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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Geography - note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of
oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe

@Czech Republic:People

Population: 10,298,324 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 930,874; female 886,444)
15-64 years : 69% (male 3,542,900; female 3,539,351)
65 years and over: 13% (male 535,049; female 863,706) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.13% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 8.84 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.02 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.86 years
male: 70.49 years
female: 77.42 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic groups: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy
0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Literacy:
definition: age NA and over can read and write
total population: 99% (est.)
male: NA%
female : NA%

@Czech Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Ceska Republika

Data code: EZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular);
Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky,
Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 8 May; Founding of the
Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring
it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993)
head of government : Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992);
Deputy Prime Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK (since NA June 1992), Josef LUX
(since NA June 1992), Josef ZIELENIEC (since NA June 1992)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
the prime minister
elections : president elected by Parliament for a five-year term;
election last held 26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav HAVEL elected president; percent of
parliamentary vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the
Senate (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
staggered two-, four-, and six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies
or Snemovna Poslancu (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote
to serve four-year terms)
elections : Senate - last held 15-16 and 22-23 November 1996 (next to
be held NA November 1998 - to replace/re-elect 20 senators serving
two-year terms); Chamber of Deputies - last held 31 May-1 June 1996
(next to be held NA May 2000)
election results : Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - governing coalition (ODS 32, KDU-CSL 13, ODA 7), opposition
(CSSD 25, KCSM 2, DEU 1, independent 1); Chamber of Deputies - percent
of vote by party - NA; seats by party - governing coalition (ODS 68,
KDU-CSL 18, ODA 13), opposition (CSSD 61, KCSM 22, SPR-RSC 18)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are
appointed by the president; Constitutional Court, chairman and deputy
chairmen are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders:
governing coalition : Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS,
chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Michael ZANTOVSKY,
chairman]; Christian Democratic Union-Czech People's Party or KDU-CSL
[Josef LUX, chairman]
opposition: Czech Social Democrats or CSSD - left opposition [Milos
ZEMAN, chairman]; Communist Party or KSCM - left opposition [Miroslav
GREBENICEK, chairman]; Assembly for the Republic or SPR-RSC - extreme
right radical [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU
[Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade
Unions; Civic Movement

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UPU, WEU (associate
partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander VONDRA
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9101, 9102
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general : Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jenonne R. WALKER
embassy : Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
mailing address: Unit 1330, APO AE 09213
telephone: [420] (2) 5732-0663
FAX: [420] (2) 5732-0920

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost
identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

Economy

Economy - overview: Western observers view the Czech Republic as one
of the most politically and economically stable post-Communist states.
Its key macroeconomic indicators are, in the aggregate, the best in
the region, and public opinion polls show strong support for reform.
The country emerged from recession in 1994 with 2.6% growth and
reached about 5% growth in both 1995 and 1996 while keeping a balanced
budget and reorienting exports to the EU. Inflation and unemployment
of 8.7% and 3.3% respectively in 1996 are among the lowest in the
region. Prague's mass privatization program, including its innovative
distribution of ownership shares to Czech citizens via "coupon
vouchers," has made the most rapid progress in Eastern Europe. About
80% of the economy is in private hands or is partially privatized. The
Czech Republic appears to be the East European frontrunner in economic
integration with the West; for example, in 1996 it began to strengthen
its bankruptcy law and to improve the transparency of stock market
operations. It was the first post-Communist member of the OECD and is
expected to be in the next group of new EU members. Its solid economic
performance has led Standard and Poor's to upgrade the country's
sovereign credit rating to "A" and has attracted over $6.7 billion in
direct foreign investment to Czech industry between 1990 and September
1996 - one quarter from the US. Prague's biggest macroeconomic
concerns now are mounting trade and current account deficits. In
addition, the Czech economy still faces transition problems. The
government continues to exert too much direct and indirect influence
on the privatized economy, and the management of privatized firms
sometimes is ineffective. Insufficient regulation and lack of public
information in the capital markets and the banking system, combined
with a shortage of experienced financial analysts, limit the ability
to distribute new credit efficiently. The judicial system also has
trouble speedily processing bankruptcy cases. Prague has promised to
overhaul its bankruptcy law and improve stock market and bank
operations, but it will take years to ensure compliance. Prague
forecasts a balanced budget, 4.5% GDP growth, 3.3% unemployment and
7.5% to 8% inflation for 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $114.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 43%
services : 53% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 5.107 million (1996)
by occupation: industry 33.1%, agriculture 6.9%, construction 9.1%,
transport and communications 7.2%, services 43.7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.3% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $18.4 billion
expenditures: $18.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal,
motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 13.85 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 55.38 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,712 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports:
total value: $21.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods 32.4%, machinery and transport
equipment 26.3%, chemicals 10.4%, raw materials and fuel 11.3% (1995)
partners : EU 55.1%, Eastern Europe, excluding Slovakia, and CIS
countries 16.9%, Slovakia 16.2%, developing countries 6.6%, EFTA 1.8%
(1995)

