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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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8, Our Home is Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: National Court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU
[Tiit VAHI, chairman] made up of 4 parties: Coalition Party, Country
People's Party/Farmer's Assembly, Rural Union, and Pensioners' and
Families' League; Reform Party-Liberals or RE [Siim KALLAS, chairman];
Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Union of Pro Patria or
Fatherland League (Isamaa) [Toivo JURGENSON, chairman]; National
Independence Party or ERSP [Kelam TUNNE, chairman]; Our Home is
Estonia made up of 2 parties: United Peoples Party and the Russian
People's Party of Estonia; United Peoples Party [Viktor ANDREJEV,
chairman]; Russian Party of Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV, chairman];
Moderates or M made up of 2 parties: Social Democratic Party and Rural
Center Party; Social Democratic Party [Eiki NESTOR, chairman]; Rural
Center Party [Vambo KAAL, chairman]; Right-Wingers [Ulo NUGIS,
chairman]; Republican Conservative [Vootele HANSEN];
Development/Progressive Party [Andra VEIDEMANN, chairwoman], note -
party was created by defectors from Center Party in late spring 1996,
now holds 6 or 7 seats in Parliament

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD,
ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH,
UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lauri LEPIK
chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Lawrence P. TAYLOR
embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
mailing address: American Embassy, Tallinn; PSC 78, Box T; APO AE
09723
telephone: [372] (6) 312-021
FAX: [372] (6) 312-025

Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990
- three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

Economy

Economy - overview: Estonia continues to experience strong economic
growth after its economy bottomed out in 1993. Bolstered by a
widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western Europe, Estonia
has adhered to disciplined fiscal and financial policies and has led
the FSU countries in pursuing economic reform. Monthly inflation has
been held to 2% in 1995-96. Following four years of decline, Estonia's
GDP grew at 3% in 1995 and 1996. Despite these positive economic
indicators, the current account deficit is widening. The resident IMF
representative in Estonia has been worried since early 1996 about a
rising public sector deficit boosted by local government spending.
Small- and medium-scale privatization is essentially complete, and
large-scale privatization is progressing gradually. In 1996, Estonia's
national airline was privatized; in 1997 Estonia plans to privatize
large infrastructure, i.e., Eesti Energia, Tallinn Port, Estonian
Telecom, and Oil Shale. Estonia has successfully reoriented its trade
toward the West, two-thirds of exports now going to Western markets.
Estonia's free trade policies were the cornerstone of its negotiations
with the European Union, and led to the signing of an association
agreement in June 1995. Estonia was the only Baltic state not to have
a transition period imposed by the EU prior to its implementation of a
free trade agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,560 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 37%
services : 53% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 23% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 750,000 (1992)
by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry
20%, other 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1996 official est.)

Budget:
revenues: $620 million
expenditures : $582 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(January-October 1995)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.29 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 8.6 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,005 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and
dairy products; fish

Exports:
total value: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: textiles 16%, food products 16%, machinery and equipment
16%, metals 9% (1995)
partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Latvia (1995)

Imports:
total value : $3.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 29%, foodstuffs 14%, minerals
13%, textiles 13%, metals 12% (1995)
partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany (1995)

Debt - external: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $147 million (1993)
note: Western commitments $285 million (including international
financial institutions)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August
1992)

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1 - 12.6 (January 1997), 12.410
(December 1996), 12.034 (1996), 11.465 (1995), 12.991 (1994), 13.223
(1993); note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed
rate of 8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Estonia:Communications

Telephones: 400,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: system is antiquated; improvements are being made
piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international
connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for
subscriber service
domestic : substantial investment has been made in cellular systems
which are operational throughout Estonia
international: international traffic is carried to the other former
Soviet republics by landline or microwave radio relay and to other
countries partly by leased connection to the Moscow international
gateway switch and partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber-optic,
submarine cable which gives Estonia access to international circuits
everywhere; access to the international packet-switched digital
network via Helsinki

Radio broadcast stations: 3 commercial broadcast stations, 1
government broadcast station (1994)

Radios: 710,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1993)
note: provide Estonian programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first
and second programs

Televisions: 600,000 (1993 est.)

@Estonia:Transportation

Railways:
total : 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated
industrial lines
broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 14,992 km
paved: 8,096 km (including 65 km of expressways)
unpaved : 6,896 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Narva, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine:
total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,492 GRT/478,441 DWT
ships by type : bulk 7, cargo 31, container 4, oil tanker 3,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 4 (1996 est.)

