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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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rule

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de
Justia)

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime
Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and chairman; African Party for
Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES,
chairman

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN (Cape Verde assumed a nonpermanent
seat on the Security Council on 1 January 1992), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jose Eduardo BARBOSA
(since 12 February 1994)
chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
consulate(s) general: Boston

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. SEGARS
embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia
mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
telephone: [238] 61 56 16
FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag: three horozontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white
(with a horozontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a
circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of
the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands

@Cape Verde:Economy

Overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural
resource base, serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of
long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service
oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for
60% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural
areas, agriculture's share of GDP is only 20%; the fishing sector
accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing
potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde
annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances from
emigrants and foreign aid, which form important supplements to GDP.
Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in 1991,
are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign
investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 1995 depend heavily
on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the
government's development program.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $410 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1992 est.)

National product per capita: $1,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 26% (1990 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $174 million
expenditures: $235 million, including capital expenditures of $165
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $4.4 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: fish, bananas, hides and skins
partners: Netherlands, Portugal, Angola

Imports: $173 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products,
transport equipment
partners: Portugal, Netherlands, Germany, Spain

External debt: $156 million (1991)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.6% (1990 est.); accounts for 8%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 15,000 kW
production: 40 million kWh
consumption per capita: 73 kWh (1993)

Industries: fish processing, salt mining, garment industry, ship
repair, construction materials, food and beverage production

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP (including fishing); largely
subsistence farming; bananas are the only export crop; other crops -
corn, beans, sweet potatoes, coffee; growth potential of agricultural
sector limited by poor soils and scanty rainfall; annual food imports
required; fish catch provides for both domestic consumption and small
exports

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-90), $93 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-90), $586 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $36 million

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 85.537 (1st
Quarter 1994), 80.427 (1993), 68.018 (1992), 71.408 (1991), 70.031
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cape Verde:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,100 km (1992)
paved: 680 km
unpaved: 420 km

Ports: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
total: 7 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,609 GRT/19,052 DWT cargo 6,
chemical tanker 1

Airports:
total: 6
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5

@Cape Verde:Communications

Telephone system: over 1,700 telephones; telephine density - about 4
telephones/1,000 persons
local: NA
intercity: interisland microwave radio relay system, high frequency
radio links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau
international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Cape Verde:Defense Forces

Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP; includes Army and
Navy), Security Service

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 80,867; males fit for military
service 47,225 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.4 million, NA% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

CAYMAN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Cayman Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of
the way from Cuba to Honduras

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 260 sq km
land area: 260 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 8%
forest and woodland: 23%
other: 69%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: no natural fresh water resources, drinking water
supplies must be met by rainwater catchment
natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)
international agreements: NA

Note: important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands:People

Population: 33,192 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.3% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.79 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.1 years
male: 75.37 years
female: 78.81 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.43 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Caymanian(s)
adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic divisions: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of
various ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican,
Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98%

Labor force: 8,061
by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction
12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers
5.9% (1979)

@Cayman Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Digraph: CJ

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South
Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
Michael GORE (since 15 September 1992)
cabinet: Executive Council; 3 members are appointed by the governor, 4
members elected by the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly: election last held November 1992 (next to be
held November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(15 total, 12 elected)

Judicial branch: Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle
above a shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a
scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE
SEAS

@Cayman Islands:Economy

Overview: The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75%
of foreign currency earnings) and offshore financial services, with
the tourist industry aimed at the luxury market and catering mainly to
visitors from North America. About 90% of the islands' food and
consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the
highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living
in the world.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $700 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.4% (1991)

National product per capita: $23,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $141.5 million
expenditures: $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1991)

Exports: $10 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners: mostly US

Imports: $312 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

External debt: $15 million (1986)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 80,000 kW
production: 230 million kWh
consumption per capita: 6,899 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
building materials, furniture making

Agriculture: minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle
farming

Illicit drugs: a major money-laundering center for illicit drug
profits; transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $35 million

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.83 (18 November
1993), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cayman Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 160 km (main roads)
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 321,434 GRT/583,348 DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 6, chemical tanker 2, container 1, oil
tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
note: a flag of convenience registry; UK owns 6 ships, India 5, Norway
3, US 3, Greece 1, Sweden 1, UAE 1

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Cayman Islands:Communications

Telephone system: 35,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Cayman Islands:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