Imports:
total value: $27.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 35.6%, manufactured
goods 17.9%, chemicals 13.2%, raw materials and fuels 14.4% (1994)
partners : EU 56.4%, Eastern Europe, excluding Slovakia, and CIS
countries 15.7%, Slovakia 13.1%, developing countries 6.0%, EFTA 2.5%
(1995)

Debt - external: $17.1 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $27 million (1993)

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 27.516 (January 1997), 27.145
(1996), 26.541 (1995), 28.785 (1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26 (1992)
note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Czech Republic:Communications

Telephones: 3,349,539 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic
and Indian Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Czech Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 9,441 km
standard gauge : 9,345 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2641 km electrified
at three voltages)
narrow gauge: 96 km two narrow gauges (1995)

Highways:
total: 124,770 km
paved: 16,719 km (including 414 km of expressways)
unpaved : 108,051 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Ports and harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 80,117 GRT/134,890 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 116 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 87
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 32
under 914 m : 41 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense,
Railroad Units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,715,759 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,068,143 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 84,516 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.22 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Liechtenstein claims restitution for 1,600
sq km of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family in 1918;
the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not go back before
February 1948, when the communists seized power; individual Sudeten
German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection
with their expulsion after World War II; unresolved property issues
with Slovakia over redistribution of property of the former
Czechoslovak federal government

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
hashish and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; domestic
consumption - especially of locally produced synthetic drugs - on the
rise
______________________________________________________________________

DENMARK

@Denmark:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
on a peninsula north of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,394 sq km
water: 700 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 68 km
border countries : Germany 68 km

Coastline: 7,314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 4 nm
continental shelf : 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 3 nm

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Ejer Bavnehoj 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone,
stone, gravel and sand

Land use:
arable land: 60%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 5%
forests and woodland: 10%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country
(e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of
Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment - current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle
and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the
North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal
wastes and pesticides

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat)
linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population
lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark:People

Population: 5,305,048 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 18% (male 487,731; female 463,444)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,801,904; female 1,754,435)
65 years and over: 15% (male 330,143; female 467,391) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.59% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.78 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.22 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.1 years
male: 73.44 years
female: 78.9 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German
(small minority)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male : NA%
female: NA%

@Denmark:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark

Data code: DA

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter,
singular - amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholms, Frederiksborg,
Fyns, Kobenhavns, Nordjyllands, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde,
Sonderjyllands, Staden Kobenhavn*, Storstroms, Vejle, Vestsjaellands,
Viborg
note : there is one other city, Fredericksberg, mentioned by some
sources, but the US government has not recognized it as a first-order
administrative division; see separate entries for the Faroe Islands
and Greenland, which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing
administrative divisions

Independence: 10th century first organized as a unified state; in 1849
became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a major
overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a
female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir
Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the queen (born 26 May
1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25
January 1993)
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the queen
elections: none; the queen is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats;
members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 21 September 1994 (next to be held not later than
September 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 34.6%,
Liberals 23.3%, Conservatives 15.0%, Socialist People's Party 7.3%,
Progress Party 6.4%, Social Liberals 4.6%, Unity List 3.1%, Center
Democrats 2.8%, Christian People's Party 1.8%; seats by party - Social
Democrats 63, Liberals 44, Conservatives 28, Socialist People's Party
13, Progress Party 11, Social Liberals 8, Unity List 6, Center
Democrats 5, independent 1; note - Progress Party split up in spring
of 1995: Progress Party retained 7 seats, Danish People's Party 4
seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the monarch
for life

