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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 12 out of 47

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Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (since 8 May
1994); First Vice President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco (since 8 May
1994), Second Vice President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis (since 8 May
1994); note - president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (since 8 May
1994); First Vice President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco (since 8 May
1994), Second Vice President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis (since 8 May
1994); note - president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 February 1994
(next to be held NA February 1998)
election results : Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen elected president;
percent of vote - Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (PLN) 49.7%, Miquel Angel
RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 47.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 February 1994 (next to be held NA February
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLN
28, PUSC 25, minority parties 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are elected
for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party or PLN
[Rolando ARAYA]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Rafael Angel
CALDERON Fournier]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ];
National Agrarian Party or PAN; People's Party of Costa Rica or PPC
[Lenin CHACON Vargas]; Agricultural Union Party or PUAC [Juan
Guillermo BRENES Castillo]; Democratic Force Party or FD [Isaac Felipe
AZOFEIFA Bolanos]; People United [Humberto VARGAS Carbonell];
Patriotic Front Party; New Democratic Party or PDN [Rodrigo
GUTIERREZ)]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Confederated
Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Authentic
Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party
affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for
Economic Development or ANFE; Free Costa Rica Movement or MCRL
(rightwing militants); National Association of Educators or ANDE;
Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP

International organization participation: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UN
Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia PICADO
chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
consulate(s) general : Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Antonio,
San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Tampa
consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Jon DE VOS
embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
mailing address: APO AA 34020
telephone: [506] 220-3939
FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
(double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk
on the hoist side of the red band

Economy

Economy - overview: Costa Rica's basically stable and progressive
economy depends especially on tourism and the export of bananas,
coffee, and other agricultural products. Poverty has been
substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social
safety net has been put in place. Recent trends, however, have been
disappointing. Economic growth slipped from 4.3% in 1994 to 2.5% in
1995, and to 0.9% in 1996. Inflation rose to 22.5% in 1995 from 13.5%
in 1994, then dropped back to 13.9% in 1996. Unemployment appears
moderate at little more than 5% but substantial underemployment
continues. Furthermore, substantial government deficits have
undermined efforts to maintain the quality of social services. The
government thus faces a formidable set of problems: to curb inflation,
reduce the deficit, encourage domestic savings, and improve public
sector efficiency while increasing the role of the private sector, all
this in harmony with IMF agreements.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $19 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 24%
services: 58% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 13.9% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 868,300
by occupation: industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services
33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1996 est.); much underemployment

Budget:
revenues : $1.1 billion
expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110
million (1991 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1992)

Electricity - capacity: 1,113,900 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 5.138 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,330 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans,
potatoes; beef; timber (depletion of forest resources has resulted in
declining timber output)

Exports:
total value: $3.82 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners: US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK,
France

Imports:
total value: $3.857 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities : raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment,
petroleum
partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany

Debt - external: $3.2 billion (October 1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 219.29 (December
1996), 207.69 (1996), 179.73 (1995), 157.07 (1994), 142.17 (1993),
134.51 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Costa Rica:Communications

Telephones: 281,042 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service
domestic: NA
international: connected to Central American Microwave System;
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 340,000 (1993 est.)

@Costa Rica:Transportation

Railways:
total : 950 km
narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified)
note: the entire system was scheduled to be shut down on 31 June 1995
because of insolvency

Highways:
total : 35,600 km
paved: 5,945 km
unpaved: 29,655 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto
Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 143 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 115
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 96 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 28 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Coast Guard, Air Section, Ministry of Public
Security Force (Fuerza Publica) note - during 1996, the Ministry of
Public Security reorganized and eliminated the Civil Guard, Rural
Assistance Guard, and Frontier Guards as separate entities; they are
now under the Ministry and operate on a geographic command basis
performing ground security, law enforcement, counternarcotics, and
national security (border patrol) functions; the Constitution
prohibits armed forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 940,666 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 631,426 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 34,422 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $55 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South
America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots
______________________________________________________________________

COTE D'IVOIRE

@Cote d'Ivoire:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 322,460 sq km
land: 318,000 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 3,110 km
border countries : Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons -
warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and
wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt,
bauxite, copper

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops : 4%
permanent pastures: 41%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during
the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment - current issues: deforestation (most of the country's
forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been cleared by the
timber industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and
agricultural effluents

