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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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head of government: President Fabian ALARCON Rivera (since 11 February
1997); Vice President Rosalia ARTEAGA Serrano de Cordova (since 10
August 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government
note : in an unusual, out of cycle change in executive power, Congress
on 11 February 1997 elected then Congress President ALARCON to be
Interim President until August 1998 after ousting former President
BUCARAM because of "mental incapacity;" ARTEAGA remained vice
president
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 19 May 1996;
runoff election held 7 July 1996; note - because of the February 1997
unusual change in executive power, the next presidential elections
will take place in 1998
election results : runoff election; percent of vote - Abdala BUCARAM
Ortiz 54%, Jaime NEBOT 46%; note - in February 1997, Congress elected
ALARCON to be Interim President until August 1998, with 57 of 82
Congressmen voting in favor of him

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
(82 seats; 12 members are popularly elected at large nationally to
serve four-year terms; 70 members are popularly elected by province
for two-year terms)
elections : last held 19 May 1996 (next to be held 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSC
27, PRE 19, DP 12, P-NP 8, ID 4, FRA 3, MPD 2, PCE 2, CFP 1,
independents and other 4; note - defections by members of congress are
commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats
held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by
Congress

Political parties and leaders:
Center-Right parties: Social Christian Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT
Saadi, president]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Freddy BRAVO]
Center-Left parties: Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos,
leader]; Popular Democracy or DP [Jamil MAHUAD, leader]; Radical
Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]
Populist parties: Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz,
director]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM,
leader]; Popular Revolutionary Action or APRE [Frank VARGAS Passos,
leader]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Freddy EHLERS]
Far-Left parties: Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Juan Jose
CASTELLO, leader]

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Fernando
FLORES
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Newark

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie ALEXANDER
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre and Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone : [593] (2) 562-890
FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double
width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center
of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does
not bear a coat of arms

Economy

Economy - overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
agricultural areas. As an exporter of primary products such as oil,
bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a
substantial domestic impact. Growth has been uneven in recent years as
the government has repeatedly initiated ill-conceived fiscal
stabilization measures. The populist government of Abdala BUCARAM
Ortiz proposed a major currency reform in 1996, but popular discontent
with new austerity measures and rampant official corruption undermined
his government's position. Congress replaced BUCARAM with Fabian
ALARCON in February 1997. ALARCON has adopted a minimalist economic
program that puts off major decisions until the next elected
government takes office in August 1998. Ecuador has joined the Word
Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its
accession commitments. Growth slowed to 2.0% in 1996, due to a lack of
investment caused by political uncertainty and high domestic interest
rates.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $47 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 13%
industry: 38%
services: 49% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 26% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 29%, manufacturing 18%, commerce 15%,
services and other activities 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 8.5% with widespread underemployment (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.6 billion (1997)
expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.754 million kW (1996)

Electricity - production: 9.27 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 600 kWh (1996)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes,
manioc, plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy
products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports:
total value: $4.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum 37%, bananas 20%, shrimp 13%, cocoa 2%, coffee
3%
partners : US 39%, Latin America 25%, EU countries 22%, Asia 12%

Imports:
total value: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery,
chemicals
partners: US 32%, EU 19%, Latin America 35%, Asia 11%

Debt - external: $12.6 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $153 million (1993)
note: received $12.7 million from the US and $160 million from other
countries in 1995

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 3,674.9 (January 1997), 3,189.5
(1996), 2,564.5 (1995), 2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993), 1,534.0 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ecuador:Communications

Telephones: 586,300 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 940,000 (1992 est.)

