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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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local: NA
intercity: NA
international: no earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: 840,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 6
televisions: 1,012,094

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Defense Forces

Branches: Army

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 815,055; males fit for military
service 657,454; males reach military age (19) annually 38,201 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

BOTSWANA

@Botswana:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 600,370 sq km
land area: 585,370 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840
km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: short section of boundary with Namibia is
indefinite; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in
disagreement; dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu)
Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River remained unresolved in mid-February
1995 and the parties agreed to refer the matter to the International
Court of Justice

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 75%
forest and woodland: 2%
other: 21%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: overgrazing, primarily as a result of the expansion of
the cattle population; desertification; limited natural fresh water
resources
natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
visibility
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity

Note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the
country

@Botswana:People

Population: 1,392,414 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 300,598; male 303,333)
15-64 years: 53% (female 398,347; male 344,838)
65 years and over: 4% (female 25,773; male 19,525) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.36% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 31.01 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.41 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.56 years
male: 60.54 years
female: 66.67 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.86 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic divisions: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%,
white 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 23%
male: 32%
female: 16%

Labor force: 428,000 (1992)
by occupation: 220,000 formal sector employees, most others are
engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.);
14,300 are employed in various mines in South Africa (March 1992)

@Botswana:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland

Digraph: BC

Type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi,
Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East,
Southern; in addition, there are 4 town councils - Francistown,
Gaborone, Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Sir Ketumile MASIRE
(since 13 July 1980); Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March
1992); election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October
1999); results - President Sir Ketumile MASIRE was reelected by the
National Assembly
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
House of Chiefs: is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of
chiefs of the 8 principal tribes, 4 elected subchiefs, and 3 members
selected by the other 12
National Assembly: elections last held 15 October 1994 (next to be
held October 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (44
total of which 40 are elected and 4 are appointed) BDP 27, BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir
Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Botswana
People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE; Botswana Independence Party
(BIP), Motsamai MPHO

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE
chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990, 4991
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Howard F. JETER
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 356947

Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the
center

@Botswana:Economy

Overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising
and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80%
of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs and
accounts for only 5% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle raising
predominate. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the
1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on
the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980
to 39% in 1994. No other sector has experienced such growth,
especially not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and
poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. Hampered
by a still sluggish diamond market in 1994, GDP grew by only 1%.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,130 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.7 billion
expenditures: $1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652
million (FY93/94)

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1994)
commodities: diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 6%, meat 5%
partners: Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles,
petroleum products
partners: Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US

External debt: $344 million (December 1991)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.6% (FY92/93); accounts for about
43% of GDP, including mining

Electricity:
capacity: 220,000 kW
production: 900 million kWh
consumption per capita: 694 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash,
potash; livestock processing

Agriculture: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts, beans,
cowpeas, sunflower seeds; livestock

Economic aid:
recipient: US aid (1992), $13 million; Norway (1992), $16 million;
Sweden (1992), $15.5 million; Germany (1992), $3.6 million; EC/Lome-IV
(1992), $3 million-$6 million in grants; $28.7 million in long-term
projects (1992)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 1.7086 (January 1995), 2.6976
(November 1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327 (1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601
(1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Botswana:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total: 11,514 km
paved: 1,600 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 1,700 km; improved earth 5,177 km;
unimproved earth 3,037 km

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 100
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 23
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 62

@Botswana:Communications

Telephone system: 26,000 telephones; sparse system; telephone density
- 18.67 telephones/1,000 persons
local: NA
intercity: small system of open wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and a few radio communication stations
international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Botswana:Defense Forces

Branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air Wing),
Botswana National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 306,878; males fit for military
service 161,376; males reach military age (18) annually 15,403 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $198 million, 5.2% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

BOUVET ISLAND

(territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total area: 58 sq km
land area: 58 sq km
comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly
inaccessible

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bouvet Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Digraph: BV

Type: territory of Norway

Capital: none; administered from Oslo, Norway

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Bouvet Island:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bouvet Island:Communications

Telephone system: *** No data for this item ***

Note: automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

________________________________________________________________________

BRAZIL

@Brazil:Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 8,511,965 sq km
land area: 8,456,510 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than the US
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
Paulo

Land boundaries: total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400
km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay
1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela
2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the boundary with Paraguay,
just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana,
is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay are in
dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio
Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio
Quarai and the Uruguay River

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 19%
forest and woodland: 67%
other: 6%

Irrigated land: 27,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and
endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species
indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao
Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water
pollution caused by improper mining activities
natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
occasional frost in south
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Desertification

Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with
every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil:People