Airports: 22 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air
Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard,
Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and
border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 353,616 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 277,489 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 10,396 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $35 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a
technical border agreement in December 1996, which Estonia is prepared
to sign and ratify in January 1997; Estonia had claimed over 2,000 sq
km territory in the Narva and Pechory regions in Russia - based on
boundary established under the 1920 Peace Treaty of Tartu

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, and cocaine from Latin America to
Western Europe and Scandinavia
______________________________________________________________________

ETHIOPIA

Introduction

Historical perspective: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's
Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian
government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a
new constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and
regional popular elections were held in May and June 1995

@Ethiopia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,127,127 sq km
land: 1,119,683 sq km
water: 7,444 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,311 km
border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km,
Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Denakil -125 m
highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 25%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone
Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was
lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia:People

Population: 58,732,577 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 46% (male 13,492,323; female 13,444,656)
15-64 years: 51% (male 15,167,806; female 15,020,499)
65 years and over: 3% (male 745,554; female 861,739) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.67% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 45.59 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.56 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan, Kenya and Somalia
for refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected to
continue in 1997; entry into Ethiopia of Sudanese and Somalis fleeing
the fighting in their own countries is also continuing in 1997

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 121.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.62 years
male : 45.48 years
female: 47.8 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.94 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella
6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%,
other 3%-8%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali,
Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.5%
male: 45.5%
female : 25.3% (1995 est.)

@Ethiopia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: YeItyop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: YeItyop'iya
abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based administrative regions
(astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) and 1 federal
capital*: Addis Ababa*; Afar; Amhara; Benshangul/Gumaz; Gambela;
Harar; Oromia; Somali; Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples;
Tigray

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu
regime)

Constitution: new constitution promulgated in December 1994

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided in the December 1994
constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and
approved by the Council of People's Representatives
elections : president elected by the Council of People's
Representatives for a six-year term; election last held June 1995
(next to be held NA 2001); prime minister designated by the party in
power following legislative elections
election results: NEGASSO Gidada elected president; percent of vote by
the Council of People's Representatives - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of
the Federation or upper chamber (117 seats; members are chosen by
state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the Council of People's
Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve
five-year terms); note - the upper chamber represents the ethnic
interests of the regional governments
elections: regional and national popular elections were held in May
and June 1995 (next to be held NA 2000) and the Federal Parliamentary
Assembly assumed legislative power on 21 August 1995
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA; note - EPRDF won
nearly all seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the national
legislature

Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Oromo Liberation Front or OLF;
All Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's
Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed
since MENGISTU'S resignation, including several Islamic militant
groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2281, 2282
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7950

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David H. SHINN (17 June 1996)
embassy : Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] (1) 550666
FAX: [251] (1) 552191

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from
the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the
three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and
the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African
countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African
colors

Economy

Economy - overview: Ethiopia continues to face difficult economic
problems as one of the poorest and least developed countries in the
world. Its economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for more
than half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee
generates 60% of export earnings. The agricultural sector suffers from
frequent periods of drought, poor cultivation practices, and
deterioration of internal security conditions. The manufacturing
sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector.
Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less than 10% of agriculture, is
state-run. The government is considering selling off a portion of
state-owned plants and is implementing reform measures that are
gradually liberalizing the economy. A major medium-term problem is the
improvement of roads, water supply, and other parts of an
infrastructure badly neglected during years of civil strife.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $430 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 57%
industry: 10%
services: 33% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 18 million
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and
services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $1 billion
expenditures: $1.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $415
million (FY96/97)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals
processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 630,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 1.27 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane,
potatoes, other vegetables; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value : $423 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: coffee, leather products, gold (1995)
partners: Germany 18%, Japan 13%, Djibouti 10%, Saudi Arabia 8% (1993)

Imports:
total value: $1.15 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals (1995)
partners : Saudi Arabia 13.3%, Italy 11.6%, US 10.2%, Germany 9.1%,
Japan (1993)

Debt - external: $4.3 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $367 million (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 (end of period) - 6.4260 (December
1996), 6.4260 (1996), 6.3200 (1995), 5.9500 (1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate
1992-93); fixed at 2.070 before 1992
note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an
interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction; prior to that
date, the official rate was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia:Communications

Telephones: 100,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate
for government use
domestic: open wire and microwave radio relay
international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay
to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1
Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 9.9 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Ethiopia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 28,360 km
paved : 4,254 km
unpaved: 24,106 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked but by agreement with
Eritrea may use the ports of Assab and Massawa

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,081 GRT/84,686 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 (1996
est.)

