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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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permanent pastures: 36%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 35% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water
pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water
body in the Sahel

@Chad:People

Population: 7,166,023 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 1,586,873; female 1,579,086)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,854,645; female 1,931,519)
65 years and over: 3% (male 94,516; female 119,384) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.67% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 43.85 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.15 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 118.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.88 years
male: 45.49 years
female: 50.37 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.79 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba), non-Muslims (Sara,
Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa), nonindigenous
150,000 (of whom 1,000 are French)

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly
animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in
south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in French or Arabic
total population: 48.1%
male : 62.1%
female: 34.7% (1995 est.)

@Chad:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form : Republique du Tchad
local short form: Tchad

Data code: CD

Government type: republic

National capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi,
Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi,
Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 31 March 1995, passed by referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
head of government : Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA (since 9 April
1995); appointed by the president
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the constitution provides for the election of a president
by direct popular vote to serve a term of five years; if no candidate
receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving
the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 2
June and 11 July 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); the prime minister is
appointed by the president
election results: in the first round of voting none of the 15
candidates received the required 50% of the total vote; percent of
vote, first round - Lt. Gen. Idress DEBY 47.8 %; percent of vote,
second round - Lt. Gen. DEBY 69.1%, Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE 30.9%;
President DEBY reappointed Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (125 seats; members
serve four-year terms); replaces the Higher Transitional Council or
the Conseil Superieur de Transition
elections: National Assembly - last held in two rounds on 5 January
and 23 February 1997, (next to be held NA 2001); in the first round of
voting on 5 January 1997 some candidates won clear victories by
receiving 50% or more of the vote; where that did not happen, the two
highest scoring candidates stood for a second round of voting
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS
65, URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS
[Maldom Bada ABBAS, chairman], originally in opposition but now the
party in power and the party of the president; National Union for
Development and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO, leader]; Rally for
Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA, leader]; Union for
Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE, leader];
note - in mid-1996 Chad had about 60 political parties, of which these
are the most prominent in the new National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David C. HALSTED
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address : B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33
FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the
flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a
quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the
flag of France

Economy

Economy - overview: Unfavorable climate, geographic remoteness, poor
resource endowment, and lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the
most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by
political turmoil, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the
economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a
severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. About 85% of
the work force is involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton
is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad
is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given
chronic food shortages in several regions. Of all the Francophone
countries in Africa, Chad has benefited the least from the 50%
devaluation of their currencies on 12 January 1994. Despite an
increase in external financial aid and price increases for cotton -
the primary source of foreign exchange - the corrupt and enfeebled
government bureaucracy continues to postpone payment of public sector
salaries and to dampen economic enterprise by neglecting payments to
domestic suppliers. The devaluation resulted in stepped-up inflation
of 41% in 1994; inflation fell to 9% in 1995 but it remains high
compared with other Francophone countries. In one favorable
development, Chad in December 1996 concluded an agreement with
ESSO/Chad (EXXON) for drilling and extracting petroleum at Doba. Oil
will be piped through Cameroon for export.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 48%
industry: 18%
services : 34% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 9% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation : agriculture 85% (subsistence farming, herding, and
fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $136 million
expenditures: $222 million, including capital expenditures of $107
million (1994 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron
(sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 40,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 70 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 14 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports:
total value: $226 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles, fish
partners : Portugal 30%, Germany 18%, South Africa 16%, France 7%

Imports:
total value: $225 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial
goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; textiles; note -
excludes military equipment
partners: France 34%, Cameroon 24%, Nigeria 7%, US 6%

Debt - external: $875 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chad:Communications

Telephones: 5,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)
note: limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Chad:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 32,700 km
paved: 262 km
unpaved : 32,438 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 46 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 17 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,603,194 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 830,777 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 65,906 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $74 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 11.1% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: demarcation of international boundaries in
the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border
incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by
Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
______________________________________________________________________

CHILE

@Chile:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total : 756,950 sq km
land: 748,800 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
note: includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 6,171 km
border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other : 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and
vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation
contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

@Chile:People

Population: 14,508,158 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 2,057,633; female 2,031,588)
15-64 years: 65% (male 4,684,158; female 4,734,170)
65 years and over: 7% (male 416,047; female 584,562) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.53 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.68 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.73 years
male: 71.5 years
female: 77.95 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.17 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.2%
male : 95.4%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Chile:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Government type: republic

National capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30
July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March
1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government : President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March
1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1999)
election results: Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle elected president; percent
of vote - Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%,
other 17.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (46 seats, 38 elected by popular
vote; members serve eight-year terms - one half elected every four
years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : Senate - last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA
December 1997); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 December 1993 (next
to be held NA December 1997)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Coalition of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC 13, PS 4, PPD 3, PR
1), Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11, UDI 3, UCC 1),
right-wing independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
party - Coalition of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS
12.01%, PPD 11.82%, PR 2.96%), Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57%
(RN 15.25%, UDI 12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats by party - Coalition of
Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing
independent 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15, UCC
2), right-wing independents 3; note - subsequent to the election, the
Radical Party (PR) became the Radical Social Democratic Party (PRSD)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are appointed
by the president, the president of the Supreme Court is elected by the
17-member court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of Parties for Democracy or
CPD consists mainly of: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Enrique
KRAUSS]; Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA]; Party for Democracy
or PPD [Sergio BITAR]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD
[Anselmo SULE]; Union for the Progress of Chile or UPP consists mainly
of three parties: National Renewal or RN [Alberto ESPINA]; Independent
Democratic Union or UDI [Jovino NOVOA]; Center Center Union or UCC
[Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university student
federations at all major universities; labor - United Labor Central or
CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
confederations; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council
(temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John BIEHL Del Rios
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general : Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON
embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago
mailing address : APO AA 34033
telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the
hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white
five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market
economy. Civilian governments - which took over from the military in
March 1990 - have continued to reduce the government's role in the
economy while shifting the emphasis of public spending toward social
programs. Growth in real GDP averaged more than 6.5% in 1991-1996, and
inflation is nearing a 40-year low. Chile's currency and foreign
reserves also are strong, as sustained foreign capital inflows -
driven in part by state privatizations - have more than offset
occasional current account deficits and public debt buybacks.
President FREI, who took office in March 1994, has placed improving
Chile's education system and developing foreign export markets at the
top of his economic agenda. Despite this progress, the Chilean economy
remains largely dependent on a few sectors - particularly copper
mining, fishing, and forestry. Success in meeting the government's
goal of sustained annual economic growth of 5% depends largely on
world prices for these commodities, continued foreign investor
confidence, and the government's ability to maintain a conservative
fiscal stance. In 1996, Chile became an associate member of Mercosur
and concluded a Free Trade Agreement with Canada.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $120.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 8%
industry: 33%
services: 59% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 5.5 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and
commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%,
construction 6.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $17 billion
expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron
and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 5.964 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 27.908 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,662 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets,
potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; timber; 1991 fish catch of 6.6
million metric tons

Exports:
total value: $15.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: copper 37%, other metals and minerals 8.2%, wood products
7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1994)
partners: EU 25%, US 15%, Asia 34%, Latin America 20% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value : $16.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials
15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7% (1994)
partners: EU 18%, US 25%, Asia 16%, Latin America 26% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $22.3 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $50.3 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 423.79 (January 1997),
412.27(1996), 396.78 (1995), 420.08 (1994), 404.35 (1993), 362.59
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chile:Communications

Telephones: 1.5 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio
relay facilities
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
system with 3 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 179, FM 614, shortwave 11

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 2.85 million (1992 est.)

@Chile:Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,782 km
broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total : 79,750 km
paved: 11,006 km
unpaved: 68,744 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique,
Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano,
Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
total: 38 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 520,710 GRT/865,867 DWT
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, combination
ore/oil 1, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 4,
passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 343 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 259
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m : 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 214 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 84
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 71 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes Naval
Air, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros
of Chile (National Police), Investigations Police

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,867,676 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 2,874,235 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 125,586 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.8 billion (1997); note -
includes earnings from CODELCO Company; may exclude costs of pensions
and internal security

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.5% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of the southern boundary with
Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to
the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for
the US and Europe; booming economy has made it more attractive to
traffickers seeking to launder drug profits
______________________________________________________________________

CHINA

(also see separate Taiwan entry)

@China:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land : 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 22,143.34 km
border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416
km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km,
Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia
(northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow
Sea
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten,
antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead,
zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 14%
other : 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: air pollution from the overwhelming use
of high-sulfur coal as a fuel, produces acid rain which is damaging
forests; water shortages experienced throughout the country,
particularly in urban areas; future growth in water usage threatens to
outpace supplies; water pollution from industrial effluents; much of
the population does not have access to potable water; less than 10% of
sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth
of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic
development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Desertification