Population: 160,737,489 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (female 24,641,868; male 25,515,775)
15-64 years: 64% (female 51,966,272; male 51,254,165)
65 years and over: 5% (female 4,393,530; male 2,965,879) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.22% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 21.16 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.98 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 57.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.82 years
male: 56.57 years
female: 67.32 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic divisions: Caucasion (includes Portuguese, German, Italian,
Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed Caucasion and African 38%, African 6%,
other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 80%
male: 80%
female: 80%

Labor force: 57 million (1989 est.)
by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

@Brazil:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil

Digraph: BR

Type: federal republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do
Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Fernando Henrique
CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995) election last held 3 October 1994; next
to be held October 1998); results - Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%,
Luis Inacio LULA da Silva 26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%,
Leonel BRIZOLA 3%, Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note - second free, direct
presidential election since 1960
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional)
Federal Senate (Senado Federal): election last held 3 October 1994 for
two-thirds of Senate (next to be held October 1996 for one-third of
the Senate); results - PMBD 28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT
6%, PTB 6%, other 12%
Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados): election last held 3
October 1994 (next to be held October 1998); results - PMDB 21%, PFL
18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other 16%

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal

Political parties and leaders: National Reconstruction Party (PRN),
Daniel TOURINHO, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
(PMDB), Luiz HENRIQUE da Silveira, president; Liberal Front Party
(PFL), Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president; Workers' Party (PT), Rui Goethe da
Costa FALCAO, president; Brazilian Workers' Party (PTB), Jose Eduardo
ANDRADE VIEIRA, president; Democratic Workers' Party (PDT), Anthony
GAROTINHO, president; Progressive Renewal Party (PPR), Espiridiao
AMIN, president; Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Artur DA
TAVOLA, president; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Roberto FREIRE,
president; Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, secretary
general; Liberal Party (PL), Alvero VALLE, president

Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic Church
and labor unions allied to leftist Workers' Party are critical of
government's social and economic policies

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19,
G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS,
ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 745-2827
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco
consulate(s): Houston

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
mailing address: Unit 3500; APO AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272
FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Porto Alegre, Recife

Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state
and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night
sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto
ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil:Economy

Overview: The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing
sectors, entered the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway
inflation, an unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack
of policy direction. In addition, the economy remained highly
regulated, inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and
investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining
facilities is divided among private interests - including several
multinationals - and the government. Most large agricultural holdings
are private, with the government channeling financing to this sector.
Conflicts between large landholders and landless peasants have
produced intermittent violence. The COLLOR government, which assumed
office in March 1990, launched an ambitious reform program that sought
to modernize and reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices,
deregulating the economy, and opening it to increased foreign
competition. Itamar FRANCO, who assumed the presidency following
President COLLOR's resignation in December 1992, was out of step with
COLLOR's reform agenda; initiatives to redress fiscal problems,
privatize state enterprises, and liberalize trade and investment
policies lost momentum. Galloping inflation - by June 1994 the monthly
rate had risen to nearly 50% - had undermined economic stability. In
response, the then finance minister, Fernando Henrique CARDOSO,
launched the third phase of his stabilization plan, known as Plano
Real, that called for a new currency, the real, which was introduced
on 1 July 1994. Inflation subsequently dropped to under 3% per month
through the end of 1994. The newly elected President CARDOSO has
called for the implementation of sweeping market-oriented reform,
including public sector and fiscal reform, privatization,
deregulation, and elimination of barriers to increased foreign
investment. Brazil's natural resources remain a major, long-term
economic strength.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $886.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $5,580 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,094% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $113 billion
expenditures: $109 billion, including capital expenditures of $23
billion (1992)

Exports: $43.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee,
motor vehicle parts
partners: EC 27.6%, Latin America 21.8%, US 17.4%, Japan 6.3% (1993)

Imports: $33.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs,
coal
partners: US 23.3%, EC 22.5%, Middle East 13.0%, Latin America 11.8%,
Japan 6.5% (1993)

External debt: $134 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 9.5% (1993); accounts for 39% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 55,130,000 kW
production: 241.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,589 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, mining (iron
ore, tin), steel making, machine building - including aircraft, motor
vehicles, motor vehicle parts and assemblies, and other machinery and
equipment

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP; world's largest producer and
exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest
exporter of soybeans; other products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa,
beef; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for
domestic consumption; government has a small-scale eradication program
to control cannabis and coca cultivation; important transshipment
country for Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and
Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $10.2 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million;
former Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: R$ per US$1 - 0.85 (January 1995); CR$ per US$1 -
390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992), 0.407 (1991),
0.068 (1990)
note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000
cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real, was
introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reals