Airports: 59 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 13
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 46
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police
note: following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopia's naval facilities
remained in Eritrea's possession; current reorganization plans do not
include a navy

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 13,257,668 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 6,889,800 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 605,030 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $110 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary
with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute
with Somalia over the Ogaden

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (chat)
for local use and regional export
______________________________________________________________________

EUROPA ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Europa Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28 sq km
land: 28 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.16 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a small military garrison

@Europa Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Europa Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Europa

Data code: EU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

National capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Europa Island:Communications

Communications - note: 1 meteorological station

@Europa Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar
______________________________________________________________________

FALKLAND ISLANDS (ISLAS MALVINAS)
(Islas Malvinas)]

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 12,170 sq km
land: 12,170 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
about 200 small islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 99%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 1% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors;
short growing season

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):People

Population: 2,432 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Falkland Islander(s)
adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic groups: British

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church,
Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day
Adventist

Languages: English

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Colony of the Falkland Islands
conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Data code: FA

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor Richard RALPH (since 29 January 1996)
cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative
Council, two ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial
secretary), and the governor
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats, 8
elected; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA October 1993 (next was to be held NA October
1998)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is non-resident

Political parties and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered
on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram
(sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship
Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom
bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture,
mainly sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs most of the
work force. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish
winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK
and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So
far, efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been
unsuccessful. The economy has diversified since 1987, when the
government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license
fees total more than $40 million per year and support the island's
health, education, and welfare system. To encourage tourism, the
Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for
visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The
islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British
Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the
islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial
reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day. An agreement
between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1995 seeks to defuse
licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest
in exploiting potential oil reserves.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 1,100 (est.)
by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage

Budget:
revenues: $53.4 million
expenditures: $53.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994-95 est.)

Industries: wool and fish processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep farming,
small dairy herds

Exports:
total value: $7.6 million (1995)
commodities: wool, hides, meat
partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1992)

Imports:
total value : $24.7 million (1995)
commodities: food, clothing, timber, and machinery
partners : UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1992)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: UK, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments totaled $18 million
(1993-94)

Currency: 1 Falkland pound (F) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (F) per US$1 - 0.6023 (January 1997),
0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664
(1992); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Communications

Telephones: 1,180 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB
radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points
on both islands
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
with links through London to other countries

Radio broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Radios: 1,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Televisions: NA

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 510 km
paved: 30 km
unpaved : 480 km

Ports and harbors: Stanley

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army,
Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
______________________________________________________________________

FAROE ISLANDS

(part of the Danish realm)

@Faroe Islands:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and
the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to
Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 1,399 sq km
land: 1,399 sq km
water: 0 sq km (some lakes and streams)

Area - comparative: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,117 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish, whales

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 94% (1996)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one
uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically
located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic;
precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands

@Faroe Islands:People

Population: 39,873 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 25% (male 4,960; female 4,812)
15-64 years: 60% (male 12,913; female 11,117)
65 years and over: 15% (male 2,708; female 3,363) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -6.36% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.46 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.05 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -38.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.37 years
male: 75.41 years
female : 81.32 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Faroese (singular and plural)
adjective: Faroese

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: NA
note: similar to Denmark proper

@Faroe Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Faroe Islands
local long form : none
local short form: Foroyar

Data code: FO

Dependency status: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark

Government type: NA

National capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Ms. Vibeke LARSEN, chief
administrative officer (since mid-1995)
head of government : Prime Minister Edmund JOENSEN (since 15 September
1994)
cabinet: Landsstyri elected by the Faroese Parliament
elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; high commissioner
appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of
the party that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister
by the Faroese Parliament; election last held NA 1994 (next to be held
NA 1998)
election results: Edmund JOENSEN elected prime minister; percent of
parliamentary vote - 23.4%

Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament or Logting (32
seats; members are elected on a proportional basis from the seven
constituencies to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 July 1994 (next to be held by NA July 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - Unionist Party 23.4%,
People's Party 16.0%, Social Democrats 15.4%, Republicans 13.7%,
Workers' Party 9.5%, Christian People 6.3%, Center Party 5.8%, Home
Rule Party 5.6%; seats by party - Unionist Party 8, People's Party 6,
Social Democrats 5, Republicans 4, Workers' Party 3, Christian People
2, Center Party 2, Home Rule Party 2
note: election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on 21
September 1994 (next to be held by September 1998); results - percent
of vote by party - Unionist Party 22.5%, People's Party 21.7%; seats
by party - Unionist Party 1, People's Party 1

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Joannes
EIDESGAARD]; Workers' Party [Alis JACOBSEN]; Home Rule Party [Helena
Dam A NEYSTABO]; Unionist Party [Edmund JOENSEN]; Republican Party
[Heini O. HEINESEN]; Center Party [Tordur NICLASEN]; Christian
People's Party [Niels Pauli DANIELSEN]; People's Party [Arnfinn
KALLSBERG]

