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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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head of government: Administrator M. J. GRIMES (since NA)
cabinet: Advisory Council

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: none

Member of: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island:Economy

Overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic
activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the
mine as no longer economically viable. Plans have been under way to
reopen the mine and also to build a casino and hotel to develop
tourism.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: phosphate
partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA
commodities: consumer goods
partners: principally Australia

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 11,000 kW
production: 30 million kWh
consumption per capita: 17,800 kWh (1990)

Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Agriculture: NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704, (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991),
1.2799 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Christmas Island:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Christmas Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

________________________________________________________________________

CLIPPERTON ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Clipperton Island:Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, southwest
of Mexico

Map references: World

Area:
total area: 7 sq km
land area: 7 sq km
comparative area: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Mexico

Climate: tropical

Terrain: coral atoll

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Clipperton Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Clipperton Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Clipperton
former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Digraph: IP

Type: French possession administered by France from French Polynesia
by High Commissioner of the Republic

Capital: none; administered by France from French Polynesia

Independence: none (possession of France)

@Clipperton Island:Economy

Overview: The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

@Clipperton Island:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri
Lanka

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 14 sq km
land area: 14 sq km
comparative area: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC
note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine
months of the year; moderate rain fall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: there are no natural fresh water resources on the
island, groundwater does accumulate in natural underground reservoirs
natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year
international agreements: NA

Note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other
vegetation

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:People

Population: 604 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.98% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Cocos Islander(s)
adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic divisions:
West Island: Europeans
Home Island: Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslims

Languages: English

Labor force: NA

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Digraph: CK

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA)
cabinet: Islands Council; Chairman of the Islands Council Haji WAHIN
bin Bynie (since NA)

Legislative branch: unicameral Islands Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: NA

Member of: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Economy

Overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash
crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small
local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but
additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
Australia.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: copra
partners: Australia

Imports: $NA
commodities: foodstuffs
partners: Australia

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 1,000 kW
production: 2 million kWh
consumption per capita: 2,980 kWh (1990)

Industries: copra products

Agriculture: gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991),
1.2799 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile
communications via satellite with Australia

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 250 (1985)

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Cocos (keeling) Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

________________________________________________________________________

COLOMBIA

@Colombia:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Ecuador and Panama

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 1,138,910 sq km
land area: 1,038,700 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
Serranilla Bank

Land boundaries: total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km,
Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in
the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 29%
forest and woodland: 49%
other: 16%

Irrigated land: 5,150 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides;
air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
earthquakes; periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not
ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Note: only South American country with coastlines on both North
Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia:People

Population: 36,200,251 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (female 5,784,010; male 5,925,600)
15-64 years: 63% (female 11,642,870; male 11,245,235)
65 years and over: 5% (female 888,358; male 714,178) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.7% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 21.89 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.69 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.48 years
male: 69.68 years
female: 75.38 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian

Ethnic divisions: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population: 88%
male: 88%
female: 88%

Labor force: 12 million (1990)
by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

@Colombia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia

Digraph: CO

Type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas,
Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte
de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia,
Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after
US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano
(since 7 August 1994); election last held 29 May 1994 (next to be held
May 1998) and resulted in no candidate receiving more than 50% of the
total vote; a run-off election to select a president from the two
leading candidates was held on 19 June 1994; results - Ernesto SAMPER
Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres PASTRANA Arango (Conservative
Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto de la CALLE was elected vice
president in a new proceedure that replaces the traditional
designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents.
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso)
Senate (Senado): elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA
March 1998); preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
- (102 total) Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and
NDF) 31, other 12
House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes): elections last
held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998); preliminary
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (161 total) Liberal
Party 89, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 53, AD/M-19 2,
other 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical),
Constitutional Court, Council of State

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PL), Juan Guillermo
ANGEL; Conservative Party (PC), Fabio VALENCIA Cossio; National
Salvation Movement (MSN), Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; New Democratic Force
(NDF), Andres PASTRANA Arango; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is a
coalition of small leftist parties and dissident liberals and
conservatives; Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political party formed
by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian
Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO

Other political or pressure groups: three insurgent groups are active
in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), Manuel
MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National Liberation Army (ELN), Manuel
PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently demobilized People's Liberation
Army (EPL), Francisco CARABALLO; Francisco CARABALLO was captured by
the government in June 1994