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brazil:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 30,612 km (1992)
broad gauge: 5,369 km 1.600-m gauge (1,108 km electrified)
standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
narrow gauge: 24,739 km 1.000-m gauge (112 km electrified); 13 km
0.760-m gauge
dual gauge: 310 km 1.600-m/1.000-m gauge (78 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 1,670,148 km
paved: 161,503 km
unpaved: gravel/earth 1,508,645 km (1990)

Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural
gas 1,095 km

Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto
Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
total: 215 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,128,654 GRT/8,664,776
DWT
ships by type: bulk 52, cargo 34, chemical tanker 13, combination
ore/oil 12, container 12, liquefied gas tanker 11, oil tanker 64,
passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11

Airports:
total: 3,467
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 126
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 286
with paved runways under 914 m: 1,652
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 76
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1,303

@Brazil:Communications

Telephone system: 9.86 million telephones; telephone density -
61/1,000 persons; good working system
local: NA
intercity: extensive microwave radio relay systems and 64 domestic
satellite earth stations
international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1,223, FM 0, shortwave 151
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 112 (Brazil has the world's fourth largest
television broadcasting system)
televisions: NA

@Brazil:Defense Forces

Branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes Marines), Brazilian
Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 44,301,765; males fit for
military service 29,815,576; males reach military age (18) annually
1,703,438 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $5.0 billion, 0.9% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Map references: World

Area:
total area: 60 sq km
land area: 60 sq km
comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
note: includes the island of Diego Garcia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by
Mauritius

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and
southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are UK-US military personnel; civilian inhabitants, known
as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US
military facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Government

Names:
conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
conventional short form: none

Abbreviation: BIOT

Digraph: IO

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: none

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Commissioner Mr. D. R. MACLENNAN); Administrator
Mr. David Smith; note - both reside in the UK

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow
crown centered on the outer half of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Economy

Overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island
of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
Construction projects and various services needed to support the
military installations are done by military and contract employees
from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There are no
industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity: provided by the US military

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego
Garcia
unpaved: NA

Ports: Diego Garcia

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; minimal facilities
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 150 sq km
land area: 150 sq km
comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
note: includes the island of Anegada

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 7%
meadows and pastures: 33%
forest and woodland: 7%
other: 33%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a
few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the island's
water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)
natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
international agreements: NA

Note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

@British Virgin Islands:People

Population: 13,027 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.27% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 20.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.07 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.33 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.73 years
male: 70.88 years
female: 74.7 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic divisions: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God
7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98%

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)
by occupation: NA

@British Virgin Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: British Virgin Islands

Abbreviation: BVI

Digraph: VI

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Peter Alfred PENFOLD (since 14 October 1991)
head of government: Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA
September 1986)
cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Council: election last held 20 February 1995 (next to be
held on NA February 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (13 total) VIP 6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3
note: legislature was expanded to 13 seats as of election on 20
February 1995

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO;
Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity STOUTT; Concerned Citizens
Movement (CCM), E. Walwyln BREWLEY

Member of: CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL
(subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word
VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands:Economy

Overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean
area, is highly dependent on the tourist industry, which generates
about 21% of the national income. In 1985 the government offered
offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the
islands, and, in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2
million in 1987. The economy slowed in 1991 because of the poor
performances of the tourist sector and tight commercial bank credit.
Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural activity. The
islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food
requirements.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $133 million (1991)

National product real growth rate: 2% (1991)

National product per capita: $10,600 (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $51 million
expenditures: $88 million, including capital expenditures of $38
million (1991)

Exports: $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

External debt: $4.5 million (1985)

Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1985)

Electricity:
capacity: 10,500 kW
production: 50 million kWh
consumption per capita: 3,148 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

Agriculture: livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 106 km (1983)
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Road Town

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@British Virgin Islands:Communications

Telephone system: 3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone
service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: submarine cable communication links to Bermuda

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@British Virgin Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

BRUNEI

@Brunei:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
Malaysia

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 5,770 sq km
land area: 5,270 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundaries: total 381 km, Malysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient
that divides the country; all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and
the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone
that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
in west

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 79%
other: 18%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
rare
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian
and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
an enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei:People

Population: 292,266 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (female 48,458; male 50,624)
15-64 years: 62% (female 85,581; male 95,955)
65 years and over: 4% (female 5,172; male 6,476) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.63% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 25.83 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.07 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.24 years
male: 69.65 years
female: 72.91 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.41 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic divisions: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 88%
male: 92%
female: 82%

