Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1995 CIA World Factbook

Part 7 out of 45

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.6 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October
1987); election last held December 1991
head of government: Prime Minister Roch KABORE (since March 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Assembly of People's Deputies: elections last held 24 May 1992 (next
to be held 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (107
total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD 12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7
note: the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber,
which has not been formally constituted

Judicial branch: Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: Organization for People's Democracy -
Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling party, Simon COMPAORE, Secretary
General; National Convention of Progressive Patriots-Social Democratic
Party (CNPP-PSD), Moussa BOLY; African Democratic Rally (RDA), Gerard
Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for Democracy and Federation (ADF), Amadou
Michel NANA

Other political or pressure groups: committees for the defense of the
revolution; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in
both organizations and communities

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gaetan R. OUEDRAOGO
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577, 6895

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald J. McCONNELL
embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
telephone: [226] 306723 through 306725
FAX: [226] 312368

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors
of Ethiopia

@Burkina:Economy

Overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a
high population density and a high population growth rate, few natural
resources, and a fragile soil. Economic development is hindered by a
poor communications network within a landlocked country. Agriculture
provides about 40% of GDP and is mainly of a subsistence nature.
Industry, dominated by unprofitable government-controlled
corporations, accounts for about 15% of GDP. Following the 50%
currency devaluation in January 1994, the government updated its
development program in conjunction with international agencies. Even
with the best of plans, however, the government faces formidable
problems on all sides.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.4% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $660 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.6% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $483 million
expenditures: $548 million, including capital expenditures of $189
million (1992)

Exports: $273 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: cotton, gold, animal products
partners: EC 42%, Cote d'Ivoire 11%, Taiwan 15% (1992)

Imports: $636 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum
partners: EC 49%, Africa 24%, Japan 6% (1992)

External debt: $865 million (December 1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.7% (1992); accounts for about 15%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 60,000 kW
production: 190 million kWh
consumption per capita: 17 kWh (1993)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap,
cigarettes, textiles, gold mining and extraction

Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea
nuts, sesame, cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice;
livestock; not self-sufficient in food grains

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 529.43 (January 1995),
555.20 (1995), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burkina:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 620 km (520 km Ouagadougou to Cote d'Ivoire border and 100 km
Ouagadougou to Kaya; single track)
narrow gauge: 620 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 16,500 km
paved: 1,300 km
unpaved: improved earth 7,400 km; unimproved earth 7,800 km (1985)

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 48
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 26
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 16

@Burkina:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; all services only fair
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay, wire, and radio communication
stations
international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Burkina:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police,
People's Militia

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,081,999; males fit for
military service 1,065,605 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $104 million, 6.4% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

BURMA

@Burma:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 678,500 sq km
land area: 657,740 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km,
India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
gas

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 49%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10,180 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and
water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

@Burma:People

Population: 45,103,809 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (female 7,963,544; male 8,285,459)
15-64 years: 60% (female 13,478,211; male 13,404,987)
65 years and over: 4% (female 1,080,922; male 890,686) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.84% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 28.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.63 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.47 years
male: 58.38 years
female: 62.69 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.58 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
adjective: Burmese

Ethnic divisions: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese
3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 81%
male: 89%
female: 72%

Labor force: 16.007 million (1992)
by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%,
government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

@Burma:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Union of Burma
conventional short form: Burma
local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Digraph: BM

Type: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7
states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*,
Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
National Convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been
approved

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: Chairman of the State Law and
Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
State Law and Order Restoration Council: military junta which assumed
power 18 September 1988

Legislative branch:
People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw): election last held 27 May 1990,
but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats - (485 total)
NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79; was dissolved after the
coup of 18 September 1988

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in
place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary
is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development
Association (USDA), THAN AUNG, Secretary; National Unity Party (NUP;
proregime), THA KYAW; National League for Democracy (NLD), U AUNG
SHWE; and eight other minor legal parties

Other political or pressure groups: National Coalition Government of
the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by the elected prime minister SEIN
WIN (consists of individuals legitimately elected to Parliament but
not recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area
and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel
government; Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army
(UWSA); Karen National Union (KNU); several Shan factions, including
the Mong Tai Army (MTA); All Burma Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)