@Central African Republic:Geography

Location: Central Africa, north of Zaire

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 622,980 sq km
land area: 622,980 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,203 km, Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo
467 km, Sudan 1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
northeast and southwest

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 5%
forest and woodland: 64%
other: 28%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished
reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification
natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
areas; floods are common
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

@Central African Republic:People

Population: 3,209,759 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 690,290; male 694,153)
15-64 years: 53% (female 886,421; male 825,268)
65 years and over: 4% (female 64,846; male 48,781) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.1% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 41.84 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 20.89 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 135.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.15 years
male: 40.68 years
female: 43.67 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.37 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Central African(s)
adjective: Central African

Ethnic divisions: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum
4%, M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%,
Muslim 15%, other 11%
note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 38%
male: 52%
female: 25%

Labor force: 775,413 (1986 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%,
government 3%
note: about 64,000 salaried workers (1985)

@Central African Republic:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Central African Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
local short form: none
former: Central African Empire

Abbreviation: CAR

Digraph: CT

Type: republic;

Capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques,
singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran,
Bangui** Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha,
Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the
republic)

Constitution: 21 November 1986

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ange PATASSE (since 22 October 1993);
election last held 19 September 1993 (next scheduled for 1998);
PATASSE received 52.45% of the votes and Abel GOUMBA received 45.62%
head of government: Prime Minister (vacant) (Dr. Jean-Luc MANDABA
resigned on 11 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 19
September 1993; results - percentage vote by party NA; seats - (85
total) MLPC 33, RDC 14, PLD 7, ADP 6, PSD 3, others 22
note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
Council (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit together they
are called the Congress (Congres)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Movement for the Liberation of the
Central African People (MLPC), the party of the new president, Ange
Felix PATASSE; Movement for Democracy and Development (MDD), David
DACKO; Marginal Movement for Democracy, Renaissance and Evolution
(MDREC), Joseph BENDOUNGA; Central African Democratic Assembly (RDC),
Andre KOLINGBA; Patriotic Front for Progress (FFP), Abel GOUMBA; Civic
Forum (FC), Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA (appointed 19 September 1994)
chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800, 7801
FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert E. GRIBBIN III
embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
telephone: [236] 61 02 00, 61 25 78, 61 02 10
FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and
yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow
five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

@Central African Republic:Economy

Overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the
backbone of the CAR economy, with more than 70% of the population
living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates about half
of GDP. Timber has accounted for about 26% of export earnings and the
diamond industry for 54%. Important constraints to economic
development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor
transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of
misdirected macroeconomic policies. A major plus is the large forest
reserves, which the government is moving to protect from
overexploitation. The 50% devaluation of the currencies of 14
Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had mixed effects on
CAR's economy. While diamond, timber, coffee, and cotton exports
increased - leading GDP to increase by 5.5% - inflation rose to 40%,
fueled by the rising prices of imports on which the economy depends.
CAR's poor resource base and primitive infrastructure will keep it
dependent on multilateral donors and France for the foreseeable
future.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.2 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $700 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1988 est.) in Bangui

Budget:
revenues: $175 million
expenditures: $312 million, including capital expenditures of $122
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $123.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco
partners: France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US

Imports: $165.1 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical
equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods,
industrial products
partners: France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria

External debt: $859 million (1991)

Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 40,000 kW
production: 100 million kWh
consumption per capita: 29 kWh (1993)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear,
assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Agriculture: self-sufficient in food production except for grain;
commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops -
manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $52 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-90), $1.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $38 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Central African Republic:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 22,000 km
paved: bituminous 458 km
unpaved: improved earth 10,542 km; unimproved earth 11,000 km

Inland waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports: Bangui, Nola

Airports:
total: 61
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 19
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 9
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 29

@Central African Republic:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; system is only fair
local: NA
intercity: network consists principally of micowave radio relay and
low capacity, low powered radio communication
international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Central African Republic:Defense Forces

Branches: Central African Army (includes Republican Guard), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 718,487; males fit for military
service 375,950 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $30 million, 2.3% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

CHAD

@Chad:Geography

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1.284 million sq km
land area: 1,259,200 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of
California

Land boundaries: total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African
Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km,
Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled
in February 1994 that the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and
Libya belongs to Chad; Libya has withdrawn some of its forces in
response to the ICJ ruling, but still maintains an airfield in the
disputed area; demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad,
the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is
completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
Nigeria