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Cote d'Ivoire:People

Population: 14,986,218 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 47% (male 3,537,190; female 3,496,749)
15-64 years: 51% (male 3,927,687; female 3,700,468)
65 years and over: 2% (male 165,544; female 158,580) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.11 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note : since 1989, over 350,000 refugees have fled to Cote d'Ivoire to
escape the civil war in Liberia

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.81 years
male : 43.63 years
female: 46.03 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.06 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ivorian(s)
adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic groups: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni,
foreign Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3 million),
non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to
300,000)

Religions: indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12%

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most
widely spoken

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 40.1%
male: 49.9%
female: 30% (1995 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form : Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
former: Ivory Coast

Data code: IV

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established
1960

National capital: Yamoussoukro
note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan
remains the administrative center; foreign governments, including the
US, maintain official presences in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular -
departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville,
Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou,
Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro,
Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo,
Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne,
Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou,
Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro,
Zuenoula

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 7 August

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last
time November 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993);
note - succeeded to the presidency following the death of President
Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY, who had served continuously since November
1960
head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10
December 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 22 October 1995 (next to be held October 2000);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Henri Konan BEDIE elected president; percent of vote
- Henri Konan BEDIE 96%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (175 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: elections last held 27 November 1995 (next to be held
November 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDCI
150, RDR 13, FPI 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire
or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Djeny
KOBINA]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian
Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Ivorian Socialist Party or PSI
[Morifere BAMBA]; over 20 smaller parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Koffi Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lannon WALKER
embassy : 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
telephone: [225] 21 09 79
FAX: [225] 22 32 59

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side),
white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and
has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also
similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and
red; design was based on the flag of France

Economy

Economy - overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest
producers and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil.
Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in
international prices for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions.
Despite attempts by the government to diversify the economy, it is
still largely dependent on agriculture and related activities, which
engage roughly 85% of the population. After several years of lagging
performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994, due to
improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in nontraditional primary
exports such as pineapples and rubber, limited trade and banking
liberalization, offshore oil and gas discoveries, and generous
external financing and debt rescheduling by multilateral lenders and
France. The 50% devaluation of Franc Zone currencies on 12 January
1994 caused a one-time jump in the inflation rate to 32% for 1994, but
this rate fell to 8% by 1996, in part as the economy adjusted to the
devaluation. Moreover, government adherence to donor-mandated reforms
led to a jump in growth rates - 6.5% in GDP in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $23.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,620 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 20%
services : 49% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1.9 billion
expenditures: $3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $408
million (1993)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining,
automobile assembly, textiles, fertilizer, construction materials,
electricity

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (first half of 1996)

Electricity - capacity: 1.17 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.86 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 118 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels,
corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar; cotton, rubber;
timber

Exports:
total value: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cocoa 36%, coffee 22%; tropical woods 4%, petroleum,
cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish
partners : France 18%, Germany 11%, Italy 8%, Burkina Faso, Mali, US,
UK, Netherlands

Imports:
total value : $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: food, consumer goods; capital goods, fuel, transport
equipment
partners: France 32%, Nigeria 20%, US 6.7%, Germany, Italy, Ghana

Debt - external: $16.7 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $552 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note : beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cote d'Ivoire:Communications

Telephones: 87,700 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: well-developed by African standards but operating
well below capacity
domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 810,000 (1993 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Transportation

Railways:
total : 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 46,331 km
paved: 3,579 km
unpaved : 42,752 km (1984 est.)

Waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal
lagoons

Ports and harbors: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine:
total : 1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,200 GRT/2,181 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 34 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,478,429 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,811,508 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 164,364 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $140 million (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local
consumption; minor transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast
Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US
______________________________________________________________________

CROATIA

@Croatia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 56,538 sq km
land : 56,410 sq km
water: 128 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with
Montenego), Slovenia 670 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border,
low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and
islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures : 20%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical
plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal
pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties
and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil
strife

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification

Geography - note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to
Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

@Croatia:People

Population: 4,664,710 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 417,181; female 395,430)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,590,334; female 1,593,470)
65 years and over: 14% (male 253,201; female 415,094) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.17% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.63 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.2 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population : 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 73.49 years
male: 70.16 years
female: 77.03 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Croat(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%,
Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian,
Czechoslovak, and German)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 97%
male: 99%
female: 95% (1991 est.)