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Poul Nyrup
RASMUSSEN]; Conservative Party [Hans ENGELL]; Liberal Party [Uffe
ELLEMANN-JENSEN]; Socialist People's Party [Holger K. NIELSEN];
Progress Party [Kirsten JAKOBSEN]; Center Democratic Party [Mimi
JAKOBSEN]; Social Liberal Party [Marianne JELVED]; Unity Party [none];
Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP,
UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Knud-Erik TYGESEN
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716
telephone: [45] (31) 42 31 44
FAX : [45] (35) 43 02 23

Flag description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side,
and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was
subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

Economy

Economy - overview: This thoroughly modern market economy features
high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry,
extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards,
and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of
food. The center-left coalition government will concentrate on
reducing the persistently high unemployment rate and the budget
deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of
maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. The coalition
also vows to maintain a stable currency. The coalition has lowered
marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax revenues; boosted
industrial competitiveness through labor market and tax reforms and
increased research and development funds; and improved welfare
services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Prime
Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms focus on adapting Denmark to the criteria
for European integration by 1999; Copenhagen has won from the European
Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European Monetary Union (EMU).
Denmark is, in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into
the EMU on time.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $118.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 27%
services: 69% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.1% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2,895,950
by occupation: private services 40%, government services 30%,
manufacturing and mining 19%, construction 6%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 8.2% (November 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $62.1 billion
expenditures: $66.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
other wood products, shipbuilding

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 9.458 million kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 34.6 billion kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 6,411 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; meat,
dairy products; fish

Exports:
total value: $47.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and instruments 25%, meat and meat products,
fuels, dairy products, ships, fish, chemicals
partners : Germany 22.5%, Sweden 9.7%, UK 7.9%, Norway 5.9%, France
5.4%, Netherlands 4.4%, US 4.0% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $42.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum 25%, chemicals, grain
and foodstuffs, textiles, paper
partners : Germany 21.7%, Sweden 11.7%, Netherlands 7.0%, UK 6.6%,
France 5.2%, Norway 4.9%, US 4.7%, Japan 3.5%, FSU 1.7% (1995)

Debt - external: $44 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.34 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.117 (January 1997),
5.799 (1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Denmark:Communications

Telephones: 4.025 million (1995 est.), of which 822,000 are mobile
telephones

Telephone system: excellent telephone and telegraph services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form
trunk network, four cellular radio communications systems
international: 18 submarine optical fiber cables linking Denmark with
Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands, UK, Faroe
Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat;
10 Eutelsat; 1 Orion; 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the
Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share
the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for world-wide
Inmarsat access

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 50 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 3 million (1996 est.)

@Denmark:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,848 km (499 km privately owned and operated)
standard gauge: 2,848 km 1.435-m gauge (326 km electrified; 760 km
double track) (1995)

Highways:
total : 71,420 km
paved: 71,420 km (including 830 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas
700 km

Ports and harbors: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia,
Grenaa, Koge, Odense, Struer

Merchant marine:
total: 328 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,180,729 GRT/7,400,870
DWT
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 114, chemical tanker 20, container 68,
liquefied gas tanker 25, livestock carrier 6, oil tanker 29, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 16, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24, short-sea
passenger 9, specialized tanker 1
note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register (1996 est.)

Airports: 109 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 102
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 77 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish
Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,333,279 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,146,099 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 33,532 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.9 billion (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (1997 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
______________________________________________________________________

DJIBOUTI

@Djibouti:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea,
between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 22,000 sq km
land: 21,980 sq km
water : 20 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 508 km
border countries : Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Asal -155 m
highest point : Mousa Alli 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use:
arable land : NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping
lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into
Ethiopia; mostly wasteland

@Djibouti:People

Population: 434,116 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 92,920; female 92,584)
15-64 years: 55% (male 125,547; female 112,140)
65 years and over: 2% (male 5,624; female 5,301) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.16 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 1.06 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 104.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.61 years
male: 48.65 years
female: 52.63 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.01 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.2%
male : 60.3%
female: 32.7% (1995 est.)