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Flag description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

Economy - overview: The Faroese economy in 1995 and 1996 saw a
noticeable upturn after several years of decline brought on by a drop
in fish catches and declining prices and by over-spending by the
Faroese Home Rule Government (FHRG). In the early 1990s, property
values plummeted, and the FHRG had to bail out and merge the two
largest Faroese banks. Fishing is now improving; wage costs are
increasing; the FHRG's budget is almost in balance; and the large
foreign debt has come down significantly. Nevertheless, the total
dependence on fishing makes the Faroese economy extremely vulnerable,
and the reduction in the foreign debt is at the cost of low
investment. Oil finds close to the Faroese area give hope for deposits
in the immediate Faroese area, which may lay the basis for an eventual
economic rebound. Aided by a substantial annual subsidy from Denmark,
the Faroese have a standard of living comparable to the Danes and
other Scandinavians.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $800 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 16%
services : 64% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 20,345 (1995 est.)
by occupation: largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
transportation, and commerce

Unemployment rate: 11% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $467 million
expenditures: $468 million, including capital expenditures of $11
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 91,000 kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 175.4 million kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,043 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: milk, potatoes, vegetables; sheep; salmon
farming; fish

Exports:
total value: $362 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : fish and fish products 92%, animal feedstuffs, transport
equipment (ships)
partners: Denmark 22.2%, UK 25.8%, Germany 9.7%, France 8.3%, Norway
6.2%, US 2.0%

Imports:
total value: $315.6 (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 17.0%, consumer goods
33%, raw materials and semi-manufactures 26.9%, fuels 11.4%, fish and
salt 6.7%
partners : Denmark 34.5%, Norway 15.9%, UK 8.4% Germany 7.8%, Sweden
5.8%, US 1.5%

Debt - external: $767 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $150
million (1995)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.117 (January 1997),
5.799 (1966), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Faroe Islands:Communications

Telephones: 26,000 of which about 3,500 are mobile telephones (1996)

Telephone system: good international communications; good domestic
facilities
domestic: digitalization to be completed in 1998
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 optical fiber
submarine cable linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (repeaters 13), shortwave 0

Radios: 11,800 (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 45)

Televisions: 11,600 (1996 est.)

@Faroe Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 458 km
paved: 450 km
unpaved: 8 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Torshavn, Klaksvik, Tvoroyri, Runavik,
Fuglafjordhur

Merchant marine:
total : 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,979 GRT/14,531 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo
1, short-sea passenger 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no organized native military forces; only a small
Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

FIJI

@Fiji:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 18,270 sq km
land: 18,270 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential

Land use:
arable land : 10%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 65%
other : 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are
inhabited

@Fiji:People

Population: 792,441 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 140,685; female 135,044)
15-64 years: 62% (male 246,128; female 246,001)
65 years and over : 3% (male 11,620; female 12,963) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.12 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66 years
male: 63.66 years
female : 68.46 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups: Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific
Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu
38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a
Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 91.6%
male: 93.8%
female: 89.3% (1995 est.)

@Fiji:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Fiji
conventional short form : Fiji

Data code: FJ

Government type: republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared
Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

National capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
July 1990; the 1990 constitution is under review; the review is
scheduled to be completed by 1997

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (acting president
since 15 December 1993, president since 12 January 1994); First Vice
President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12 January 1994); Second
Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12 January 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
note : there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president
on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which
consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly
system
elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a
five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president
election results : Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA elected president; percent
of Great Council of Chiefs vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (34
seats; 24 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 9 for Indians and others, and 1
for the island of Rotuma; members appointed by the president to serve
five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (70 seats; 37
reserved for ethnic Fijians, 27 for ethnic Indians, and 6 for
independents and others; members elected by popular vote on a communal
basis to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 18-25 February 1994
(next to be held NA 1999)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FAP 5, GVP 4,
independents 2, ANC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily
Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party
(NFP; primarily Indian), Jai Ram REDDY; Fijian Nationalist Party
(FNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY;
General Voters Party (GVP), Leo SMITH; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP),
leader NA; Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), leader NA; Fiji Indian
Liberal Party, leader NA; Fiji Indian Congress Party, leader NA; Fiji
Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party, leader NA;
Fijian Association Party (FAP), Josevata KAMIKAMICA; General Electors'
Association, leader NA
note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
Congress (ANC) merged with the Fijian Association (FA); the remaining
members of the ANC have renamed their party the General Electors'
Association