@Ecuador:Transportation

Railways:
total: 965 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total : 43,106 km
paved: 7,932 km
unpaved: 35,174 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto
Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 117,401 GRT/179,142 DWT
ships by type: container 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 14,
passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 179 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 143
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 111 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 33 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada
Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana),
National Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 3,077,812 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,079,537 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 125,185 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $390.2 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: three sections of the boundary with Peru are
in dispute

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca
originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of
coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit
narcotics; important money-laundering hub
______________________________________________________________________

EGYPT

@Egypt:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land : 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,689 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to
urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below
Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral
reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from
agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very
limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the
only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining
natural resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between
Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal,
shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size,
and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle
Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt:People

Population: 64,824,466 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 12,080,281; female 11,556,970)
15-64 years: 60% (male 19,616,790; female 19,228,163)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,050,540; female 1,291,722) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.89% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 27.82 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.56 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.75 years
male: 59.8 years
female: 63.8 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic
Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.4%
male: 63.6%
female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

@Egypt:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: none
former : United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

National capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina',
Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October
1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed El-GANZOURI (since 4
January 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections : president nominated by the People's Assembly for a
six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national,
popular referendum; national referendum last held 4 October 1993 (next
to be held NA October 1999); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's
nomination by the People's Assembly to a third term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly
or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10
appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the
Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a
consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88
appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held 29 November 1995 (next to be
held NA 2000); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be
held NA)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP
72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party - NDP 317,
independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1,
Liberals 1; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%,
independents 1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party (NDP),
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the dominant party; legal
opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ
AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party (SLP), Ibrahim SHUKRI; National
Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid Muhi al-DIN; Socialist
Liberal Party, Mustafa Kamal MURAD; Democratic Unionist Party,
Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr
al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), leader NA; Nasserist Arab
Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic Peoples' Party, Anwar
AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH; Social Justice Party, Muhammad
'ABDAL-'AL
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban
against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
aggressively in the past two years to block its influence; trade
unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
(associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, BSEC (observer),
CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UN Security Council
(temporary), UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP,
UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTAES, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.
embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone : [20] (2) 3557371
FAX: [20] (2) 3572000
branch office: Alexandria

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden
eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the
country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria
that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three
green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered
in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: By the end of the 1980s Egypt - hit by the
collapse of the world oil market and servicing a foreign debt totaling
about $50 billion - faced crises in virtually all economic sectors.
Problems of low productivity and poor economic management were
compounded by the adverse social effects of large population growth
rates, high inflation, and massive urban overcrowding. In the face of
these pressures, in 1991, Egypt undertook wide-ranging macroeconomic
stabilization and structural reform measures. This reform effort has
been supported by three successive IMF arrangements, the last of which
was concluded in October 1996. Egypt's reform efforts - and its
participation in the Gulf war coalition - also led to massive debt
relief under the Paris Club arrangements. Egypt's foreign debt fell to
about $31 billion at yearend 1996. Although the pace of reform has
been uneven and slower than envisaged under the IMF programs,
substantial progress has been made in improving macroeconomic
performance - budget deficits have been slashed while foreign reserves
in 1996 were at an all-time high - and in moving toward a more
decentralized, market-oriented economy. Egypt was able to capitalize
on its progress during the third Middle East/North Africa economic
conference which it hosted in November 1996. Egypt's President MUBARAK
told reporters that Egypt had concluded deals worth $10 billion in
investment during the conference, 20 times the country's estimated
total direct foreign investment for the 1995/96 fiscal year. According
to press reports, Egypt and foreign investors agreed on nine
megaprojects, including the export of liquefied natural gas from Egypt
to Turkey, estimated at $2 billion to $4 billion. Egypt has a
broad-based inventory of geographic, human, and physical assets which
in a liberalized market environment could spur rapid, sustainable
growth into the next century. But rapid population growth continues to
cast a shadow over economic prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $183.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16%
industry : 34%
services: 50% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.3% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 17.4 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 40%, services, including government 38%,
industry 22% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (FY95/96 official estimate)

Budget:
revenues: $17.4 billion
expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5
billion (FY95/96)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 13.04 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 47.89 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 723 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch
about 140,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value : $4.6 billion (f.o.b., FY95/96 est.)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw
cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
partners: EU, US, Japan

Imports:
total value: $13.8 billion (c.i.f., FY95/96 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood
products, durable consumer goods, capital goods
partners: US, EU, Japan

Debt - external: $31 billion (yearend 1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.713 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (ŁE) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (ŁE) per US$1 - 3.4 (November 1994),
3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November 1992); market rate - 3.3900
(January 1997), 3.3880 (1996), 3.3900 (1995), 3.3910 (1994), 3.3718
(1993), 3.3386 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Egypt:Communications

Telephones: 2.2 million (1993)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but inadequate
for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave
radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean
and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine
cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to
Israel; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 39, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 41

Televisions: 5 million (1993 est.)