@Croatia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

National capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija -
singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva,
Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj,
Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar,
Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia,
Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since NA November
1995); Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September 1992),
Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA October
1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka MINTAS-HODAK
(since November 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 4 August 1992 (next to be held 15 June 1997); prime
minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: President Franjo TUDJMAN reelected; percent of vote
- Franjo TUDJMAN 56%, Dobroslav PARAGA 5%

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the House
of Districts or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats - 63 directly elected by
popular vote, 5 presidentially appointed; members serve four-year
terms) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (127 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Districts - last held 13 April 1997 (next to be
held NA 2001); House of Representatives - last held 29 October 1995
(next to be held NA 1999)
election results: House of Districts - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - HDZ 42, HDZ/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2,
SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note - in some districts certain
parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of
Representatives - percent of vote by party - HDZ 45.23%,
HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%; seats
by party - HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4, HNS 2, SNS
2, HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms
by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House
of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed for
eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is
elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ
[Franjo TUDJMAN, president]; Croatian Democratic Independents or HND
[Stjepan MESIC, president]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS
[Vlado GOTOVAC, president]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP
[Ivica RACAN]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Ante DAPIC]; Croatian
Peasants' Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS
[Radimir CACIC, president]; Serbian National Party or SNS [Milan
DJUKIC]; Action of the Social Democrats of Croatia or ASH [Silvija
DEGEN]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VASELICA,
president]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JACKOVIC];
Slanvonsko-Baranja Croatian Party or SBHS; Primorje Gorski Kotar
Alliance

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending
member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX : [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH
embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address: US Embassy, Zagreb, Department of State, Washington,
DC 20521-5080
telephone: [385] (1) 455-55-00
FAX : [385] (1) 455-85-85

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian
coat of arms (red and white checkered)

Economy

Economy - overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic
of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized
area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav
average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from:
the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; damage
during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines,
buildings, and houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and
Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties. Western aid and
investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would help
restore the economy. The government has been successful in some reform
efforts - partially macroeconomic stabilization policies - and it has
normalized relations with its creditors. Yet it still is struggling
with privatization of large state enterprises and with bank reform.
The draft 1997 budget boosts expenditures on the repair and upgrading
of infrastructure. In 1996, the substantial trade deficit was
partially offset by increased earnings from tourism.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 11%
industry: 30%
services : 59% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 1.444 million (1995)
by occupation: industry and mining 31.1%, agriculture 4.3%, government
19.1% (including education and health), other 45.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 13% (yearend 1996)

Budget:
revenues : $3.86 billion
expenditures: $3.72 billion, including capital expenditures of $320
million (1994 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood
products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum
and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 3.59 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 8.03 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,208 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock
breeding, dairy farming

Exports:
total value : $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%, miscellaneous
manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live animals 12.2%, raw
materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%, beverages and tobacco 2.7%
(1993)
partners: Germany 22%, Italy 21%, Slovenia 18% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $7.6 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%, fuels and
lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals 14.2%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials 3.5%,
beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993)
partners : Germany 21%, Italy 19%, Slovenia 10% (1994)

Debt - external: $3.15 billion (September 1995)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA
note: IMF has given Croatia $192 million; World Bank has given Croatia
$100 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 lipas

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1 - 5.681 (January 1997), 5.434
(1996), 5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994), 3.577 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Croatia:Communications

Telephones: 1.216 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million

Television broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)

Televisions: 1.52 million (1992 est.)

@Croatia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,907 km
standard gauge : 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (769 km electrified)
note: some lines inoperative or not in use; disrupted by territorial
dispute (1997)

Highways:
total: 26,929 km
paved: 21,947 km (including 302 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,982 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable; Sava blocked by downed
bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310
km (1992); note - under repair following territorial dispute

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik,
Split, Zadar

Merchant marine:
total : 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 449,619 GRT/645,328 DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 29, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
1, container 4, multi-function large load carrier 3, oil tanker 1,
passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea
passenger 4
note: Croatia owns an additional 105 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 2,875,941 DWT operating under the registries of Malta,
Liberia, Cyprus, Panama, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines (1996 est.)