@Djibouti:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Data code: DJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle);
'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4
September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices,
and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)
cabinet : Council of Ministers responsible to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a six-year term;
election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: President HASSAN GOULED reelected; percent of vote -
NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
Deputes (65 seats; members are elected to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1997)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - RPP 65; note - RPP
(the ruling party) dominated

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party : People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Hassan GOULED
Aptidon]
other parties: Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Mohamed Jama ELABE];
Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Restoration of
Unity and Democracy or FRUD, and affiliates; Movement for Unity and
Democracy or MUD

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye Oudine
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX : [1] (202) 331-0302

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Terri ROBL
embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone : [253] 35 39 95
FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and
light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a red five-pointed star in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on service activities
connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free
trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in
the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty
rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most
food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit
port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling
center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation
is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance (an important
supplement to GDP) to help support its balance of payments and to
finance development projects. An unemployment rate of 40% to 50%
continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an
estimated 35% over the last six years because of recession, civil war,
and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees).
Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the government has
fallen in arrears on long term external debt and has been struggling
to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $500 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -3.1% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3%
industry: 21%
services: 76% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.9% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 282,000
by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services 14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $150 million
expenditures: $181 million, including capital expenditures of $34
million (1995 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy
products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 115,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 200 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 577 kWh (1991)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports:
total value: $184 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit) (1995)
partners: Somalia 42%, Ethiopia 35%, Yemen 7% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $384 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products (1995)
partners : Thailand 15%, France 13%, Ethiopia 8%, Saudi Arabia 6%
(1995 est.)

Debt - external: $267 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate
since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Djibouti:Communications

Telephones: 7,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are
adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying
areas of the country
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international: submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles,
Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian
Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; MEDARABTEL regional microwave radio relay
telephone network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 17,000 (1993 est.)

@Djibouti:Transportation

Railways:
total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 2,890 km
paved: 364 km
unpaved: 2,526 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Djibouti

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air
Force), National Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite),
National Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 103,569 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 60,751 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $26 million (1989)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

DOMINICA

@Dominica:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 750 sq km
land: 750 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber

Land use:
arable land : 9%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 67%
other : 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Dominica:People

Population: 66,633 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 9,287; female 9,115)
15-64 years: 63% (male 21,364; female 20,617)
65 years and over : 9% (male 2,569; female 3,681) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.26% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.72 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.24 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -24.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.6 years
male: 74.74 years
female : 80.6 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: black, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none
2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 94%
male: 94%
female: 94% (1970 est.)

@Dominica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form: Dominica

Data code: DO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint
Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October
1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Edison C. JAMES (since 12 June
1995)
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the
prime minister
elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October
1998); prime minister appointed by the president
election results : Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO elected president; percent
of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9
appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote representatives;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 June 1995; byelections held 13 August 1996
(next to be held by October 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UWP
12, DLP 5, DFP 4

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Santa
Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over
the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles
SAVERIN]; Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Rosie DOUGLAS]; United Workers
Party or UWP [Edison JAMES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement or
DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward I. WATTY (non-resident)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781
FAX : [1] (202) 364-6791
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Dominica; the Ambassador to Dominica resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

Flag description: green with a centered cross of three equal bands -
the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the
horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the
center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled
by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent
the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus
is highly vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms.
Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 26% of GDP and employs
40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains
difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the
lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the
country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped out
one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The government is attempting
to develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the
island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $208 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: NA%
services : NA% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 25,000
by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services
28% (1984)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $80 million
expenditures: $95.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 15,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 52 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 479 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops,
coconuts; forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

Exports:
total value : $40 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: bananas 70%, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit,
oranges
partners: UK 55%, Caricom countries, Italy, US

Imports:
total value: $122 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities : manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food,
chemicals
partners: US 25%, Caricom, UK, Japan, Canada

Debt - external: $110 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (February
1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Dominica:Communications

Telephones: 14,613 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fully automatic network
international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to
Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint
Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 45,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 cable

Televisions: 5,200 (1993 est.)

@Dominica:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 765 km
paved: 385 km
unpaved: 380 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes
Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and
Europe; minor cannabis producer
______________________________________________________________________

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

@Dominican Republic:Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 48,730 sq km
land: 48,380 sq km
water : 350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total : 275 km
border countries: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures : 43%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional hurricanes (July to October)

Environment - current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the
sea damages coral reefs; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic:People

Population: 7,868,731 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 1,423,626; female 1,371,309)
15-64 years: 60% (male 2,404,042; female 2,334,119)
65 years and over : 4% (male 160,270; female 175,365) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.65% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.87 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.81 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 46 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.39 years
male : 67.21 years
female: 71.69 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.1%
male: 82%
female : 82.2% (1995 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form : Republica Dominicana
local short form: none