@Egypt:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,751 km
standard gauge: 4,751 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km
double track)

Highways:
total: 50,000 km
paved: 15,000 km
unpaved : 35,000 km (1990 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo
Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5
km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up
to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur
Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
total: 156 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,151,960 GRT/1,771,863
DWT
ships by type: bulk 21, cargo 65, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker
14, passenger 35, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 16,
short-sea passenger 3 (1996 est.)

Airports: 81 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 73
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m : 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 16,942,953 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 10,987,037 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 672,197 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.28 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8.2% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle,"
a barren area of 20,580 sq km

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian
heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for
Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon
and Syria
______________________________________________________________________

EL SALVADOR

@El Salvador:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 21,040 sq km
land: 20,720 sq km
water: 320 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 545 km
border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November
to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 29%
forests and woodland : 5%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: smallest Central American country and only one
without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador:People

Population: 5,661,827 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 1,084,198; female 1,038,248)
15-64 years: 57% (male 1,538,609; female 1,709,756)
65 years and over : 5% (male 133,038; female 157,978) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 27.22 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.44 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.27 years
male : 65.89 years
female: 72.81 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.13 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 94%, Amerindian 5%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%
note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the
country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.5%
male : 73.5%
female: 69.8% (1995 est.)

@El Salvador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador

Data code: ES

Government type: republic

National capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La
Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa
Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994);
Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June
1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 20 March 1994,
with a run-off election held 24 April 1994 (next to be held NA March
1999)
election results: Armando CALDERON Sol elected president; percent of
vote - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas
(CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%;
because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election was held
and the results were as follows - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 68.35%,
Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve three-year terms)
elections : last held 16 March 1997 (next to be held NA March 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - ARENA 35.4%, FMLN 34.3%,
PCN 8.1%, PDC 7.9%, CD 3.8%, PRSC 3.4%, PLD 3.2%, MU 2.1%, PD 1.0%,
other 0.8%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 27, PCN 11, PDC 9, PRSC 3,
CD 2, PLD 2, MU 1, PD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are selected by
the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance or ARENA
[Gloria SALGUERO Gross, president]; Farabundo Marti National
Liberation Front or FMLN [Salvador SANCHEZ Ceren (aka Leonel
GONZALEZ), general coordinator]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC
[Ronal UMANA, secretary general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN
[Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, secretary general]; Democratic Convergence or CD
[Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Unity Movement Party or MU [Jorge
MARTINEZ Menendez, president]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio
Waldo SALGADO, founder]; Democratic Party or PD (breakaway from FMLN)
[Joaquin VILLALOBOS, founder, Ana Guadalupe MARTINEZ, leader]; Social
Christian Renovation Party or PRSC (breakaway from PDC) [Abraham
RODRIGUEZ, founder]

Political pressure groups and leaders: labor organizations -
Salvadoran Communal Union or UCS (peasant association); General
Confederation of Workers or CGT (moderate); United Workers Front or
FUT; business organizations - Productive Alliance or AP
(conservative); National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen or
FENAPES (conservative)

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL
chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671, 9672
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Anne PATTERSON
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Station Antiguo Cuscatlan, San
Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023
telephone: [503] 278-4444
FAX : [503] 278-6011

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band;
the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of
Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white
band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE
NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to
the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
pattern centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: El Salvador possesses a fast-growing
entrepreneurial economy in which 90% of economic activity is in
private hands, with growth averaging 5% since 1990. Yet, because the
1980s were a decade of civil war and stagnation, per capita GDP has
not regained the level of the late 1970s. The rebound in the 1990s
stems from the government program, in conjunction with the IMF, of
privatization, deregulation, and fiscal stabilization. The economy now
is oriented more toward manufacturing and services compared with
agriculture. The sizable trade deficits are in the main covered by
remittances from the large number of Salvadorans abroad.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,080 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry : 27%
services: 59% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 2.2 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%,
government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%