Airports: 68 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 60
over 3,047 m : 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m : 47 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense
Forces, Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,190,814 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 946,063 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 35,464 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.56 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 10% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic
Serbs during the ethnic conflict, is currently being overseen by the
UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia; reintegration of
Eastern Slavonia into Croatia will occur in 1997; Croatia and Italy
have not resolved a bilateral issue dating from WWII over property and
ethnic minority rights; maritime border dispute with Slovenia over
direct access to the sea in the Adriatic; the border issue is
currently under negotiation; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing
Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because
it controls the entrance to Kotor Bay in Montenegro; Prevlaka is
currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in
Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest
Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime
shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

CUBA

@Cuba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 110,860 sq km
land: 110,860 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 29 km
border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains
in the southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point : Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt,
timber, silica, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures : 27%
forests and woodland: 24%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every
other year); droughts are common

Environment - current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting
threatens wildlife populations; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba:People

Population: 10,999,041 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 1,255,844; female 1,190,860)
15-64 years: 69% (male 3,770,154; female 3,753,094)
65 years and over: 9% (male 483,858; female 545,231) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.42% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.21 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.42 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 75.2 years
male: 72.83 years
female: 77.71 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to CASTRO assuming
power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also
represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 96.2%
female: 95.3% (1995 est.)

@Cuba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey,
Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo,
Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar
del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered
by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953); Liberation Day, 1
January (1959)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements
of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the
Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February
1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since
2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and
First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz
(since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
head of government : President of the Council of State and President
of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council
of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen.
Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both
the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council
of State, appointed by the National Assembly
note: there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by
the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly; election last held 15 March 1993 (next to be held NA)
election results : Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of
legislative vote - NA; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent
of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or
Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (589 seats, elected directly from
slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 24 February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular),
president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the
National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party or
PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Cuba has an
Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1]
(202) 797-8609, 8610, and 8615

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - the US does have
an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Michael G. KOZAK; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and
M, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559 and 33-3543
through 3547 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700; protecting
power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist
side bears a white five-pointed star in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: The state plays the primary role in the economy
and controls practically all foreign trade. The government has
undertaken several reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity,
increase labor incentives, and alleviate serious shortages of food,
consumer goods, and services. The liberalized agricultural markets
introduced in October 1994, at which state and private farmers sell
above-quota production at unrestricted prices, have broadened legal
consumption alternatives and reduced black market prices. Government
efforts to lower subsidies to unprofitable enterprises and to shrink
the money supply caused the peso's black market value to move from a
peak of 120 to the dollar in the summer of 1994 to a low of 18-20 to
the dollar in late September before climbing to 20-21 at the end of
1996. New taxes helped drive down the number of legally registered
self-employed workers from 208,000 in January 1996 to 180,000 by
December. Havana announced in 1995 that GDP declined by 35% during
1989-1993, the result of lost Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies.
The drop in GDP apparently halted in 1994, when Cuba reported a 0.7%
growth. Government officials claimed that GDP increased by 2.5% in
1995 and 7.8% in 1996. Export earnings rose an estimated 40% in 1996
to $2.1 billion, largely on the strength of increased sugar shipments
to Russia and higher nickel production through a joint venture with a
Canadian firm. With the economic recovery, imports rose for the second
straight year, growing by an estimated 26% to $3.5 billion. Living
standards for the average Cuban, however, have not improved
significantly.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.8% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,480 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 31%
services: 62% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total : 4.71 million economically active population (1989); 3,527,000
employed in state civilian sector (1989)
by occupation: services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture
20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications
7% (June 1990)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: sugar, petroleum, food, tobacco, textiles, chemicals,
paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement,
fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4.082 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 11.189 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 822 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice,
potatoes and other tubers, beans; livestock

Exports:
total value: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, shellfish, medical products,
citrus, coffee
partners : Canada 23%, Russia 21% China 7% (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value: $3.5 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities : petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
partners: Russia 14%, Spain 13%, Mexico 11% (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $10.5 billion (convertible currency, 1996); another
$20 billion owed to Russia (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible,
official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cuba:Communications

Telephones: 229,000

Telephone system: among the world's least developed telephone systems
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 1

Radios: 2.14 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 58

Televisions: 2.5 million (1993 est.)

@Cuba:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,677 km
standard gauge: 4,677 km 1.435-m gauge (132 km electrified)
note: a large amount of track is in private use by sugar plantations

Highways:
total : 27,100 km
paved: 15,122 km
unpaved: 11,978 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports and harbors: Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas,
Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:
total : 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 113,092 GRT/162,029 DWT
ships by type: cargo 11, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 4,
refrigerated cargo 6
note: Cuba owns an additional 38 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
548,170 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Cyprus, Malta,
Belize, and Mauritius (1996 est.)

Airports: 162 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 130
over 3,047 m : 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 92 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 31 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground
forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); Border
Guards (TGF), which are controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,053,716
females age 15-49: 3,007,277 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,896,023 (1997 est.)
females: 1,861,886 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 61,934
females: 58,648 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: roughly 4% (1995 est.)