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia,
Canada, and US)

@China:People

Population: 1,221,591,778 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 26% (male 166,319,939; female 150,125,798)
15-64 years: 68% (male 427,340,489; female 393,914,502)
65 years and over: 6% (male 36,201,623; female 41,689,427) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 16.52 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.87 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.11 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.98 years
male: 68.61 years
female: 71.5 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
(est.)
note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 81.5%
male: 89.9%
female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

@China:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhong Guo
abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian,
Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang,
Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*,
Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan,
Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgated 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are
being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial
law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice
President RONG Yiren (since 27 March 1993)
head of government: Premier LI Peng (acting premier since 24 November
1987, premier since 9 April 1988); Vice Premiers ZHU Rongji (since 8
April 1991), ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991), QIAN Qichen (since 29
March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March
1995), and JIANG Chunyun (since 17 March 1995)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
(NPC)
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
People's Congress for five-year terms; election last held 27 March
1993 (next to be held NA March 1998); premier and vice premiers
nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's
Congress
election results: JIANG Zemin elected by the Eighth National People's
Congress; percent of National People's Congress vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,977 seats; members indirectly elected at
county or xian level to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1998)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the
National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG
Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee; eight registered
small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no meaningful political
opposition groups exist

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS
(pending member), CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), Mekong Group, MINURSO, NAM
(observer), PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador LI Daoyu
chancery : 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 through 2502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. SASSER
embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831
FAX : [86] (10) 6532-6422
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy

Economy - overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has
been trying to move the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally
planned economy to one that is more market-oriented but still within a
rigid political framework of Communist Party control. To this end the
authorities switched to a system of household responsibility in
agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the
authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted
a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light
manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and
investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978.
Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and industry also posted
major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite
Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic
and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often
experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism
(bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains
and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked,
retightening central controls at intervals. In 1992-96 annual growth
of GDP accelerated, particularly in the coastal areas - averaging more
than 10% annually according to official figures. In late 1993 China's
leadership approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still
more play to market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the
center's control over the financial system; state enterprises would
continue to dominate many key industries in what was now termed "a
socialist market economy." In 1995-96 inflation dropped sharply,
reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control
food prices. At the same time, the government struggled to (a) collect
revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce
corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large
state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the
vigorous expansion of the economy and many of which have been losing
the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 60 to 100 million
surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities,
many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance,
changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have
weakened China's population control program, which is essential to
maintaining growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to
continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration in the
environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall
of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose
arable land because of erosion and economic development; furthermore,
the regime gives insufficient priority to agricultural research. The
next few years will witness increasing tensions between a highly
centralized political system and an increasingly decentralized
economic system. Rapid economic growth likely will continue but at a
declining rate.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.39 trillion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1995 with use of official
Chinese growth figure for 1996; the result may overstate China's GDP
by as much as 25%)

GDP - real growth rate: 9.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 49%
services : 31% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 614.7 million (1994)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 54%, industry and commerce
26%, construction and mining 7%, social services 6%, other 7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: officially 3% in urban areas; probably 8%-10%;
substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (1996
est.)

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
consumer durables, food processing, autos, consumer electronics,
telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 13% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 210 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 859 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 684 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea,
millet, barley, cotton, other fibers, oilseed; pork and other
livestock products; fish

Exports:
total value : $151.07 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: clothing, miscellaneous consumer goods, fabrics,
footwear, toys, electrical machinery and switchgear (1995)
partners: Hong Kong, Japan, US, South Korea, Germany, Singapore (1995)

Imports:
total value : $138.83 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: plastics, fabrics, telecommunications equipment,
electrical machinery and switchgear, transistors, other industrial
machinery (1995)
partners: Japan, US, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Germany, Russia
(1995)

Debt - external: $92 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.977 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 yuan () = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan () per US$1 - 8.2963 (January 1997), 8.3142
(1996), 8.3514 (1995), 8.6187 (1994), 5.7620 (1993), 5.5146 (1992)
note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year

@China:Communications

Telephones: 20 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic and international services are increasingly
available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves
principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships
domestic: telephone lines are being expanded to 100 million by 1996;
interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems
have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth
stations is in place
international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region) and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); several international
fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong

Radio broadcast stations: AM 274, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: 216.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (repeaters 2,050)

Televisions: 75 million

@China:Transportation

Railways:
total : 62,500 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)
standard gauge: 58,900 km 1.435-m gauge (9,700 km electrified; 18,100
km double track)
narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (1996
est.)