Labor force: 119,000 (1993 est.); note - includes members of the Army
by occupation: government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas,
services, and construction 41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
3.8% (1986)
note: 33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

@Brunei:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Digraph: BX

Type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular -
daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His
Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin
Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers; composed chiefly of members of
the royal family

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri): elections last held in
March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by
decree of the sultan; an elected legislative Council is being
considered as part of constitution reform, but elections are unlikely
for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party
(inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity
Party (the first legal political party and now banned), leader NA;
Brunei Peoples Party (banned), leader NA

Member of: APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, ICAO, IDB, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Haji JAYA bin Abdul Latif
chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Theresa A. TULL
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
Begawan
mailing address: American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double
width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national
emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

@Brunei:Economy

Overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic
entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and
village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude
oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector
accounting for more than 40% of GDP. Per capita GDP is among the
highest in the Third World, and substantial income from overseas
investment supplements domestic production. The government provides
for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.43 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: -4% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $16,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $255
million (1990 est.)

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners: Japan 52%, South Korea 10%, UK 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 6%
(1991)

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
food, chemicals
partners: Singapore 34%, UK 23%, US 10%, Japan 8%, Malaysia 7%,
Switzerland 4% (1991)

External debt: $0

Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 41.6% of
GDP (1990), includes mining, quarrying, and manufacturing

Electricity:
capacity: 380,000 kW
production: 1.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,971 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
construction

Agriculture: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and
livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $153 million

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.4524 (January
1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993), 1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991),
1.8125 (1990); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore
dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brunei:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 13 km private line
narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 1,090 km
paved: bituminous 370 km (with another 52 km under construction)
unpaved: gravel or earth 720 km

Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2
meters

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas
920 km

Ports: Bandar Seri Begawar, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine:
total: 7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
GRT/340,635 DWT

Airports:
total: 5
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Brunei:Communications

Telephone system: 33,000 telephones (1987); service throughout country
is adequate for present needs; international service good to adjacent
Malaysia
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: INTELSAT (NA Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: 74,000 (1987)
note: radiobroadcast coverage good

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Brunei:Defense Forces

Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 81,560; males fit for military
service 47,403; males reach military age (18) annually 2,835 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $312 million, 6.2% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

BULGARIA

@Bulgaria:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 110,910 sq km
land area: 110,550 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total 1,808 km, Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro
318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable
land

Land use:
arable land: 34%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 18%
forest and woodland: 35%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers
polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation;
forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil
contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and
industrial wastes
natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land
routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria:People

Population: 8,775,198 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 800,413; male 841,697)
15-64 years: 66% (female 2,927,880; male 2,910,133)
65 years and over: 15% (female 735,706; male 559,369) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.75 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.31 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.68 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 77.1 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic divisions: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian
2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman
Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian,
and other 0.5%

Languages: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
breakdown

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97%

Labor force: 4.3 million
by occupation: industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)

@Bulgaria:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria

Digraph: BU

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya,
Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence;
has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990);
Vice President (vacant); election last held January 1992; results -
Zhelyu ZHELEV was elected by popular vote
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
Minister) Zhan VIDENOV (since 25 January 1995); Deputy Prime Ministers
Doncho KONAKCHIEV, Kiril TSOCHEV, Rumen GECHEV, Svetoslav SHIVAROV
(since 25 January 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie): last held 18 December 1994 (next
to be held NA 1997); results - BSP 43.5%, UDF 24.2%, PU 6.5%, MRF
5.4%, BBB 4.7%; seats - (240 total) BSP 125, UDF 69, PU 18, MRF 15,
BBB 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), Zhan
VIDENOV, chairman; Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Ivan KOSTOV an
alliance of pro-Democratic parties; People's Union (PU), Stefan SAVOV;
Movement for Rights and Freedoms (mainly ethnic Turkish party) (MRF),
Ahmed DOGAN; Bulgarian Business Bloc (BBB), George GANCHEV

Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Alliance for the
Republic (DAR); New Union for Democracy (NUD); Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa
Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union; Bulgarian Communist Party
(BCP); Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB);
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian
Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union;
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of Macedonian
Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest
groups with various agendas

Member of: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (associate members), EBRD,
ECE, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Snezhana Damianova BOTUSHAROVA
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
embassy: 1 Saborna Street, Sofia
mailing address: Unit 1335, Sofia; APO AE 09213-1335
telephone: [359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05
FAX: [359] (2) 80-19-77

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the
national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has
been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat
ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the
dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
from Nazi control)