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
northwest, lowlands in south

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way),
uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 36%
forest and woodland: 11%
other: 51%

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste
disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution;
desertification
natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
periodic droughts; locust plagues
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the
Sahel

@Chad:People

Population: 5,586,505 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 1,198,619; male 1,267,470)
15-64 years: 54% (female 1,563,678; male 1,456,481)
65 years and over: 2% (female 71,971; male 28,286) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 42.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 20.26 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 129.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.19 years
male: 40.04 years
female: 42.38 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian

Ethnic divisions:
north and center: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
south: non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei,
Massa) nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs, animism 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south),
Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects are
spoken

Literacy: age 15 and over has the ability to read and write in French
and Arabic (1990 est.)
total population: 30%
male: 42%
female: 18%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming,
herding, and fishing)

@Chad:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad
local short form: Tchad

Digraph: CD

Type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi,
Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi,
Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 22 December 1989 (suspended 3 December 1990);
Provisional National Charter 1 March 1991 is in effect (note - the
constitutional commission, which was drafting a new constitution to
submit to transitional parliament for ratification in April 1994,
failed to do so but expects to submit a new draft to the parliament
before the end of April 1995)

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: universal at age NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY, since 4 December 1990
(after seizing power on 3 December 1990 - transitional government's
mandate expires April 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA (since 9 April
1995)
cabinet: Council of State; appointed by the president on
recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Consultative Council (Conceil National Consultatif):
elections, formerly scheduled for April 1995, were postponed by mutual
agreement of the parties concerned until some time prior to April
1996; elections last held 8 July 1990; the National Consultative
Council was disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional
Council of the Republic having 30 members appointed by President DEBY
on 8 March 1991; this, in turn, was replaced by a 57-member Higher
Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur de Transition) elected by a
specially convened Sovereign National Conference on 6 April 1993

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS),
former dissident group, Idriss DEBY, chairman
note: President DEBY, who promised political pluralism, a new
constitution, and free elections by April 1994, subsequently twice
postponed these initiatives, first until April 1995 and again until
sometime before April 1996; there are numerous dissident groups and at
least 45 opposition political parties

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence E. POPE II
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] (51) 62 18, (51) 40 09, (51) 47 59
FAX: [235] (51) 33 72

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of
Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered
shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of
France

@Chad:Economy

Overview: Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and
lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped
countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil,
conflict with Libya, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the
economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a
severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. More than
80% of the work force is involved in subsistence farming and fishing.
Cotton is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half of
exports. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food
credits, given chronic shortages in several regions. Of all the
Francophone countries in Africa, Chad has benefited the least from the
50% devaluation of their currencies on 12 January 1994. Despite an
increase in external financial aid and favorable price increases for
cotton - the primary source of foreign exchange - the corrupt and
enfeebled government bureaucracy continues to dampen economic
enterprise by neglecting payments to domestic suppliers and public
sector salaries. Oil production in the Lake Chad area remains a
distant prospect and the subsistence-driven economy probably will
continue to limp along in the near term.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.8 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $530 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -4.1% (1992)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $120 million
expenditures: $363 million, including capital expenditures of $104
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $190 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
partners: France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Imports: $261 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial
goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes
military equipment
partners: US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon

External debt: $492 million (December 1990 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.7% (1992 est.); accounts for
nearly 15% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 40,000 kW
production: 80 million kWh
consumption per capita: 13 kWh (1993)

Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron
(sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes

Agriculture: accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence
farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum,
millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep,
goats, camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $80 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chad:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 31,322 km
paved: bituminous 263 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 7,069 km; earth 23,990 km

Inland waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 66
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 23
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 17
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21

@Chad:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; primitive system
local: NA
intercity: fair system of radio communication stations for intercity
links
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA; note - limited TV service; many facilties are
inoperative
televisions: NA

@Chad:Defense Forces

Branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,307,210; males fit for
military service 679,640; males reach military age (20) annually
54,945 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $74 million, 11.1% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

CHILE

@Chile:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 756,950 sq km
land area: 748,800 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
note: includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Land boundaries: total 6,171 km, Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km,
Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the southern boundary with
Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to
the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
Argentine and British claims

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
in east

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 16%
forest and woodland: 21%
other: 56%

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions;
water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation contributing to loss of
biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage);
Atacama Desert one of world's driest regions