Data code: DR

Government type: republic

National capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat,
Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria
Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez,
San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago
Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons
regardless of age
note : members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government : President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 1996;
runoff election held 30 June 1996 (next to be held 16 May 2000)
election results: President FERNANDEZ elected to his first term;
percent of vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ (PLD) 51.25%, Jose Francisco PENA
Gomez (PRD) 48.75%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 30 May 1994 (next to be held NA May
1998); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held NA
May 1998)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PRSC 15, PLD 1, PRD 14; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote
by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 13, PRSC 50, PRD 57

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by
a Council made up of legislative and executive members with the
president presiding

Political parties and leaders:
major parties: Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin
BALAGUER Ricardo]; Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Lidio CADET];
Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Jose Franciso PENA Gomez];
Independent Revolutionary Party or PRI
minor parties: National Veterans and Civilian Party or PNVC [Juan Rene
BEAUCHAMPS Javier]; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or PLRD
[Andres Van Der HORST]; Democratic Quisqueyan Party or PQD [Elias
WESSIN Chavez]; National Progressive Force or FNP [Marino VINICIO
Castillo]; Popular Christian Party or PPC [Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert];
Dominican Communist Party or PCD [Narciso ISA Conde]; Dominican
Workers' Party or PTD [Ivan RODRIGUEZ]; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic
Union or UPA [Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini]; Alliance for Democracy
Party or APD [Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS,
Vicente BENGOA]; Democratic Union or UD [Fernando ALVAREZ Bogaert]
note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
form the Dominican Leftist Front or FID; however, they still retain
individual party structures

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer),
ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bernardo VEGA Boyrie
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280, 6281
FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto
Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
Navarro, Santo Domingo
mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041
telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171, 221-8100
FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges,
divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist
side) and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small
coat of arms is at the center of the cross

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic reforms launched in late 1994 contributed
to exchange rate stabilization, reduced inflation, and strong GDP
growth in 1995-96. In 1996, there was increased mineral and petroleum
exploration, and a new investment law that allows for repatriation of
capital dividends has drawn more investment to the island. Upon coming
to power in August 1996, President FERNANDEZ nevertheless inherited a
trouble-ridden economy hampered by a pressured peso, a large external
debt, nearly bankrupt state-owned enterprises, and a manufacturing
sector hindered by daily power outages. In December, FERNANDEZ
presented a bold economic reform package - including such reforms as
the devaluation of the peso, income tax cuts, a 50% increase in sales
taxes, reduced import tariffs, and increased gasoline prices - in an
attempt to create a market-oriented economy that can compete
internationally. The legislature, however, has been slow to act on
several of the economic measures.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $29.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,670 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 32%
services: 55% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 12.5% (1995)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million
by occupation : agriculture 50%, services and government 32%, industry
18% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $1.8 billion
expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2,450,400 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 6.506 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 613 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco,
rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products,
meat, eggs

Exports:
total value: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
partners : US 45%, EU 34%, Canada, Japan, Puerto Rico (1995)

Imports:
total value: $5.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
pharmaceuticals
partners: US 44%, EU 16%, Venezuela 11%, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico,
Japan (1995)

Debt - external: $3.6 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $21 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 14.206 (January
1997), 13.775 (1996), 13.597 (1995), 13.160 (1994), 12.676 (1993),
12.774 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Dominican Republic:Communications

Telephones: 190,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave
radio relay network
international : 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 728,000 (1993 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 757 km
standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)
narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominica Government Railway); 240
km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m, 0.762-m,
1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways:
total : 12,300 km
paved: 6,064 km
unpaved: 6,236 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de
Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 31 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 15 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,081,709 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,310,534 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 79,860 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $116 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US through Puerto Rico
______________________________________________________________________

ECUADOR

@Ecuador:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total : 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 56%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

Population: 12,105,124 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 2,252,260; female 2,174,004)
15-64 years: 59% (male 3,529,606; female 3,619,002)
65 years and over : 4% (male 248,105; female 282,147) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.93% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 24.04 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.28 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.44 years
male: 68.83 years
female: 74.17 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 55%, Amerindian
25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially
Quechua)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.1%
male: 92%
female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

@Ecuador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form : Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

National capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi,
Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua,
Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of
Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons
ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fabian ALARCON Rivera (since 11 February
1997); Vice President Rosalia ARTEAGA Serrano de Cordova (since 10
August 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government

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