Member of: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador U THAUNG
chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marilyn A. MEYERS
embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
mailing address: American Embassy, Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone: [95] (1) 82055, 82182 (operator assistance required)
FAX: [95] (1) 80409

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel
containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
administrative divisions

@Burma:Economy

Overview: Burma has a mixed economy with about 75% private activity,
mainly in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with about
25% state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and
foreign trade. Government policy in the last six years, 1989-94, has
aimed at revitalizing the economy after four decades of tight central
planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign
investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and
efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises.
Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated
because of the volume of black market trade. A major ongoing problem
is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Although
Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich resources furnish the
potential for substantial long-term increases in income, exports, and
living standards.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $41.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6.4% (1994)

National product per capita: $930 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 38% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $4.4 billion
expenditures: $6.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY93/94 est.)

Exports: $674 million (FY93/94 est.)
commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, hardwood
partners: Singapore, China, Thailand, India, Hong Kong

Imports: $1.2 billion (FY93/94 est.)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
partners: Japan, China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia

External debt: $5.4 billion (FY93/94 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (FY92/93 est.); accounts for
10% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 1,100,000 kW
production: 2.6 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 55 kWh (1993)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten,
iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for 65% of GDP and 65% of employment (including
fishing, animal husbandry, and forestry); self-sufficient in food;
principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and timber account for
55% of export revenues

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,030 metric
tons in 1994 - dropped 21% due to regional drought in 1994) and minor
producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium
production continues to be almost double since the collapse of
Rangoon's antinarcotic programs; growing role in amphetamine
production for regional consumption

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $3.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $424 million

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 5.8640 (January 1995), 5.9749
(1994), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045 (1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990);
unofficial - 120

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Burma:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,991 km (3,878 km common carrier lines, 113 km industrial
lines)
standard gauge: 3,878 km 1.435-m gauge
other: 113 km NA-m gauge

Highways:
total: 27,000 km
paved: bituminous 3,200 km
unpaved: gravel, improved earth 17,700 km; unimproved earth 6,100 km

Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial
vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina, Rangoon,
Sittwe, Tavoy

Merchant marine:
total: 49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 638,297 GRT/884,492 DWT
ships by type: bulk 19, cargo 15, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil
tanker 3, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 4, vehicle carrier 2

Airports:
total: 80
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 11
with paved runways under 914 m: 33
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17

@Burma:Communications

Telephone system: 53,000 telephones (1986); meets minimum requirements
for local and intercity service for business and government;
international service is good
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985)
radios: NA
note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas

Television:
broadcast stations: 1 (1985)
televisions: NA

@Burma:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 11,553,094; females age 15-49
11,463,189; males fit for military service 6,180,091; females fit for
military service 6,116,421; males reach military age (18) annually
457,445 (1995 est.); females reach military age (18) annually 441,628
(1995 est.)
note: both sexes liable for military service

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

BURUNDI

@Burundi:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Zaire

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 27,830 sq km
land area: 25,650 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire
233 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands; dry season from
June to September

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some
plains

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use:
arable land: 43%
permanent crops: 8%
meadows and pastures: 35%
forest and woodland: 2%
other: 12%

Irrigated land: 720 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the
expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little
forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for
fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
natural hazards: flooding, landslides
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

@Burundi:People

Population: 6,262,429 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 1,489,721; male 1,494,730)
15-64 years: 50% (female 1,606,307; male 1,498,021)
65 years and over: 2% (female 105,446; male 68,204) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.35 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 21.51 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: in a number of waves since April 1994, hundreds of thousands of
refugees have fled the civil strife between the Hutu and Tutsi
factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire; the
refugee flows are continuing in 1995 as the ethnic violence has
persisted

Infant mortality rate: 111.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.86 years
male: 37.84 years
female: 41.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundi

Ethnic divisions:
Africans: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
non-Africans: Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 50%
male: 61%
female: 40%

Labor force: 1.9 million (1983 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and
commerce 1.5%, services 1.5%