@Chile:People

Population: 14,161,216 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (female 2,014,877; male 2,099,450)
15-64 years: 64% (female 4,574,947; male 4,529,251)
65 years and over: 7% (female 549,385; male 393,306) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.49% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 20.29 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.42 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.88 years
male: 71.89 years
female: 78.01 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.49 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean

Ethnic divisions: European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other
2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
total population: 94%
male: 95%
female: 94%

Labor force: 4.728 million
by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and
commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%,
construction 6.4% (1990)

@Chile:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile

Digraph: CI

Type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30
July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Eduardo FREI
Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994) election last held 11 December 1993
(next to be held December 1999); results - Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle
(PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%, other 17.6%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate (Senado): election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held
December 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46
total, 38 elected) Concertation of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC 13,
PS 4, PPD 3, PR 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11, UDI 3,
UCC 1), right-wing independents 10
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): election last held 11
December 1993 (next to be held December 1997); results - Concertation
of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS 12.01%, PPD 11.82%, PR
2.96%,); Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57% (RN 15.25%, UDI
12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats - (120 total) Concertation of Parties for
Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing independent 1),
Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15, UCC 2), right-wing
independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders: Concertation of Parties for Democracy
consists mainly of three parties: Christian Democratic Party (PDC),
Alejandro FOXLEY; Socialist Party (PS), Camilo ESCALONA; Party for
Democracy (PPD), Jorge SCHAULSOHN; Radical Party (PR); Union for the
Progress of Chile consists mainly of three parties: National Renewal
(RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jovino
NOVOA; Center Center Union (UCC), Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ

Other political or pressure groups: revitalized university student
federations at all major universities; labor - United Labor Central
(CUT) includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
confederations; Roman Catholic Church

Member of: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON
embassy: Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago
mailing address: Unit 4127, Santiago; APO AA 34033
telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a
blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of
the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the
center; design was based on the US flag

@Chile:Economy

Overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market economy,
with the degree of government intervention varying according to the
philosophy of the different regimes. Under the center-left government
of President AYLWIN, which took power in March 1990, spending on
social welfare rose steadily. At the same time business investment,
exports, and consumer spending also grew substantially. The new
president, FREI, who took office in March 1994, has emphasized social
spending even more. Growth in 1991-94 has averaged 6.5% annually, with
an estimated one million Chileans having moved out of poverty in the
last four years. Copper remains vital to the health of the economy;
Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter of copper. Success
in meeting the government's goal of sustained annual growth of 5%
depends on world copper prices, the level of confidence of foreign
investors and creditors, and the government's own ability to maintain
a conservative fiscal stance.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $97.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $7,010 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.7% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10.9 billion
expenditures: $10.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.2
billion (1993)

Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood products
7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991)
partners: EC 29%, Japan 17%, US 16%, Argentina 5%, Brazil 5% (1992)

Imports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials
15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7%
partners: EC 24%, US 21%, Brazil 10%, Japan 10% (1992)

External debt: $20 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.3% (1993 est.); accounts for 34%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 4,810,000 kW
production: 22 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,499 kWh (1993)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron
and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles

Agriculture: accounts for about 7% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); major exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major
crops - wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous
fruit; livestock products - beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in
most foods; 1991 fish catch of 6.6 million metric tons; net
agricultural importer

Illicit drugs: a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for
the US and Europe; booming economy has made it more attractive to
traffickers seeking to launder drug profits

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.6 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 408 (January 1995),
420.08 (1994), 404.35 (1993), 362.59 (1992), 349.37 (1991), 305.06
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chile:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 7,766 km
broad gauge: 3,974 km 1.676-m gauge (1,865 km electrified)
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 3,642 km 1.000-m gauge (80 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 79,599 km
paved: 10,984 km
unpaved: gravel or earth 68,615 km (1990)

Inland waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
320 km

Ports: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanarol, Coquimbo, Iquique, Puerto Montt,
Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano, Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 510,006 GRT/879,891 DWT
ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, combination
ore/oil 2, liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2

Airports:
total: 390
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17
with paved runways under 914 m: 252
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 13
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 76

@Chile:Communications

Telephone system: 768,000 telephones; modern telephone system based on
extensive microwave radio relay facilities
local: NA
intercity: extensive microwave radio relay links and 3 domestic
satellite stations
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 159, FM 0, shortwave 11
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 131
televisions: NA