Military - note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and
supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to
US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
terminate the lease

Illicit drugs: lesser transshipment point for cocaine bound for the US
______________________________________________________________________

CYPRUS

@Cyprus:Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 9,250 sq km (note - 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish area)
land: 9,240 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet
winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 13%
other : 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity

Environment - current issues: water resource problems (no natural
reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall; sea water
intrusion to island's largest aquifier); water pollution from sewage
and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats
from urbanization

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change

@Cyprus:People

Population: 752,808 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 96,924; female 91,833)
15-64 years: 65% (male 244,821; female 241,580)
65 years and over: 10% (male 33,858; female 43,792) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.08% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.04 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population : 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.54 years
male: 74.38 years
female: 78.81 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.17 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area;
0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the
Turks live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish
area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek
area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 98%
female: 91% (1987 est.)

@Cyprus:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
note: the Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of
Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Government type: republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of
the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto
control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally
recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President"
Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by
Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal
differences and creation of a new federal system of government

National capital: Nicosia
note: the Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish area administrative
divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and
small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 from
Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State
of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish area passed by
referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960
constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February
1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960
constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and
vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1998)
election results : Glafcos CLERIDES elected president; percent of vote
- Glafcos CLERIDES 50.3%, Yeoryios VASSILIOU 49.7%
note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish area since
13 February 1975 (president elected by popular vote for a five-year
term); elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held NA
April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%;
Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish area since 16
August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish
area

Legislative branch: unicameral - Greek area: House of Representatives
or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats of which only 56 assigned to the Greek
Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms); Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet
Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: Greek area: last held 26 May 1996 (next to be held May
2001); Turkish area: last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held
December 1998)
election results : Greek area: House of Representatives - percent of
vote by party - DISY 34.5%, AKEL (Communist) 33.0%, DIKO 16.4%, EDEK
8.1%, KED 3.7%, others 4.1%; seats by party - DISY 20, AKEL
(Communist) 19, DIKO 10, EDEK 5, KED 2; Turkish area: Assembly of the
Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2%
TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats by party - UBP (conservative) 17, DP 15,
CTP 13, TKP 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme
Council of Judicature
note : there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area

Political parties and leaders: Greek area: Progressive Party of the
Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS];
Democratic Rally or DISY [Ioannis MATSIS]; Democratic Party or DIKO
[Spyros KYPRIANOU]; United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK [Vassos
LYSSARIDIS]; Liberal Party or KP [Nikolaos ROLANDIS]; Free Democrats
Movement or KED [Yeoryios VASSILIOU]; New Horizons [Nikolaos KOUTSOU,
secretary general]; Ecologists [Yeoryios PERDHIKIS]; Turkish area:
National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Communal Liberation Party
or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI
TALAT]; Free Democratic Party or HDP [Ismet KOTAK]; Nationalist
Justice Party or MAP [Zorlu TORE]; Unity and Sovereignty Party or BEP
[Arif Salih KIRDAG]; Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTASH]; the
HDP, MAP, and VP merged under the label National Struggle Unity Party
(MMBP) to compete in the 12 December 1993 legislative election

Political pressure groups and leaders: Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or
PEO (Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK
(pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen;
Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU
(applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas NIKOLAIDES
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 462-5772
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York
note: representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORHAN,
office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202)
887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Kenneth C. BRILL (26 June 1996)
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address : P. O. Box 4536, Nicosia, Cyprus
telephone: [357] (2) 476100
FAX: [357] (2) 465944

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island
(the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two
green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and
Turkish communities
note : the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top
and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white
field

Economy

Economy - overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small and prosperous,
but highly susceptible to external shocks. Industry contributes 23% to
GDP and employs 25% of the labor force, while the service sector
contributes 72% to GDP and employs 62% of the labor force. Erratic
growth rates in the 1990s reflect the economy's vulnerability to
swings in tourist arrivals (caused by fluctuations in political and
economic conditions in Western Europe and the Middle East) and the
need for structural changes in the economy. One bright spot has been
the low rate of inflation. In 1996 Cyprus fully satisfied all the
Maastricht convergence criteria. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less
than one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is
recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging
foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there.
The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government
service, which together employ about half of the work force. Moreover,
the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is
legal tender. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey
provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector. In January
1997, Turkey signed a $250 million economic cooperation accord with
the Turkish Cypriot area to support tourism, education, and industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.8 billion (Greek area: purchasing
power parity - $8,300,000,000; Turkish area: purchasing power parity -
$536,000,000) (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (Greek area: 4%; Turkish area: 0.5%)
(1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,800 (Greek area:
purchasing power parity - $13,700; Turkish area: purchasing power
parity - $3,950) (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: Greek area: agriculture 5.3%; industry
22.7%; services 72% (1996 est.); Turkish area: agriculture 11.4%;
industry 22.9%; services 65.7% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: Greek area: 3.3% (1996 est.);
Turkish area: 86% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : Greek area: 299,700
by occupation: services 62%, industry 25%, agriculture 13% (1995)
total: Turkish area: 76,500
by occupation: services 66%, industry 11%, agriculture 23% (1995)