Unemployment rate: 7.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $1.75 billion
expenditures: $1.82 billion, including capital expenditures of $317
million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals,
fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1993)

Electricity - capacity: 900,000 kW (1996)

Electricity - production: 3.32 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 580 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseed,
cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products; shrimp

Exports:
total value: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, sugarcane; shrimp; textiles, chemicals
partners: US, Guatemala, Germany, Costa Rica, Honduras

Imports:
total value: $3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities : raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Japan

Debt - external: $2.54 billion (yearend 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $763 million (1996)
note: US has committed $250 million in aid to El Salvador for 1992-96

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 (end of period) -
8.755 (January 1997), 8.755 (1996), 8.755 (1995), 8.750 (1994), 8.670
(1993), 9.170 (1992), 8.080 (1991)
note: as of 1 June 1990, the rate is based on the average of the
buying and selling rates, set on a weekly basis, for official receipts
and payments, imports of petroleum, and coffee exports; prior to that
date, a system of floating was in effect

Fiscal year: calendar year

@El Salvador:Communications

Telephones: 300,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 18, FM 80, shortwave 2

Radios: 1 million (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 600,000 (1996 est.)

@El Salvador:Transportation

Railways:
total: 602 km (single track; note - some sections abandoned, unusable,
or operating at reduced capacity)
narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 12,320 km
paved: 1,712 km (including 110 km of expressways)
unpaved : 10,608 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union,
Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 72 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 52
over 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 48 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 20
914 to 1,523 m: 20 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,330,498 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 844,314 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 64,530 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $101 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly
resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras
and Nicaragua likely would be required

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for
local consumption
______________________________________________________________________

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

@Equatorial Guinea:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28,050 sq km
land: 28,050 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 539 km
border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Malabo 3,008 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of
gold, manganese, uranium

Land use:
arable land : 5%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: violent windstorms

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship
Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: insular and continental regions rather widely
separated

@Equatorial Guinea:People

Population: 442,516 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 95,636; female 95,090)
15-64 years : 53% (male 111,801; female 123,257)
65 years and over: 4% (male 7,407; female 9,325) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.57% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 39.33 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.67 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 95.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.46 years
male: 51.2 years
female: 55.8 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.11 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni
(primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan
practices

Languages: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 78.5%
male: 89.6%
female: 68.1% (1995 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial
former : Spanish Guinea

Data code: EK

Government type: republic in transition to multiparty democracy

National capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem,
Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: new constitution 17 November 1991

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979)
head of government: Prime Minister Serafin Seriche DOUGAN (since April
1996); Vice Prime Minister Francisco Javier Ndongo MBENGONO (since
April 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a seven-year term;
election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2003)
election results : President OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected without
opposition; percent of popular vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Peoples Representatives or
Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (80 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 21 November 1993 (next to be held November 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE
68, CSD 6, UDS 5, CLD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Brig.
Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]
opposition parties: Convergence for Social Democracy or CSD [Santiago
Obama Ndong, president]; Democratic Social Union or UDS [Camelo MODU,
general secretary]; Liberal Democratic Convention or CLD [Alfonso Nsue
MIFUMU, president]; Liberal Party or PL [Santos PASCUAL]; National
Democratic Union or UDENA [Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president]; Party of
the Social Democratic Coalition or PCSD [Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu,
general coordinater]; Party of Progress or PP [Severo MOTO Nsa,
president]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Casiano Masi
Edu]; Popular Union or UP [Juan BITUI, president]; Party for Progress
of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo Moto NSA, president]; Progressive
Democratic Alliance or ADP [Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president];
Social Democratic and Popular Convergence or CSDP [Secundino Oyono
Agueng Ada, general secretary]; Social Democratic Party or PSD
[Benjamin-Gabriel Balingha Balinga Alene, general secretary];
Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea or PSGE [Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez,
general secretary]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Pastor Micha ONDO BILE
chancery: Suite 405, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone : [1] (202) 393-0525
FAX: [1] (202) 393-0348