@Chile:Defense Forces

Branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes Naval Air, Coast
Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile
(National Police), Investigations Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,758,770; males fit for
military service 2,796,740; males reach military age (19) annually
121,831 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of
GDP (1991 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

CHINA

(also see separate Taiwan entry)

@China:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 9,596,960 sq km
land area: 9,326,410 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries: total 22,143.34 km, Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km,
Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km,
North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km,
Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast)
3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281
km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow
Sea
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundary with India in dispute; disputed
sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be settled; boundary
with Tajikistan in dispute; a short section of the boundary with North
Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai), as does Taiwan

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten,
antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead,
zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 31%
forest and woodland: 14%
other: 45%

Irrigated land: 478,220 sq km (1991 - Chinese data)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from the overwhelming use of high-sulfur
coal as a fuel, produces acid rain which is damaging forests; water
shortages experienced throughout the country, particularly in urban
areas; future growth in water usage threatens to outpace supplies;
water pollution from industrial effluents; much of the population does
not have access to potable water; less than 10% of sewage receives
treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural
land since 1957 to soil erosion and economic development;
desertification; trade in endangered species
natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

@China:People

Population: 1,203,097,268 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (female 151,266,866; male 167,234,782)
15-64 years: 67% (female 391,917,572; male 419,103,994)
65 years and over: 7% (female 39,591,692; male 33,982,362) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.04% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 17.78 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.36 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.08 years
male: 67.09 years
female: 69.18 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic divisions: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
(est.)
note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 78%
male: 87%
female: 68%

Labor force: 583.6 million (1991)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce
25%, construction and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990
est.)

@China:Government

Names:
conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhong Guo

Abbreviation: PRC

Digraph: CH

Type: Communist state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian,
Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang,
Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*,
Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan,
Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgated 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are
being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial
law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993); Vice
President RONG Yiren (since 27 March 1993); election last held 27
March 1993 (next to be held 1998); results - JIANG Zemin was nominally
elected by the Eighth National People's Congress
head of government: Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November
1987, Premier since 9 April 1988) Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8
April 1991); Vice Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice
Premier QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993); Vice Premier LI Lanqing (29
March 1993); Vice Premier WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995); Vice
Premier JIANG Chunyun (since 17 March 1995)
cabinet: State Council; appointed by the National People's Congress
(NPC)

Legislative branch: unicameral
National People's Congress: (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui) elections
last held March 1993 (next to be held March 1998); results - CCP is
the only party but there are also independents; seats - (2,977 total)
(elected at county or xian level)

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG
Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee (since 24 June
1989); eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as
exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and
government organization, that vary by issue

Member of: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UN Security
Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ,
UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador LI Daoyu
chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 through 2502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing; FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (1) 5323831
FAX: [86] (1) 5323178
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller
yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the
middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

@China:Economy

Overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been
trying to move the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally
planned economy to a more productive and flexible economy with market
elements, but still within the framework of monolithic Communist
control. To this end the authorities switched to a system of household
responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in
industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in
services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased
foreign trade and investment. The result has been a strong surge in
production, particularly in agriculture in the early 1980s. Industry
also has posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong
Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and modern
production methods have helped spur production of both domestic and
export goods. Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On
the darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid
system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude,
corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up
inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening
central controls at intervals. In 1992-94 annual growth of GDP
accelerated, particularly in the coastal areas - to more than 10%
annually according to official claims. In late 1993 China's leadership
approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving more play to
market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the center's control
over the financial system. In 1994 strong growth continued in the
widening market-oriented areas of the economy. At the same time, the
government struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces,
businesses, and individuals; (b) keep inflation within bounds; (c)
reduce extortion and other economic crimes; and (d) keep afloat the
large state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in
the vigorous expansion of the economy. From 60 to 100 million surplus
rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many
barely subsisting through part-time low-pay jobs. Popular resistance,
changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have
weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the
nation's long-term economic viability. One of the most dangerous
long-term threats to continued rapid economic growth is the
deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion,
and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.9788 trillion
(1994 estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992 by
use of official Chinese growth statistics for 1993-94; because of the
difficulties with official statistics in this time of rapid change,
the result may overstate China's GDP by as much as 25%)

National product real growth rate: 11.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,500 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25.5% (December 1994 over December
1993)