@Burundi:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi

Digraph: BY

Type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural
political system

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA (since September
1994)
note: President Melchior NDADAYE, Burundi's first democratically
elected president, died in the military coup of 21 October 1993 and
was succeeded on 5 February 1994 by President Cyprien NTARYAMIRA, who
was killed in a mysterious airplane explosion on 6 April 1994
head of government: Prime Minister Antoine NDUWAYO (since February
1995); selected by President NTIBANTUNGANYA following the resignation
of Anatole KANYENKIKO on 15 February 1995
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 29 June
1993 (next to be held NA); results - FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats
- (81 total) FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too small shares
of the vote to win seats in the assembly
note: The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for
constitutional government was adopted by a national referendum on 5
February 1991

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress (UPRONA);
Burundi Democratic Front (FRODEBU); Organization of the People of
Burundi (RBP); Socialist Party of Burundi (PSB); People's
Reconciliation Party (PRP); opposition parties, legalized in March
1992, include Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation (ABASA);
Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development (RADDES); and
Party for National Redress (PARENA)

Other political or pressure groups: NA;

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: post vacant since recall of Ambassador Jacques
BACAMURWANKO in November 1994
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. KRUEGER
embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] (2) 23454
FAX: [257] (2) 22926

Flag: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and
bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk
superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two
stars below)

@Burundi:Economy

Overview: A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of
economic development, Burundi since October 1993 has suffered from
massive ethnic-based violence that has displaced an estimated million
people, disrupted production, and set back needed reform programs.
Burundi is predominately agricultural with roughly 90% of the
population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health
depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange
earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore continues to rest
largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee
market. As part of its economic reform agenda, launched in February
1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify
its agricultural exports, attract foreign investment in industry, and
modernize government budgetary practices. Although the government
remains committed to reforms, it fears new austerity measures would
add to ethnic tensions.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -13.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $600 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $318 million
expenditures: $326 million, including capital expenditures of $150
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $68 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides, and skins
partners: EC 57%, US 19%, Asia 1%

Imports: $203 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs,
consumer goods
partners: EC 45%, Asia 29%, US 2%

External debt: $1.05 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 11% (1991 est.); accounts for about
15% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 55,000 kW
production: 100 million kWh
consumption per capita: 20 kWh (1993)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
processing

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, cotton,
tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc;
livestock - meat, milk, hides and skins

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $10.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 248.51 (December
1994), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993), 208.30 (1992), 181.51 (1991),
171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burundi:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 5,900 km
paved: 640 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 2,260 km; improved, unimproved earth
3,000 km (1990)

Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports: Bujumbura

Airports:
total: 4
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Burundi:Communications

Telephone system: 8,000 telephones; primative system; telephone
density - 1.3 telephones/1,000 persons
local: NA
intercity: sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and
low-capacity microwave radio relay links
international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Burundi:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,350,042; males fit for
military service 705,864; males reach military age (16) annually
73,308 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $25 million, 2.6% of
GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

CAMBODIA

@Cambodia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand and Vietnam

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 181,040 sq km
land area: 176,520 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries: total 2,572 km, Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam
1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: offshore islands and sections of the boundary
with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not
defined; parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime boundary
with Thailand not clearly defined

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
(December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 16%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 3%
forest and woodland: 76%
other: 4%

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: logging activities throughout the country and strip
mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand
are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural
fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of
the population does not have access to potable water
natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
occasional droughts
international agreements: party to - Marine Life Conservation, Ship
Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and
Tonle Sap

@Cambodia:People

Population: 10,561,373 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (female 2,367,414; male 2,438,104)
15-64 years: 51% (female 2,932,788; male 2,494,203)
65 years and over: 3% (female 185,337; male 143,527) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.83% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 44.42 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 16.16 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 109.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 49.46 years
male: 48 years
female: 51 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic divisions: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 35%
male: 48%
female: 22%

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million
by occupation: agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

@Cambodia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Reacheanachak Kampuchea
local short form: Kampuchea

Digraph: CB

Type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional monarchy
established in September 1993

Capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (khet, singular and plural);
Banteay Meanchey, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong
Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri,
Phnum Penh, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanokiri,
Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey, Sihanoukville, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng,
Takev
note: Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey may have been divided into two provinces
named Siemreab and Otdar Meanchey

Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

Constitution: promulgated September 1993

Legal system: currently being defined

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister Prince
Norodom RANARIDDH and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN
cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral; a 120-member constituent assembly
based on proportional representation within each province was
established following the UN-supervised election in May 1993; the
constituent assembly was transformed into a legislature in September
1993 after delegates promulgated the constitution

Judicial branch: Supreme Court provided for by the constitution has
not yet been established and the future judicial system is yet to be
defined by law

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an
Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC),
Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian
People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party, SON
SANN; Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge), KHIEU
SAMPHAN; Molinaka, PROM NEAKAREACH

Member of: ACCT, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: Ambassador SISOWATH SIRIRATH
represents Cambodia at the United Nations

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. TWINING
embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 26436, 26438
FAX: [855] (23) 26437

Flag: horizontal band of red separates two equal horizontal bands of
blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat in the
center

@Cambodia:Economy

Overview: The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by decades of
war - is slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving toward
restoring fiscal and monetary discipline and have established good
working relations with international financial institutions. Growth,
starting from a low base, has been strong in 1991-94. Despite such
positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces many tough
challenges because of the persistence of internal political divisions
and the related lack of confidence of foreign investors. Rural
Cambodia, where 90% of about 9.5 million Khmer live, remains mired in
poverty. The almost total lack of basic infrastructure in the
countryside will hinder development and will contribute to a growing
imbalance in growth between urban and rural areas over the near term.
Moreover, the government's lack of experience in administering
economic and technical assistance programs and rampant corruption
among officials will slow the growth of critical public sector
investment. Inflation for 1994 as a whole was less than a quarter of
the 1992 rate and was declining during the year.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $630 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 26%-30% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $190 million
expenditures: $365 million, including capital expenditures of $120
million (1994 est.)

Exports: $283.6 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: timber, rubber, soybeans, sesame
partners: Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia

Imports: $479.3 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products,
machinery
partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

External debt: $383 million to OECD members (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.9% (1993 est.); accounts for 8%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 40,000 kW
production: 160 million kWh
consumption per capita: 14 kWh (1993)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber,
cement, gem mining

Agriculture: mainly subsistence farming except for rubber plantations;
main crops - rice, rubber, corn; food shortages - rice, meat,
vegetables, dairy products, sugar, flour

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment country for heroin
produced in the Golden Triangle; growing money-laundering center;
high-level narcotics-related corruption in government; possible
small-scale heroin production; large producer of cannibis

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million;
Western (non-US countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $1.8 billion; donor countries and multilateral
institutions pledged $880 million in assistance in 1992; IMF pledged
$120 million in aid for 1995-98

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,470 (December 1993), 2,800
(September 1992), 500 (December 1991), 560 (1990), 159.00 (1988),
100.00 (1987)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cambodia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 655 km
narrow gauge: 655 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 34,100 km (some roads in serious disrepair)
paved: bituminous 3,000 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth 3,100 km; unimproved
earth 28,000 km

Inland waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6
meters; 282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters

Ports: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong, Phnom
Penh

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 22
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10

@Cambodia:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; service barely adequate for
government requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international service limited to Vietnam and other
adjacent countries

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Cambodia:Defense Forces

Branches:
Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF): created in 1993 by the merger of the
Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two non-Communist resistance
armies; note - the KRAF is also known as the Royal Cambodian Armed
Forces (RCAF)
Resistance forces: National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,255,050; males fit for
military service 1,256,632; males reach military age (18) annually
70,707 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $85 million, 1.4% of
GDP (1995 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

CAMEROON

@Cameroon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 475,440 sq km
land area: 469,440 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total 4,591 km, Central African Republic 797 km, Chad
1,094 km, Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 50 nm

International disputes: demarcation of international boundaries in
Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is
completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime boundaries in the
vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred to the
International Court of Justice

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 18%
forest and woodland: 54%
other: 13%

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation;
overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Nuclear Test
Ban, Tropical Timber 94

Note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon:People

Population: 13.521 million (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 2,978,216; male 3,001,487)
15-64 years: 52% (female 3,562,247; male 3,523,100)
65 years and over: 4% (female 248,314; male 207,636) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.92% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 40.42 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.19 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.48 years
male: 55.41 years
female: 59.6 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic divisions: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%,
Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%,
other African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
French (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
total population: 55%
male: 66%
female: 45%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other
services 14.2% (1983)

