200, 2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone : [1] (202) 797-1000
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0668
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth RASPOLIC
embassy: Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
mailing address : B. P. 4000, Libreville
telephone: [241] 76 20 03 through 76 20 04, 74 34 92
FAX: [241] 74 55 07

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and blue

Economy

Economy - overview: Notwithstanding its serious ongoing economic
problems, Gabon enjoys a per capita income three times that of most
nations of sub-Saharan Africa. Gabon depended on timber and manganese
until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The oil sector
now accounts for 50% of GDP. Real GDP growth has been feeble since
1991 and Gabon continues to face fluctuating prices for its oil,
timber, manganese, and uranium exports. Despite an abundance of
natural wealth and a manageable rate of population growth, the economy
is hobbled by poor fiscal management. In 1992, the fiscal deficit
widened to 2.4% of GDP, and Gabon failed to settle arrears on its
bilateral debt, leading to a cancellation of rescheduling agreements
with official and private creditors. Devaluation of its Francophone
currency by 50% on 12 January 1994 sparked a one-time inflationary
surge, to 35%; the rate dropped to 6% in 1996. The IMF provided a
one-year standby arrangement in 1994-95 and a three-year Enhanced
Financing Facility (EFF) at near commercial rates beginning in late
1995. Those agreements mandate progress in privatization and fiscal
discipline. France provided additional financial support in January
1997 after Gabon had met IMF targets for mid-1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8.2%
industry: 44.7%
services: 47.1% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry and commerce, services

Unemployment rate: 10%-14% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.3 billion
expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $311
million (1993 est.)

Industries: food and beverage; textile; lumbering and plywood; cement;
petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, uranium, and gold
mining; chemicals; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 301,000 kW (1992)

Electricity - production: 930 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 744 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil; rubber; okoume
(a tropical softwood); cattle; small fishing operations (provide a
catch of about 30,000 metric tons)

Exports:
total value: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: crude oil 78%, timber 14%, manganese 4%, uranium
partners: US 59%, France 12%, Japan 4%, China 5%, Spain, Germany

Imports:
total value: $700 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, petroleum
products, construction materials
partners : France 39%, Cote d'Ivoire 13%, US 6%, Netherlands 5%, Japan

Debt - external: $3.9 billion (1996 )

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Gabon:Communications

Telephones: 22,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay,
tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a
domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 250,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 5)

Televisions: 40,000 (1993 est.)

@Gabon:Transportation

Railways:
total: 649 km Gabon State Railways (OCTRA)
standard gauge: 649 km 1.435-m gauge; single track (1994)

Highways:
total : 7,633 km
paved: 626 km (including 23 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,007 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km

Ports and harbors: Cape Lopez, Kango, Lambarene, Libreville, Mayumba,
Owendo, Port-Gentil

Merchant marine:
total: 3 bulk (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,003 GRT/60,663 DWT (1996
est.)

Airports: 54 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 31
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 21 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 13 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Republican Guard (charged
with protecting the president and other senior officials), National
Gendarmerie, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 275,520 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 140,777 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 11,293 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $154 million (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.4% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial
Guinea because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
______________________________________________________________________

THE GAMBIA

@The Gambia:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and
Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 13 28 N, 16 34 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 11,300 sq km
land : 10,000 sq km
water: 1,300 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 740 km
border countries: Senegal 740 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf : not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry
season (November to May)

Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 53 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 45% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 150 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last 30 years

Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification;
water-borne diseases prevalent

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on
the continent of Africa

@The Gambia:People

Population: 1,248,085 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 286,422; female 285,379)
15-64 years: 51% (male 318,699; female 324,264)
65 years and over: 3% (male 17,723; female 15,598) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.48% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 43.86 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.29 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.14 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.43 years
male : 51.16 years
female: 55.76 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.98 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Gambian(s)
adjective: Gambian

Ethnic groups: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola
10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%), non-Gambian 1%

Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%

Languages: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
vernaculars

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.6%
male : 52.8%
female: 24.9% (1995 est.)

@The Gambia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia
conventional short form : The Gambia

Data code: GA

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

National capital: Banjul

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower
River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western

Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK); note - The Gambia and
Senegal signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 that called for the
creation of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the
agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

Constitution: 24 April 1970; suspended July 1994; rewritten and
published in March 1996; approved by national referendum 8 August
1996; rewritten and reestablished in January 1997

Legal system: based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law,
and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 12 October
1996); Vice President Isaton Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October
1996); Vice President Isaton Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet is appointed by the president
elections: the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year
term; the number of terms is not restricted; election last held 26
September 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote - President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH
55.5%, Ousinou DARBOE 35.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly; 49 seats (45

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