Unemployment rate: Greek area: 2.3% (1996 est.); Turkish area: 3.6%
(1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: Greek area - $2.9 billion, Turkish area - $149 million
expenditures: Greek area - $3.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $453 million, Turkish area - $304 million, including
capital expenditures of $20 million (1996)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek area: -4% (1996); Turkish
area: 2.6% (1992)

Electricity - capacity: 690,000 kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 2.5 billion kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,380 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes,
olives, vegetables

Exports:
total value: Greek area: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996);
commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
shoes
partners: Russia 17%, UK 11%, Greece 6%, Germany 5%
total value: Turkish area: $71 million (f.o.b., 1996);
commodities: citrus, potatoes, textiles
partners : UK 35%, Turkey 30%

Imports:
total value: Greek area: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996);
commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed
grains, machinery
partners: US 16%, UK 11%, Italy 9%, Germany 7%, Greece 7%, Japan 6%
total value : Turkish area: $330 million (f.o.b., 1996);
commodities: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
partners: Turkey 53%, UK 13%

Debt - external: Greek area: $1.8 billion (1996)

Economic aid: Greek area: recipient - $700 million with amount
declining in recent years (1974-96 est.); Turkish area: recipient -
$400 million from Turkey (1977-96 est.)

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (úC) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100
kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US1$ - 0.4816 (January 1997),
0.4663 (1996), 0.4522 (1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502
(1992); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 112,019 (January 1997), 81,405
(1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cyprus:Communications

Telephones: Greek area: 367,000 (1996 est.); Turkish area: 80,000
(1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek and Turkish areas
domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic
submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek area: AM 4, FM 36, shortwave 1,
Turkish area: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: Greek area: 500,000 (1996 est.); Turkish area: 130,000 (1996
est.)

Television broadcast stations: Greek area: 8 (repeaters 34); Turkish
area: 2

Televisions: Greek area: 300,000 (1996 est.); Turkish area: 90,000
(1996 est.)

@Cyprus:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: Greek area: 10,150 km; Turkish area: 2,350 km
paved : Greek area: 5,781 km; Turkish area: 1,370 km
unpaved: Greek area: 4,369 km; Turkish area: 980 km

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos
Bay

Merchant marine:
total : 1,520 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,234,821
GRT/40,170,562 DWT
ships by type: bulk 486, cargo 562, chemical tanker 26, combination
bulk 50, combination ore/oil 19, container 119, liquefied gas tanker
3, oil tanker 142, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo
50, roll-on/roll-off cargo 32, short-sea passenger 17, specialized
tanker 4, vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 49 countries
among which are Greece 723, Germany 172, Russia 45, Netherlands 32,
Japan 30, Belgium 26, Cuba 26, Latvia 17, UK 15, and US 14; Cyprus
owns 71 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,491,740 DWT
that operate under the registries of Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas,
Hong Kong, Liberia, Malta, Panama, Syria, and UK (1996 est.)

Airports: 15 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG;
includes air and naval elements); Hellenic Forces Regiment on Cyprus
(ELDYK); Greek Cypriot Police;, Turkish area: Turkish Cypriot Security
Force (TCSF), Turkish Forces Regiment on Cyprus (KTKA), Turkish
mainland army units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 192,593 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 132,412 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 6,038 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $405 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.4% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two
de facto autonomous areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot
Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area
(37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the
island); there are two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek
Cypriot portion of the island

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and
container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some
cocaine transits as well
______________________________________________________________________

CZECH REPUBLIC

@Czech Republic:Geography

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 78,703 sq km
land: 78,645 sq km
water: 58 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and
plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of
very hilly country

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

Land use:
arable land: 41%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in areas of
northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present
health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

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