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, PCA, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNTAES, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ratu Napolioni MASIREWA
chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320
FAX : [1] (202) 337-1996
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Don Lee GEVIRTZ
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone: [679] 314466
FAX: [679] 300081

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half
of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field
quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane,
a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

Economy

Economy - overview: Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish
resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island
economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports
and tourism are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar
processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Roughly 250,000
tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and drought, however,
contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings from tourism and
sugar and to the emigration of skilled workers. In 1992, growth was
approximately 3%, based on growth in tourism and a lessening of
labor-management disputes in the sugar and gold-mining sectors. In
1993, the government's budgeted growth rate of 3% was not achieved
because of a decline in non-sugar agricultural output and damage from
Cyclone Kina. Growth in 1994 of 5% was largely attributable to
increased tourism and expansion in the manufacturing sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 18%
services: 61% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 235,000
by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary
earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $540.65 million
expenditures : $742.65 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber,
small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 200,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 510 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 660 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice,
sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish catch
13,796 tons (1991)

Exports:
total value : $607 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: sugar 32%, clothing, gold, processed fish, lumber
partners: EU 26%, Australia 15%, other Pacific island countries 11%,
Japan 6%

Imports:
total value: $864 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products,
food, consumer goods, chemicals
partners: Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EU 6%, US 6%

Debt - external: $333.8 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $14.35 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $3.5
million from New Zealand (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4000 (January 1997),
1.4033 (1996), 1.4063 (1995), 1.4641 (1994), 1.5418 (1993), 1.5030
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Fiji:Communications

Telephones: 60,017 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone,
telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications
center
domestic: NA
international: access to important cable link between US and Canada
and NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 12,000 (1992 est.)

@Fiji:Transportation

Railways:
total : 597 km; note - belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar
Corporation
narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 3,370 km
paved: 1,655 km
unpaved : 1,715 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

Ports and harbors: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,800 GRT/18,034 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 1, passenger 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 21 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 15 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes
army, navy, and a small air wing)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 210,048 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 115,766 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 8,986 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $32 million (1997)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

FINLAND

@Finland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 337,030 sq km
land: 305,470 sq km
water: 31,560 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 2,628 km
border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 6 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic
Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 76%
other : 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and
power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from
industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens
wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

Geography - note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost
national capital on European continent; population concentrated on
small southwestern coastal plain

@Finland:People

Population: 5,137,269 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 19% (male 493,427; female 473,166)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,729,996; female 1,694,111)
65 years and over: 14% (male 280,231; female 466,338) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.75 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.62 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.97 years
male: 73.41 years
female: 80.68 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Lapp 0.11%, Gypsy 0.12%, Tatar
0.02%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other
1%

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small
Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Finland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form : Suomen Tasavalta
local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Government type: republic

National capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani);
Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu,
Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may
request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994)
head of government : Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the
president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 31 January-6 February 1994 (next to be held NA
January 2000); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by
the president
election results: Martti AHTISAARI elected president; percent of vote
- Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 19 March 1995 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Party
28.3%, Center Party 19.9%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party
17.9%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 11.2%, Swedish People's Party
5.1%, Green League 6.5%, Ecology Party 0.3%, Rural 1.3%, Finnish
Christian League 3.0%, Liberal People's Party 0.6%, Young Finns 2.8%;
seats by party - Social Democratic Party 63, Center Party 44, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 39, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 22,
Swedish People's Party 11, Green League 9, Ecology Party 1, Rural 1,
Finnish Christian League 7, Young Finns 2, Aaland Islands 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus, judges appointed by
the president

Political parties and leaders:
government coalition : Social Democratic Party [Paavo LIPPONEN];
National Coalition (conservative) Party [Sauli NIINISTO]; Leftist
Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic
Alternative [Claes ANDERSSON]; Swedish People's Party [(Johan) Ole
NORRBACK]; Green League [Pekka HAAVISTO]
other : Center Party [Esko AHO]; Finnish Christian League [Toimi
KANKAANNIEMI]; Rural Party [Raimo VISTBACKA]; Liberal People's Party
[Tuulikki UKKOLA]; Greens Ecological Party or EPV; Young Finns [Risto
PENTTILA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Finnish Communist Party-Unity
[Yrjo HAKANEN]; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Pensioners
Party; Communist Workers Party [Timo LAHDENMAKI]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC (observer), NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNPREDEP,
UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO,
ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Jaakko Tapani LAAJAVA
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Derek N. SHEARER
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 171931
FAX : [358] (9) 174681

Flag description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

Economy - overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely
free-market economy, with per capita output equaling that of the UK,
France and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing -
principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is
important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP.
Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of
raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods.

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