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); US relations
with Equatorial Guinea are handled through the US Embassy in Yaounde,
Cameroon

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the
coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six
yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
Justice)

Economy

Economy - overview: Farming, forestry, and fishing account for about
half of GDP. Subsistence farming predominates. Although
pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for
hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under
successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led
growth. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the
IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of the government's gross
corruption and mismanagement. Businesses, for the most part, are owned
by government officials and their family members. Undeveloped natural
resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial
gold. Oil exploration, taking place under concessions offered to US,
French, and Spanish firms, has been moderately successful and has
contributed to Equatorial Guinea's strong growth rates in the early
1990s. The country responded favorably to the devaluation of the CFA
franc in January 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $328 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 11.2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 50%
industry: 14%
services: 36% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10.9% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $27 million
expenditures: $34.1 million, including capital expenditures of $11.2
million (1994)

Industries: fishing, sawmilling

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 23,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca),
bananas, palm oil nuts, manioc; livestock; timber

Exports:
total value : $83.5 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: timber, petroleum, cocoa
partners: US 34%, Japan 16%, Spain 15%, China 12%, Cote d'Ivoire,
Nigeria

Imports:
total value: $52.3 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners: Spain 51%, Cameroon 21%, France 6%, US 4%

Debt - external: $252 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Equatorial Guinea:Communications

Telephones: 2,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: poor system with adequate government services
domestic: NA
international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Transportation

Railways:
total : 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,820 km
paved : 0 km
unpaved: 2,820 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,997 GRT/7,105 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 3

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3 (1996 est.)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force,
National Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 95,788 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 48,696 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because
of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
______________________________________________________________________

ERITREA

Introduction

Historical perspective: on 29 May 1991, ISAIAS Afworke, secretary
general of the Peoples' Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which
then served as the country's legislative body, announced the formation
of the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in preparation for the
23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region
of Eritrea; the referendum resulted in a landslide vote for
independence which was proclaimed on 27 April 1993

@Eritrea:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and
Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 121,320 sq km
land: 121,320 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,630 km
border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in
Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter
in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid
in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except on coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Kobar Sink -75 m
highest point: Soira 3,013 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil
(petroleum geologists are prospecting for it), fish

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 48%
forests and woodland: 20%
other : 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil
erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic geopolitical position along world's
busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of
Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on
27 April 1993

@Eritrea:People

Population: 3,589,687 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 781,169; female 770,497)
15-64 years: 54% (male 963,542; female 966,083)
65 years and over: 3% (male 55,811; female 52,585) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 6.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 43.96 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 15.26 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 34.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: it is estimated that between 200,000 and 350,000 Eritrean
refugees were still living in Sudan in mid-1997

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
total population : 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 117.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.61 years
male: 48.85 years
female : 52.42 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.47 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%,
Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Italian, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya,
minor tribal languages

@Eritrea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form : Hagere Ertra
local short form: Ertra
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Government type: transitional government
note : following a successful referendum on independence for the
Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly,
composed entirely of the Peoples' Front for Democracy and Justice or
PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional
Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS
Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature pending
the promulgation of a constitution and popular elections

National capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular - awraja); Akele
Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye
note: in May 1995 the National Assembly adopted a resolution stating
that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been
established by former colonial powers, would consist of only six
provinces when the new constitution, then being drafted, would go into
effect sometime in 1998; the new provinces, which have not been
recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names for recognition by the
US government, pending acceptable definition of the boundaries, are:
Anseba, Debub, Debubawi, Gash-Barka, Maakel, and Semanawi Keyih Bahri

Independence: 27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea
Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May
(1993)

Constitution: transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993; the
promulgation of a draft constitution is expected in 1998

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA; note - the transitional constitution of 19 May 1993 did
not provide rules for suffrage, but it seems likely that the final
version of the constitution, to be promulgated some time in 1998, will
follow the example set in the referendum of 1993 and extend suffrage
to all persons 18 years of age or older