Highways:
total: 1.117 million km
paved: 239,500 km
unpaved: 877,500 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 138,600 km; about 110,600 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 9,700 km; petroleum products 1,100 km; natural
gas 6,200 km (1990)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Lianyungang,
Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou,
Tianjin, Xiamen, Yantain, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:
total: 1,736 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,749,069
GRT/25,196,607 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 325, cargo 883, chemical tanker
16, combination bulk 11, container 109, liquefied gas tanker 9,
multifunction large-load carrier 6, oil tanker 232, passenger 6,
passenger-cargo 47, refrigerated cargo 24, roll-on/roll-off cargo 22,
short-sea passenger 43, specialized tanker 1
note: China owns an additional 270 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
8,754,413 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Hong Kong,
Malta, Liberia, Vanuatu, Cyprus, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Marshall Islands, and Singapore (1996 est.)

Airports: 206 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 192
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 65
1,524 to 2,437 m: 90
914 to 1,523 m : 13
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the
Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force,
Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed
Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of
Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed
forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 356,848,321 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 196,780,527 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 9,872,055 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: the officially announced but
suspect figure is 70.2 billion yuan (1995 est.); note - conversion of
the defense budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary with India in dispute; disputed
sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be settled; boundary
with Tajikistan in dispute; short section of the boundary with North
Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai), as does Taiwan

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem
______________________________________________________________________

CHRISTMAS ISLAND

(territory of Australia)

@Christmas Island:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 135 sq km
land: 135 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland : NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island:People

Population: 743 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -8.98% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Christmas Islander(s)
adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English

@Christmas Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form : Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Dependency status: territory of Australia

Government type: NA

National capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia
and Australian law

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Australian governor general
head of government : Administrator (vacant); Official Secretary
Merrilyn CHILVERS (since NA) is serving as acting administrator
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator
appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the
queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)
elections: last held NA December 1996 (next to be held NA December
1997)
election results : percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
closed the mine. In 1990, the mine was reopened by private operators.
Australian-based Casinos Austria International Ltd. built a $45
million casino on Christmas Island.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: NA
by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: phosphate
partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA
commodities : consumer goods
partners: principally Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2735 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704, (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : NA
note: external telephone and telex services are provided by INTELSAT
satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 500 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 350 (1992)

@Christmas Island:Transportation

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways:
total: NA km
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

CLIPPERTON ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Clipperton Island:Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 7 sq km
land : 7 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains
May-October

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: subject to tornadoes

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Clipperton Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Clipperton Island
local long form: none
local short form : Ile Clipperton
former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France from
French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: The only economic activity is a tuna fishing
station.

@Clipperton Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri
Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 14 sq km
land: 14 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note : includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area - comparative: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine
months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land : NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other : 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year

Environment - current issues: fresh water resources are limited to
rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms
and other vegetation

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:People

Population: 617 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.98% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years : NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Cocos Islander(s)
adjective : Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups: Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English, Malay

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Data code: CK

Dependency status: territory of Australia

Government type: NA

National capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Australian governor general
head of government : Administrator (acting) Jarl ANDERSSON (since NA)
cabinet: NA
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator
appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the
queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council
(NA seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the
sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners.
Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but
additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry : NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA
note: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction
workers, stevedores, and lighterage worker operations; tourism employs
others

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures : $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA
commodities: copra
partners: Australia

Imports: $NA
commodities: foodstuffs
partners: Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2835 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with
Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA
type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0
note: intermittent television service via satellite

Televisions: NA

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved : NA km

Ports and harbors: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

COLOMBIA

@Colombia:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total : 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
Serranilla Bank

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 7,408 km
border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures : 39%
forests and woodland: 48%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse
of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle
emissions

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia:People

Population: 37,418,290 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 31% (male 5,959,141; female 5,816,751)
15-64 years: 64% (male 11,756,893; female 12,146,103)
65 years and over: 5% (male 769,724; female 969,678) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.61% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.78 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.62 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.14 years
male: 70.28 years
female : 76.09 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.31 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.3%
male: 91.2%
female: 91.4% (1995 est.)

@Colombia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form : Colombia

Data code: CO

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government
structure

National capital: Bogota

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