@Bulgaria:Economy

Overview: The Bulgarian economy continued its painful adjustment in
1994 from the misdirected development undertaken during four decades
of Communist rule. Many aspects of a market economy have been put in
place and have begun to function, but much of the economy, especially
the industrial sector, has yet to re-establish market links lost with
the collapse of the other centrally planned Soviet Bloc economies. The
prices of many imported industrial inputs, especially energy products,
have risen markedly, and falling real wages have not sufficed to
restore competitiveness. The government plans more extensive
privatization in 1995 to improve the management of enterprises and to
encourage foreign investment. Bulgaria resumed payments on its $10
billion in commercial debt in 1993 following the negotiation of a 50%
write-off.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $33.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,830 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 122% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $14 billion
expenditures: $17.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $610
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery and equipment 30.6%; agricultural products 24%;
manufactured consumer goods 22.2%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and
metals 10.5%; other 12.7% (1991)
partners: former CEMA countries 57.7% (FSU 48.6%, Poland 2.1%,
Czechoslovakia 0.9%); developed countries 26.3% (Germany 4.8%, Greece
2.2%); less developed countries 15.9% (Libya 2.1%, Iran 0.7%) (1991)

Imports: $4.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 58.7%; machinery and
equipment 15.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.4%; agricultural
products 15.2%; other 5.9%
partners: former CEMA countries 51.0% (FSU 43.2%, Poland 3.7%);
developed countries 32.8% (Germany 7.0%, Austria 4.7%); less developed
countries 16.2% (Iran 2.8%, Libya 2.5%)

External debt: $12 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1994); accounts for about 37%
of GDP (1990)

Electricity:
capacity: 11,500,000 kW
production: 35.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,827 kWh (1993)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing,
chemicals, textiles, building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals

Agriculture: climate and soil conditions support livestock raising and
the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, and
tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land devoted to grain;
world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food producer

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and
South American cocaine transiting the Balkan route; limited producer
of precursor chemicals

Economic aid:
recipient: $700 million in balance of payments support (1994)

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1 - 67.04 (January 1995), 32.00
(January 1994), 24.56 (January 1993), 17.18 (January 1992), 16.13
(March 1991), 0.7446 (November 1990); note - floating exchange rate
since February 1991

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bulgaria:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 4,294 km
standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917
double track)
other: 245 km NA-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 36,932 km
paved: 33,904 km (including 276 km expressways)
unpaved: earth 3,028 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas
1,400 km (1992)

Ports: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
total: 109 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,191,231 GRT/1,762,461
DWT
ships by type: bulk 47, cargo 29, chemical carrier 4, container 2, oil
tanker 15, passenger-cargo 2, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 1
note: Bulgaria owns 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,960 DWT
operating under Liberian registry

Airports:
total: 355
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
with paved runways under 914 m: 88
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 226

@Bulgaria:Communications

Telephone system: 2,600,000 telephones; 29 telephones/100 persons
(1992); extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable
and microwave radio relay; direct dialing to 36 countries; telephone
service is available in most villages; almost two-thirds of the lines
are residential; 67% of Sofia households have phones (November 1988)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 earth station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT link used
through a Greek earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 15, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 29 (Russian repeater in Sofia 1)
televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990)

@Bulgaria:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Troops,
Internal Troops

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,171,414; males fit for
military service 1,810,989; males reach military age (19) annually
69,200 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 13 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1994 est.); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

BURKINA

@Burkina:Geography

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 274,200 sq km
land area: 273,800 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries: total 3,192 km, Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote
d'Ivoire 584 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: following mutual acceptance of an
International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling in December 1986 on their
international boundary dispute, Burkina and Mali are proceeding with
boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
and southeast

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of
gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 37%
forest and woodland: 26%
other: 27%

Irrigated land: 160 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting
agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy;
overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
natural hazards: recurring droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban

Note: landlocked

@Burkina:People

Population: 10,422,828 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 2,488,662; male 2,517,245)
15-64 years: 49% (female 2,707,601; male 2,378,957)
65 years and over: 3% (female 184,578; male 145,785) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.79% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 48.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.22 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 116.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.6 years
male: 45.71 years
female: 47.51 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.88 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic divisions: Mossi (about 2.5 million), Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi,
Bobo, Mande, Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to Sudanic
family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 18%
male: 28%
female: 9%

Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistance agriculture)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and
government 5%
note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring
countries for seasonal employment (1984)

@Burkina:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Burkina Faso
conventional short form: Burkina
former: Upper Volta

Digraph: UV

Type: parliamentary

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: none

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