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority
note: the president is head of the State Council and National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last
held 8 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997)
election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term
limits not established pending new constitution)
elections: 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central
Committee of the EPLF) and 75 directly elected members serve as the
country's legislative body until country-wide elections are held in
1997

Judicial branch: Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS
Afworki, PETROS Solomon]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ;
Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean
Liberation Front - United Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed Said
NAWUD]; Eritrean Liberation Front - Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC
[Ahmed NASSER]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador AMDEMICHAEL Berhane Khasai
chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone : [1] (202) 319-1991
FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador John HICKS
embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt St., Asmara
mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone: [291] (1) 120004
FAX : [291] (1) 127584

Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is
green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive
branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle

Economy

Economy - overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993,
Eritrea faced the bitter economic problems of a small, desperately
poor African country. Most of the population must continue to depend
on subsistence farming. Domestic output (GDP) is substantially
augmented by worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come
from custom duties and income and sales taxes. Road construction is a
top domestic priority. Shortages persist in housing, education, and
health care. Eritrea has inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia
and has long-term prospects for revenues from the development of
offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. Ethiopia is largely
dependent on Eritrean ports for its foreign commerce.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $570 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 18%
services : 63% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $214 million
expenditures: $397 million, including capital expenditures of $78
million (1995 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 73,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, maize, cotton,
tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making rope); livestock (including goats);
fish

Exports:
total value: $81 million (1995 est.)
commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles
partners: Ethiopia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, UK, US, Yemen

Imports:
total value : $404 million (1995 est.)
commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum products
partners: Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Italy, United Arab Emirates

Debt - external: $162 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency
used; note - new Eritrean currency, the nakfa, to be circulated in
1997

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 (end of the period) - 6.4260
(December 1996), 6.4260 (1996), 6.3200 (1995), 5.9500 (1994), 5.000
(fixed rate 1992-93); note - following independence from Ethiopia,
Eritrea continued to use Ethiopian currency
note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an
interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction; prior to that
date, the official rate was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Eritrea:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic : very inadequate; about 4 telephones per 100 families, most
of which are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to
improve the system
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government controlled)

Televisions: NA

@Eritrea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 307 km
narrow gauge: 307 km 0.950-m gauge (1995 est.)
note: nonoperational since 1978 except for an about 5 km stretch that
was reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and
of the rolling stock is under way; links Ak'ordat and Asmara (formerly
Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)

Highways:
total: 3,930 km
paved: 841 km
unpaved : 3,089 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,573 GRT/13,593
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 4
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 10
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $40 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a dispute with Yemen over sovereignty of the
Hanish Islands in the southern Red Sea has been submitted to
arbitration under the auspices of the ICJ
______________________________________________________________________

ESTONIA

@Estonia:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont
combined

Land boundaries:
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with
neighboring states
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber,
cambrian blue clay

Land use:
arable land : 27%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 48%
other : 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

Environment - current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide
from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of
soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former
Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade
lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected
by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

@Estonia:People

Population: 1,436,558 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 141,814; female 136,895)
15-64 years: 67% (male 460,067; female 495,935)
65 years and over: 14% (male 65,302; female 136,545) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.14% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 9.04 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.08 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.38 years
male : 62.39 years
female: 74.67 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 64.2%, Russian 28.7%, Ukrainian 2.7%,
Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.9% (1995)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, others include Baptist, Methodist,
7th Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, 7th Day
Baptist, Judaism

Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male : 100%
female: 100% (1989 est.)

@Estonia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form : Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Government type: republic

National capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond):
Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond
(Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva), Laane maakond
(Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva
maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare),
Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond
(Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Tiit VAHI (acting since NA March
1995; confirmed 17 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
approved by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he
or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after 3 rounds of
balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus
members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between
the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last
held August-September 1996 (next to be held fall 2001); prime minister
nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
election results: Lennart MERI elected president by an electoral
assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI
and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote - Lennert MERI 61%,
Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 5 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K
14.17%, Pro Patria and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and
Right-Wingers 5.0%; seats by party - KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria

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