Member of: AG, CCC, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos LLERAS de la Fuente
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Washington, DC
consulate(s): Atlanta and Tampa

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Myles R. R. FRECHETTE
embassy: Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota
mailing address: Apartado Aereo 3831, Bogota; APO AA 34038
telephone: [57] (1) 320-1300
FAX: [57] (1) 288-5687
consulate(s): Barranquilla

Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and
red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the
Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

@Colombia:Economy

Overview: Colombia's economy has grown steadily since 1991, when the
government implemented sweeping economic reform measures. President
SAMPER, who took office in August 1994, has pledged to maintain those
reforms while expanding government assistance for poor Colombians, who
continue to make up about 40% of the population. In an effort to bring
down inflation, SAMPER has arranged a "social pact" with business and
labor to curtail price hikes and trim inflation to 18%. The rapid
development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries, along
with copious inflows of capital and strengthening of prices for
coffee, have helped keep growth at 5%-6%. Development of the massive
Cusiana oilfield provides the means to sustain this level over the
next several years. Exporters say, however, that their sales have been
hampered by the appreciation of the Colombian peso, and farmers have
sought government help in adjusting to greater foreign competition.
Moreover, increased foreign investment and even greater domestic
growth have been hindered by an inadequate energy and transportation
infrastructure and by violence stemming from drug trafficking and
persistent rural insurgency.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $172.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.7% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,850 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.6% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $16 billion (1995 est.)
expenditures: $21 billion (1995 est.)

Exports: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
partners: US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)

Imports: $10.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer
goods, chemicals, paper products
partners: US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)

External debt: $12.6 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1994 est.); accounts for about
20% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 10,220,000 kW
production: 33 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 890 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal,
emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt

Agriculture: growth rate 3.8% (1994 est.); accounts for about 15% of
GDP; crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural
output; climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as
coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds,
vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more
important

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis;
about 45,000 hectares of coca under cultivation; the world's largest
processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the
US and other international drug markets; active eradication program
against narcotics crop

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $3.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 846.67 (January
1995), 844.84 (1994), 863.06 (1993), 759.28 (1992), 633.05 (1991),
502.26 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Colombia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,386 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 3,236 km 0.914-m gauge (2,611 km in use)

Highways:
total: 107,377 km (1991)
paved: 12,778 km
unpaved: gravel/earth 94,599 km

Inland waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural
gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar,
San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine:
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 104,577 GRT/142,617 DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 9, container 4, oil tanker 3

Airports:
total: 1,307
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 31
with paved runways under 914 m: 734
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 80
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 419

@Colombia:Communications

Telephone system: 1,890,000 telephones; modern system in many respects

local: NA
intercity: nationwide microwave radio relay system; 11 domestic earth
stations
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 413, FM 0, shortwave 28
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 33
televisions: NA

@Colombia:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, includes
Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana),
National Police (Policia Nacional)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 9,851,980; males fit for
military service 6,640,348; males reach military age (18) annually
349,599 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1992
est.)

________________________________________________________________________

COMOROS

@Comoros:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel,
about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
Mozambique

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 2,170 sq km
land area: 2,170 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims French-administered Mayotte

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low
hills

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 8%
meadows and pastures: 7%
forest and woodland: 16%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop
cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
natural hazards: cyclones and tsunamis possible during rainy season
(December to April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active
volcano
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

@Comoros:People

Population: 549,338 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 131,334; male 132,327)
15-64 years: 49% (female 137,083; male 133,629)
65 years and over: 3% (female 7,860; male 7,105) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.56% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 46.22 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.6 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 77.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.27 years
male: 56.04 years
female: 60.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.73 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Comoran(s)
adjective: Comoran

Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of
Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 48%
male: 56%
female: 40%

Labor force: 140,000 (1982)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

@Comoros:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
conventional short form: Comoros
local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
local short form: Comores

Digraph: CN

Type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja),
Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 7 June 1992

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990);
election last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results
- Said Mohamed DJOHAR (UDZIMA) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%

head of government: Prime Minister Halifa HOUMADI (since 13 October
1994); note - HOUMADI is the fifteenth prime minister appointed by
President DJOHAR in the last three years
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale): elections last held 12-20
December 1993 (next to be held by NA January 1998); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) Ruling Coalition: RDR 15, UNDC
5, MWANGAZA 2; Opposition: UDZIMA 8, other smaller parties 10; 2 seats
remained unfilled