Unemployment rate: 2.7% in urban areas (1994); substantial
underemployment

Budget: deficit $13.7 billion (1994)

Exports: $121 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: textiles, garments, footwear, toys, machinery and
equipment, weapon systems
partners: Hong Kong, Japan, US, Germany, South Korea, Russia (1993)

Imports: $115.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: rolled steel, motor vehicles, textile machinery, oil
products, aircraft
partners: Japan, Taiwan, US, Hong Kong, Germany, South Korea (1993)

External debt: $100 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 17.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 162,000,000 kW
production: 746 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 593 kWh (1993)

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
consumer durables, food processing, autos, consumer electronics,
telecommunications

Agriculture: accounts for almost 30% of GDP; among the world's largest
producers of rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley,
and pork; commercial crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds;
produces variety of livestock products; basically self-sufficient in
food; fish catch of 13.35 million metric tons (including fresh water
and pond raised) (1991)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium; bulk of production is in
Yunnan Province (which produced 25 metric tons in 1994); transshipment
point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle

Economic aid:
donor: to less developed countries (1970-89) $7 billion
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $13.5 billion

Currency: 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan (Y) per US$1 - 8.4413 (January 1995), 8.6187
(1994), 5.7620 (1993), 5.5146 (1992), 5.3234 (1991), 4.7832 (1990)
note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year

@China:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 65,780 km
standard gauge: 55,180 km 1.435-m gauge (7,174 km electrified; more
than 11,000 km double track)
narrow gauge: 600 km 1.000-m gauge; 10,000 km 0.762-m to 1.067-m gauge
dedicated industrial lines

Highways:
total: 1.029 million km
paved: 170,000 km
unpaved: gravel/improved earth 648,000 km; unimproved earth 211,000 km
(1990)

Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 9,700 km; petroleum products 1,100 km; natural
gas 6,200 km (1990)

Ports: Aihui, Changsha, Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Harbin,
Huangpu, Nanning, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou,
Tanggu, Xiamen, Xingang, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:
total: 1,628 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,013,532
GRT/24,027,766 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 3, bulk 298, cargo 849, chemical tanker
14, combination bulk 10, container 98, liquefied gas tanker 4,
multifunction large load carrier 1, oil tanker 212, passenger 24,
passenger-cargo 25, refrigerated cargo 21, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24,
short-sea passenger 44, vehicle carrier 1
note: China beneficially owns an additional 250 ships (1,000 GRT or
over) totaling approximately 8,831,462 DWT that operate under
Panamanian, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian, Vanuatu, Cypriot, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Bahamian, and Singaporean registry

Airports:
total: 204
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 17
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 69
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 89
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9
with paved runways under 914 m: 7
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 7
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 3

@China:Communications

Telephone system: 20,000,000 telephones (summer 1994); domestic and
international services are increasingly available for private use;
unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities,
industrial centers, and most townships; expanding phone lines,
interprovincial fiber optic links, satellite communications,
cellullar/mobile communications, etc.
local: NA
intercity: fiber optic trunk lines, 55 earth stations for domestic
satellites
international: 5 INTELSAT earth stations (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian
Ocean) and 1 INMARSAT earth station; several international fiber optic
links to Japan and Hong Kong

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 274, FM NA, shortwave 0
radios: 215 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 202 (repeaters 2,050)
televisions: 75 million

@China:Defense Forces

Branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the Ground
Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force, Second
Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed Police
(internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of Public
Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces"
and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in war time)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 351,330,411; males fit for
military service 194,286,619; males reach military age (18) annually
9,841,658 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: defense budget - 63.09 billion yuan, NA% of GDP
(1995 est.); note - conversion of the defense budget into US dollars
using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

CHRISTMAS ISLAND

(territory of Australia)

@Christmas Island:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
Indonesia

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 135 sq km
land area: 135 sq km
comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: almost completely surrounded by a reef which can be a
maritime hazard
international agreements: NA

Note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island:People

Population: 889 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -9% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA

Death rate: NA

Net migration rate: NA

Infant mortality rate: NA

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Total fertility rate: NA

Nationality:
noun: Christmas Islander(s)
adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman
Catholic 8.2%, Church of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting
Church 0.4%, Methodist 0.2%, Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none
12.7%, unknown 4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)

Languages: English

Labor force: NA
by occupation: all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining
Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.

@Christmas Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form: Christmas Island

Digraph: KT

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

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