@Cameroon:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
former: French Cameroon

Digraph: CM

Type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
parties legalized 1990)

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982); election
last held 11 October 1992; results - President Paul BIYA reelected
with about 40% of the vote amid widespread allegations of fraud; SDF
candidate John FRU NDI got 36% of the vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba
MAIGARI got 19% of the vote
head of government: Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April
1992)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 1 March
1992 (next scheduled for March 1997); results - (180 seats) CPDM 88,
UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
(CPDM), Paul BIYA, president, is government-controlled and was
formerly the only party, but opposition parties were legalized in 1990

major opposition parties: National Union for Democracy and Progress
(UNDP); Social Democratic Front (SDF); Cameroonian Democratic Union
(UDC); Union of Cameroonian Populations (UPC); Movement for the
Defense of the Republic (MDR)

Other political or pressure groups: Alliance for Change (FAC),
Cameroon Anglophone Movement (CAM)

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 through 8794

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harriet W. ISOM
embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde
telephone: [237] 23-40-14
FAX: [237] 23-07-53
consulate(s): none (Douala closed September 1993)

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and
yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses
the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon:Economy

Overview: Because of its offshore oil resources and favorable
agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed, most
diversified primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still,
it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped
countries, such as political instability, a top-heavy civil service,
and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The
development of the oil sector led rapid economic growth between 1970
and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by steep
declines in the prices of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and petroleum.
Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and inefficiencies in
fiscal management were exposed. In 1990-93, with support from the IMF
and World Bank, the government began to introduce reforms designed to
spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, and
recapitalize the nation's banks. Political instability, following
suspect elections in 1992, brought IMF/WB structural adjustment to a
halt. Although the 50% devaluation of the currency in January 1994
improved the potential for export growth, mismanagement remains and is
the main barrier to economic improvement.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $15.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -2.9% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,200 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (FY91/92)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1990 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.6 billion
expenditures: $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $226
million (FY92/93 est.)

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
coffee, cotton
partners: EC (particularly France) about 40%, African countries, US

Imports: $1.96 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods,
transport equipment
partners: EC about 60% (France 38%, Germany 9%), African countries,
Japan, US 5%

External debt: $6 billion (1991)

Industrial production: growth rate -2.1% (FY90/91); accounts for about
20% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 630,000 kW
production: 2.7 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 196 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light
consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Agriculture: the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment
for the majority of the population, contributing about 25% to GDP and
providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods;
commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton,
rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $479 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-90), $4.75 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $125 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,111 km
narrow gauge: 1,111 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 65,000 km
paved: 2,682 km
unpaved: gravel, improved earth 32,318 km; unimproved earth 30,000 km

Inland waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Merchant marine:
total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509
DWT

Airports:
total: 60
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 20
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 9
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21

@Cameroon:Communications

Telephone system: 26,000 telephones; telephone density - 2
telephones/1,000 persons; available only to business and government
local: NA
intercity: cable, microwave radio relay, and troposcatter
international: 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 11, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Cameroon:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,038,007; males fit for
military service 1,532,303; males reach military age (18) annually
147,293 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $102 million, NA% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

CANADA

@Canada:Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Map references: North America

Area:
total area: 9,976,140 sq km
land area: 9,220,970 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries: total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with
Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint
Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between
Canada and France

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 3%
forest and woodland: 35%
other: 57%

Irrigated land: 8,400 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely
affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning
utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest
productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural,
industrial, mining, and forestry activities
natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle
to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and
American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic
location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of
the population is concentrated in the region near the US/Canada border

@Canada:People

Population: 28,434,545 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (female 2,874,705; male 3,016,050)
15-64 years: 67% (female 9,529,272; male 9,531,107)
65 years and over: 12% (female 2,022,324; male 1,461,087) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.74 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.43 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.29 years
male: 74.93 years
female: 81.81 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic divisions: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other
European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other
28%

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 97%

Labor force: 13.38 million
by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%,
construction 3%, other 4% (1988)