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: over 20 political parties are currently
active, the most important of which are; Comoran Union for Progress
(UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Islands' Fraternity and Unity Party (CHUMA),
Said Ali KEMAL; Comoran Party for Democracy and Progress (PCDP), Ali
MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's Capability (UWEZO), Mouazair ABDALLAH;
Democratic Front of the Comoros (FDR), Moustapha CHELKH; Dialogue
Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA), Said MCHAWGAMA; Rally for Change
and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan HACHIM; Union for Democracy and
Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki Halidi IBRAHAM; Rally for
Democracy and Renewal (RDR); Comoran Popular Front (FPC), Mohamed
HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou MOUSTAKIM (Secretary
General)

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AL, CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Ahamadu DJIMBANAO (ambassador to
the US and Canada)
chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and
Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East 45th
Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010
FAX: [1] (212) 983-4712

US diplomatic representation: none; ambassador to Port Louis,
Mauritius, is accredited to Comoros

Flag: green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its
points facing upward; there are four white five-pointed stars placed
in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and
color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent
the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani,
and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by
Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is described in the
constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

@Comoros:Economy

Overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of
several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and
rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low
educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence
level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence
on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including
fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy.
It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and
provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in
food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for 90% of imports.
The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical
training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to
improve health services, to diversify exports, and to reduce the high
population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the
goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be reached in the late 1990s.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $370 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.9% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $700 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1989)

Budget:
revenues: $83 million
expenditures: $92 million, including capital expenditures of $32
million (1992)

Exports: $13.7 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra
partners: US 44%, France 40%, Germany 6%, Africa 5% (1992)

Imports: $40.9 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement,
consumer goods
partners: France 34%, South Africa 14%, Kenya 8%, Japan 4% (1992)

External debt: $160 million (1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -6.5% (1989 est.); accounts for 6%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 16,000 kW
production: 17 million kWh
consumption per capita: 27 kWh (1993)

Industries: perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry,
construction materials, soft drinks

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in
subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops
for export - vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra; principal food
crops - coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of
essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of
vanilla; large net food importer

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $435 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $18 million

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 297.07 (January 1995),
416.40 (1994), 254.57 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75
per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed
since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Comoros:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 750 km
paved: bituminous 210 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 540 km

Ports: Fomboni, Moroni, Mutsamudo

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 4
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Comoros:Communications

Telephone system: over 1,800 telephones; sparse system of radio relay
and high-frequency radio communication stations for interisland and
external communications to Madagascar and Reunion
local: NA
intercity: high frequency radio and microwave radio relay
international: high frequency radio

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Comoros:Defense Forces

Branches: Comoran Security Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 117,349; males fit for military
service 70,178 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

CONGO

@Congo:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Angola and Gabon

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 342,000 sq km
land area: 341,500 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: total 5,504 km, Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km,
Central African Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: long segment of boundary with Zaire along the
Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has
been made)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to
October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
basin

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 29%
forest and woodland: 62%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution
from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable;
deforestation
natural hazards: seasonal flooding
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea,
Tropical Timber 94

Note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe Noire,
or along the railroad between them

@Congo:People

Population: 2,504,996 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 543,324; male 548,840)
15-64 years: 53% (female 682,927; male 645,045)
65 years and over: 3% (female 49,879; male 34,981) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.32% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 39.86 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 16.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 109.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.09 years
male: 45.23 years
female: 49 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.23 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic divisions:
south: Kongo 48%
north: Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%
center: Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo
are the most widely used)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 60%
male: 71%
female: 49%

Labor force: 79,100 wage earners
by occupation: agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%

@Congo:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: Congo
local long form: Republique Populaire du Congo
local short form: Congo
former: Congo/Brazzaville

Digraph: CF

Type: republic

Capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1
commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: new constitution approved by referendum March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992);
election last held August 1992 (next to be held August 1997); results
- President Pascal LISSOUBA won with 61% of the vote
head of government: Prime Minister Jacques Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO
(since 23 June 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; named by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): election last held 3 October
1993; results - percentage vote by party NA; seats - (125 total) UPADS
64, URD/PCT 58, others 3
Senate: election last held 26 July 1992 (next to be held July 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total) UPADS 23,
MCDDI 14, RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Congolese Labor Party (PCT), Denis
SASSOU-NGUESSO, president; Pan-African Union for Social Development
(UPADS), Pascal LISSOUBA, leader; Association for Democracy and
Development (RDD), Joachim Yhombi OPANGO, president; Congolese
Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI), Bernard
KOLELAS, leader; Association for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS),
Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president; Union of Democratic Forces
(UFD), David Charles GANAO, leader; Union for Development and Social
Progress (UDPS), Jean-Michael BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader
note: Congo has many political parties of which these are among the
most important

Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist Youth
(UJSC); Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC); Revolutionary Union of
Congolese Women (URFC); General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students
(UGEEC)

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM II,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pierre Damien BOUSSOUKOU-BOUMBA
chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-0825
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador William C. RAMSEY
embassy: Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
mailing address: B. P. 1015, Brazzaville
telephone: [242] 83 20 70
FAX: [242] 83 63 38

Flag: red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow
band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle
is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Congo:Economy

Overview: Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and
handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support
services, and a government characterized by budget problems and
overstaffing. A reform program, supported by the IMF and World Bank,
ran into difficulties in 1990-91 because of problems in changing to a
democratic political regime and a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has
supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing about
two-thirds of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s
rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo to finance large-scale
development projects with growth averaging 5% annually, one of the
highest rates in Africa. Subsequently, growth has slowed to an average
of roughly 1.5% annually, only two-thirds of the population growth
rate. Political turmoil and misguided government investment have
derailed economic reform programs sponsored by the IMF and World Bank.
Even with these difficulties Congo enjoys one of the highest incomes
per capita in sub-Saharan Africa

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.7 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: -2.1% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $2,820 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $765 million
expenditures: $952 million, including capital expenditures of $65
million (1990)

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: crude oil 83%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee,
diamonds
partners: US, Italy, France, Spain, other EC countries

Imports: $472 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital equipment,
construction materials, foodstuffs
partners: France, US, Italy, Japan, other EC countries

External debt: $4 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 8% (1993 est.); accounts for 35% of
GDP; includes petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 120,000 kW
production: 400 million kWh
consumption per capita: 201 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, cement, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm
oil, soap, cigarette

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
cassava accounts for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn,
peanuts, vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest
products important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $63 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-90), $2.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $338 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1994), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Congo:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 797 km (includes 285 km that are privately owned)
narrow gauge: 797 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 11,960 km
paved: 560 km
unpaved: gravel or crushed stone 850 km; improved earth 5,350 km;
unimproved earth 5,200 km

Inland waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120
km of commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for
local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 41
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 11
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 8
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 18

@Congo:Communications

Telephone system: 18,100 telephones; 7 telephones/1,000 persons;
services adequate for government use; key centers are Brazzaville,
Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo
local: NA
intercity: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
coaxial cable
international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 4
televisions: NA

@Congo:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 568,663; males fit for military
service 289,335; males reach military age (20) annually 24,749 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 3.8% of
GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

COOK ISLANDS

(free association with New Zealand)

@Cook Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 240 sq km
land area: 240 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 22%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 74%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

@Cook Islands:People

Population: 19,343 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.13% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 23.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.14 years
male: 69.2 years
female: 73.1 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.27 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cook Islander(s)
adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and
European 7.7%, Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands
Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 5,810
by occupation: agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry
15%, other 4% (1981)

@Cook Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cook Islands

Digraph: CW

Type: self-governing parliamentary government in free association with
New Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs;
New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in
consultation with the Cook Islands

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New
Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
Representative of the Queen Apenera SHORT (since NA); Representative
of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK (since NA)
head of government: Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February
1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February 1989)
cabinet: Cabinet; collectively responsible to the Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 24 March 1994 (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total) Cook Islands
Party 20, Democratic Party 3, Alliance Party 2
note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but
has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
Democratic Party, Sir Thomas DAVIS; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena
JONASSEN; Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA; Alliance
Party, Norman GEORGE

Member of: AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free association
with New Zealand)

Flag: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every
island) centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands:Economy

Overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export
earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are
limited to a fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories.
Economic development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from
foreign markets and a lack of natural resources and good
transportation links. A large trade deficit is annually made up for by
remittances from emigrants and from foreign aid, largely from New
Zealand. Current economic development plans call for exploiting the
tourism potential and expanding the fishing industry.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $57 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $3,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.2% (1990)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $38 million
expenditures: $34.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993 est.)

Exports: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
partners: NZ 80%, Japan

Imports: $50 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
partners: NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US

External debt: $124 million (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 5% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 14,000 kW
production: 21 million kWh
consumption per capita: 741 kWh (1993)

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP, export crops - copra, citrus
fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops - yams, taro

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $128 million; in 1994, Cook Islands received
$4.3 million in budget support and $2.7 million in project aid from
New Zealand, the country's largest source of aid

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5601 (January
1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cook Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 187 km
paved: 35 km
unpaved: gravel 35 km; improved earth 84 km; unimproved earth 33 km
(1980)

Ports: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT

Airports:
total: 7
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Cook Islands:Communications

Telephone system: 2,052 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: 11,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: 17,000 (1989)

@Cook Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

________________________________________________________________________

CORAL SEA ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Coral Sea Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: less than 3 sq km
land area: less than 3 sq km
comparative area: NA
note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
area of about 1 million sq km, with Willis Islets the most important

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: no permanent fresh water resources
natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones
international agreements: NA

Note: important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 3
meteorologists

@Coral Sea Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Digraph: CR

Type: territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for
Environment, Sport, and Territories

Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Coral Sea Islands:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Coral Sea Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by
the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities
of visitors

________________________________________________________________________

COSTA RICA

@Costa Rica:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 51,100 sq km
land area: 50,660 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia
note: includes Isla del Coco

Land boundaries: total 639 km, Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May
to November)

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Natural resources: hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 7%
meadows and pastures: 45%
forest and woodland: 34%
other: 8%

Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the clearing of
land for cattle ranching; soil erosion
natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
volcanoes
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

@Costa Rica:People

Population: 3,419,114 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 585,976; male 617,456)
15-64 years: 60% (female 1,013,491; male 1,036,195)
65 years and over: 5% (female 88,050; male 77,946) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.24% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.88 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 3.47 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.11 years
male: 76.21 years
female: 80.1 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.01 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Costa Rican(s)
adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic divisions: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%,
Chinese 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), English; spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 93%
male: 93%
female: 93%

Labor force: 868,300
by occupation: industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services
33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

@Costa Rica:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
conventional short form: Costa Rica
local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
local short form: Costa Rica

Digraph: CS

Type: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas,
San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Jose Maria FIGUERES
Olsen (since 8 May 1994); First Vice President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco
(since 8 May 1994); Second Vice President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis
(since 8 May 1994); election last held 6 February 1994 (next to be
held February 1998); results - President FIGUERES (PLN party) 49.7%,
Miquel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC party) 47.5%
cabinet: Cabinet; selected by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): elections last held 6
February 1994 (next to be held February 1998); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (61 total) PLN 28, PUSC 29, minority parties
4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party (PLN), Manuel
AGUILAR Bonilla; Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel
CALDERON Fournier; Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto
VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON
Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP), Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos;
People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin CHACON Vargas; Radical
Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey

Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CCTD, Liberation Party affiliate); Confederated
Union of Workers (CUT, Communist Party affiliate); Authentic
Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD, Communist Party affiliate);
Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for Economic
Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL, rightwing
militants); National Association of Educators (ANDE)

Member of: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM
(observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia PICADO
chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, San
Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Austin

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: US Ambassador to Costa Rica Peter DE VOS
embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
mailing address: APO AA 34020
telephone: [506] 220-3939
FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width),
white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist
side of the red band

@Costa Rica:Economy

Overview: Costa Rica's basically stable and progressive economy
depends especially on tourism and export of bananas, coffee, and other
agricultural products. In 1994 the economy grew at an estimated 4.3%,
compared with 6.5% in 1993, 7.7% in 1992, and 2.1% in 1991. Inflation
in 1993 dropped to 9% from 17% in 1992 and 25% in 1991, an indication
of basic financial stability. Unemployment is officially reported at
only 4.0%, but there is much underemployment. Costa Rica signed a free
trade agreement with Mexico in 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $16.9 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $5,050 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4% (1993); much underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $1.1 billion

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