@Canada:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada

Digraph: CA

Type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest
Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec,
Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to
Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
1993) was elected on 25 October 1993, replacing Kim CAMBELL; Deputy
Prime Minister Sheila COPPS
cabinet: Federal Ministry; chosen by the prime minister from members
of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
Senate (Senat): consisting of a body whose members are appointed to
serve until 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on
the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit 104 senators
House of Commons (Chambre des Communes): elections last held 25
October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998); results - percent
of votes by party NA; seats - (295 total) Liberal Party 178, Bloc
Quebecois 54, Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 8, Progressive
Conservative Party 2, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party, Jean CHRETIEN; Bloc
Quebecois, Lucien BOUCHARD; Reform Party, Preston MANNING; New
Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN; Progressive Conservative Party,
Jean CHAREST

Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating
state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM
(guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMIR,
UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMOZ,
UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A.J. CHRETIEN
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
consulate(s): Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, and San Juan (Puerto
Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador James Johnston BLANCHARD
embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
Vancouver

Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width,
square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

@Canada:Economy

Overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today
closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented
economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the
impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors
has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one
primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada registered one of
the highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging
about 3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and
modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects,
although the country still faces high unemployment and a growing debt.
Moreover, the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and
French-speaking areas has observers discussing a possible split in the
confederation; foreign investors have become edgy.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $639.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994)

National product per capita: $22,760 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.2% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 9.6% (December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $85 billion (Federal)
expenditures: $115.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY93/94 est.)

Exports: $164.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery,
natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications
equipment
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

Imports: $151.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable
consumer goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and
parts
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

External debt: $243 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1993)

Electricity:
capacity: 108,090,000 kW
production: 511 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 16,133 kWh (1993)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood
and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
products, petroleum and natural gas

Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major
producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US
agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land
area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric
tons, of which 75% is exported

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a
transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.4129 (January
1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991),
1.1668 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Canada:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 78,148 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight
railway systems: Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian
Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by VIA (government
operated)
standard gauge: 78,148 km 1.435-m gauge (185 km electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total: 849,404 km
paved: 253,692 km (15,983 km of expressways)
unpaved: gravel 595,712 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports: Becancour, Churchill, Halifax, Montreal, New Westminister,
Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
(Newfoundland), Seven Islands, Sydney, Three Rivers, Toronto,
Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 617,010 GRT/878,819 DWT
ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 10, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 23,
passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes

Airports:
total: 1,386
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 17
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 147
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 234
with paved runways under 914 m: 550
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 69
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 353

@Canada:Communications

Telephone system: 18,000,000 telephones; excellent service provided by
modern media
local: NA
intercity: about 300 earth stations for domestic satellite
communications
international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; 5 INTELSAT earth stations
(4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 53 (repeaters 1,400)
televisions: NA

@Canada:Defense Forces

Branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command or LC,
Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications Command or
CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,570,877; males fit for
military service 6,522,092; males reach military age (17) annually
151,590 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $9.0 billion, 1.6% of
GDP (FY95/96)

________________________________________________________________________

CAPE VERDE

@Cape Verde:Geography

Location: Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic
Ocean, west of Senegal

Map references: World

Area:
total area: 4,030 sq km
land area: 4,030 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin,
fish

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 6%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 85%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper land use such as
the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil erosion;
demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation;
desertification; environmental damage has threatened several
indigenous species of birds and reptiles; overfishing
natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
visibility; volcanically and seismically active
international agreements: party to - Environmental Modification, Law
of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified
- Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

Note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major
north-south sea routes; important communications station; important
sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde:People

Population: 435,983 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (female 106,539; male 110,301)
15-64 years: 47% (female 114,931; male 88,029)
65 years and over: 3% (female 9,781; male 6,402) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.98% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.32 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.65 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 55.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.01 years
male: 61.1 years
female: 65.01 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.23 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cape Verdean(s)
adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic divisions: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African
words

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 63%
male: 75%
female: 53%

Labor force: 102,000 (1985 est.)
by occupation: agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%,
industry 14% (1981)

@Cape Verde:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form: Cape Verde
local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form: Cabo Verde

Digraph: CV

Type: republic

Capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo,
Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao
Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March
1991; election last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February
1996); results - Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (independent) received
72.6% of vote
head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho
VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister from
members of the Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular): elections
last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56, PAICV 23; note
- the 1991 multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of single-party

Book of the day: