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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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unpaved: 8,273 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas
3,300 km

Ports: Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende,
Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,055 GRT/56,842 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 9, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 2,
oil tanker 5

Airports:
total: 43
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 22
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Belgium:Communications

Telephone system: 4,720,000 telephones; highly developed,
technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and
international telephone and telegraph facilities
local: NA
intercity: extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay
network; nationwide mobile phone system
international: 5 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 39, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 32
televisions: NA

@Belgium:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,559,077; males fit for
military service 2,126,875; males reach military age (19) annually
61,488 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.9 billion, 1.8% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

BELIZE

@Belize:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Mexico

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 22,960 sq km
land area: 22,800 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: total 516 km, Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial
sea is 3 miles; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the
purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the
negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
Guatemala

International disputes: border with Guatemala in dispute; talks to
resolve the dispute are stalled

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 2%
forest and woodland: 44%
other: 52%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial
effluents, agricultural runoff
natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan
because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a
coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize:People

Population: 214,061 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 45,812; male 47,618)
15-64 years: 53% (female 55,630; male 57,230)
65 years and over: 3% (female 3,970; male 3,801) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 33.71 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.86 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.32 years
male: 66.37 years
female: 70.36 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.25 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belizean(s)
adjective: Belizean

Ethnic divisions: mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%,
other 8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist
6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
total population: 91%
male: 91%
female: 91%

Labor force: 51,500
by occupation: agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%,
commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%
note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
(1985)

@Belize:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Belize
former: British Honduras

Digraph: BH

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November
1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993);
Deputy Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since NA 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice from the
prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
Senate: consists of an 8-member appointed body; 5 members are
appointed on the advice of the prime minister, 2 on the advice of the
leader of the opposition, and 1 after consultation with the Belize
Advisory Council (this council serves as an independent body to advise
the governor-general with respect to difficult decisions such as
granting pardons, commutations, stays of execution, the removal of
justices of appeal who appear to be incompetent, etc.)
National Assembly: elections last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held
June 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total)
PUP 13 UDP 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party (PUP), George
PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA; United Democratic Party (UDP),
Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW; National Alliance for
Belizean Rights, Philip GOLDSON

Other political or pressure groups: Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research (SPEAR), Assad SHOMAN; United Workers Front,
leader NA

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LAES, NAM,
OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dean R. LINDO
chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador George Charles BRUNO
embassy: Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Belize City; APO: Unit 7401, APO AA
34025
telephone: [501] (2) 77161 through 77163
FAX: [501] (2) 30802

Flag: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom
edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the
coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a
mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in
the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

@Belize:Economy

Overview: The small, essentially private enterprise economy is based
primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and merchandising, with
tourism and construction assuming increasing importance. Agriculture
accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75% of export earnings,
while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost 40% of hard currency
earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is assisting in
efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural
diversification program.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $575 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,750 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $126.8 million
expenditures: $123.1 million, including capital expenditures of $44.8
million (FY90/91 est.)

Exports: $115 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: sugar, citrus fruits, bananas, clothing, fish products,
molasses, wood
partners: US 51%, UK, other EC (1992)

Imports: $281 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, food,
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: US 57%, UK 8%, other EC 7%, Mexico (1992)

External debt: $158 million (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.7% (1990); accounts for 12% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 34,532 kW
production: 110 million kWh
consumption per capita: 490 kWh (1993)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Agriculture: commercial crops: bananas, coca, citrus fruits, fish,
cultured shrimp, lumber

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; an illicit producer of
cannabis for the international drug trade; minor money-laundering
center

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $215 million

Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Belize:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,710 km
paved: 500 km
unpaved: gravel 1,600 km; improved earth 300 km; unimproved earth 310
km

Inland waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable

Ports: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 170,002 GRT/270,893 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 25, container 4, oil tanker 2,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, vehicle carrier 1

Airports:
total: 46
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 35
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9

@Belize:Communications

Telephone system: 8,650 telephones; above-average system based on
microwave radio relay
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Belize:Defense Forces

Branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Navy, Air Force, and
Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 50,499; males fit for military
service 30,040; males reach military age (18) annually 2,285 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $11 million, 2.2% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

BENIN

@Benin:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Nigeria and Togo

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 112,620 sq km
land area: 110,620 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total 1,989 km, Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria
773 km, Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble,
timber

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 35%
other: 45%

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: recent droughts have severely affected marginal
agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification,
Law of the Sea

Note: no natural harbors

@Benin:People

Population: 5,522,677 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 1,324,553; male 1,333,673)
15-64 years: 49% (female 1,431,630; male 1,299,180)
65 years and over: 3% (female 74,119; male 59,522) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.33% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 47.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 13.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 107.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.24 years
male: 50.34 years
female: 54.2 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective: Beninese

Ethnic divisions: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being
Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars
in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 23%
male: 32%
female: 16%

Labor force: 1.9 million (1987)
by occupation: agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public
services 38%, industry less than 2%

@Benin:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Benin
conventional short form: Benin
local long form: Republique du Benin
local short form: Benin
former: Dahomey

Digraph: BN

Type: republic under multiparty democratic rule dropped
Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February
1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital: Porto-Novo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

Constitution: 2 December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Nicephore SOGLO
(since 4 April 1991); election last held 10 and 24 March 1991 (next
election 1996); results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu KEREKOU 32%
cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 28 March
1995; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (83 total)
Renaissance Party and allies 20, PRD 19, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 7, NCC 3,
RDL-VIVOTEN 3, Communist Party 2, Alliance Chameleon 1, RDP 1, ADP 1,
other 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: as of August 1994, 72 political parties
were officially recognized; the following are among the most
important: Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress
(UDFP), Timothee ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress
(MDPS), Jean-Roger AHOYO; Union for Liberty and Development (ULD),
Marcellin DEGBE; Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and
Development (PNDD) and the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal
Chabi KAO; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the
National Union for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU; Our
Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National Rally for Democracy
(RND), Joseph KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement for Democracy
and Development (MNDD), leader NA; Movement for Solidarity, Union, and
Progress (MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; Union for Democracy and National
Reconstruction (UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and
National Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal
Democrats for National Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance
for Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU; Bloc for Social Democracy
(BSD), Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP),
Akindes ADEKPEDJOU, and the Democratic Union for Social Renewal
(UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and
Progress (UNDP), Robert TAGNON; Party for Progress and Democracy,
Thiophile NATA; FARD-ALAFIA, Mathieu KEREKOU; The Renaissance Party,
Nicephore SOGLO; The Patriotic Union for the Republic (UPR),
Jean-Marie ZAHOUN; Union for the Conservation of Democracy, Bernard
HOUEGNON

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN
chancery: 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656, 6657, 6658
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ruth A. DAVIS
embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou
telephone: [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
FAX: [229] 41-15-22

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a
vertical green band on the hoist side

@Benin:Economy

Overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and dependent on
subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Growth
in real output has averaged a sound 4% in 1991-94 but this rate barely
exceeds the rapid population growth of 3.3%. Inflation jumped to 35%
in 1994 (compared to 3% in 1993) following the 50% currency
devaluation in January. Commercial and transport activities, which
make up almost 36% of GDP, are extremely vulnerable to developments in
Nigeria as evidenced by decreased reexport trade in 1994 due to a
severe contraction in Nigerian demand. The industrial sector accounts
for less than 10% of GDP and mainly produces foods, beverages, cement,
and textiles. Support by the Paris Club and official bilateral
creditors has eased the external debt situation in recent years. The
government, still burdened with money-losing state enterprises and a
bloated civil service, is gradually implementing a World Bank
supported structural adjustment program.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,260 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $272 million (1993 est.)
expenditures: $375 million, including capital expenditures of $84
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $332 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
partners: FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%

Imports: $571 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
partners: France 20%, Thailand 8%, Netherlands 7%, US 5%

External debt: $1 billion (December 1990 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -0.7% (1988); accounts for 10% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 30,000 kW
production: 10 million kWh
consumption per capita: 25 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages,
food, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GDP; small farms produce 90% of
agricultural output; production is dominated by food crops - corn,
sorghum, cassava, yams, beans, rice; cash crops include cotton, palm
oil, peanuts; poultry and livestock output has not kept up with
consumption

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
Western Europe and the US

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $101 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Benin:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 578 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 8,435 km
paved: 1,038 km
unpaved: crushed stone 2,600 km; improved earth 1,530 km; unimproved
earth 3,267 km

Inland waterways: navigable along small sections, important only
locally

Ports: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 7
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Benin:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; fair system of open wire and
microwave radio relay
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay and open wire
international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station, submarine
cable

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Benin:Defense Forces

Branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), National
Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,165,463; females age 15-49
1,249,234; males fit for military service 596,956; females fit for
military service 631,780; males reach military age (18) annually
60,282 (1995 est.); females reach military age (18) annually 58,770
(1995 est.)
note: both sexes are liable for miltary service

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $33 million, 3.2% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

BERMUDA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Bermuda:Geography

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
east of North Carolina (US)

Map references: North America

Area:
total area: 50 sq km
land area: 50 sq km
comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 20%
other: 80%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)
international agreements: NA

Note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall,
but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some reclaimed land leased by US
Government

@Bermuda:People

Population: 61,629 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.76% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.07 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.03 years
male: 73.36 years
female: 76.97 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic divisions: black 61%, white and other 39%

Religions: Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist
Episcopal (Zion) 10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other
28%

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99%

Labor force: 32,000
by occupation: clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional
and technical 13%, administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%,
agriculture and fishing 2% (1984)

@Bermuda:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda

Digraph: BD

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint
Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Lord David WADDINGTON (since 25 August 1992)
head of government: Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January
1982); Deputy Premier J. Irving PEARMAN (since 5 October 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: consists of an 11-member body appointed by the governor
House of Assembly: elections last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held
by NA October 1998); results - percent of vote by party UBP 50%, PLP
46%, independents 4%; seats - (40 total) UBP 22, PLP 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D.
SWAN; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick WADE; National Liberal
Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL

Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU),
Ottiwell SIMMONS

Member of: CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. FARMER
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton

mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE
09727-1002
telephone: [1] (809) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (809) 295-1592

Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion
holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture
off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

@Bermuda:Economy

Overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the
world, having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury
tourist facilities and financial services. The tourist industry
attracts more than 90% of its business from North America. The
industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a
lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are imported.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.5% (1994)

National product per capita: $28,000 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1991)

Budget:
revenues: $327.5 million
expenditures: $308.9 million, including capital expenditures of $35.4
million (FY90/91 est.)

Exports: $60 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: semitropical produce, light manufactures, re-exports of
pharmaceuticals
partners: US 62.4%, UK 20%

Imports: $519 million (f.o.b.,1993)
commodities: fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: US 38%, UK 5%, Canada 5%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 140,000 kW
production: 504 million kWh
consumption per capita: 7,745 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints,
pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Agriculture: accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must
be imported; produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers,
dairy products

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $277 million

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Bermuda:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 210 km
paved: 210 km
note: in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that
are privately owned

Ports: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,144,245 GRT/5,152,030
DWT
ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 4, container 7, liquefied gas tanker 15,
oil tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5,
short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 12 countries among
which are UK 6 ships, Canada 4, US 4, Sweden 3, Hong Kong 2, Mexico 2,
Norway 2, Australia 1, Germany 1, NZ 1

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

@Bermuda:Communications

Telephone system: 52,670 telephones; modern, fully automatic telephone
system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 3 submarine cables; 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Bermuda:Defense Forces

Branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve
Constabulary

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

BHUTAN

@Bhutan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 47,000 sq km
land area: 47,000 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 5%
forest and woodland: 70%
other: 23%

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water
natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the
source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder
Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
international agreements: party to - Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls
several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan:People

Population: 1,780,638 (July 1995 est.)
note: other estimates range as low as 600,000

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 342,276; male 368,916)
15-64 years: 56% (female 486,258; male 513,560)
65 years and over: 4% (female 34,215; male 35,413) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.34% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 39.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 15.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 118.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.03 years
male: 51.56 years
female: 50.48 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic divisions: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or
migrant tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects;
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note: massive lack of skilled labor

@Bhutan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan

Digraph: BT

Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck
became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
Chief of State and Head of Government: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK
(since 24 July 1972)
Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde): nominated by the king
cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog); appointed by the
king

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu); no
national elections

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant
community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
antigovernment campaign

Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO

Diplomatic representation in US: Bhutan has no embassy in the US, but
does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by Ugyen TSERING,
located at 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017,
telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; note - the Bhutanese mission to the UN
has consular jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general: New York
honorary consulate(s): San Francisco; Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation: no formal diplomatic relations, although
informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in
New Delhi (India)

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the
dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the
hoist side

@Bhutan:Economy

Overview: The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on
agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of
the population and account for about half of GDP. Agriculture consists
largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains
dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned
with India's through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial
sector is small and technologically backward, with most production of
the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road
construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower
potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources; however,
the government limits the number of tourists to 4,000 per year to
minimize foreign influence. Much of the impetus for growth has come
from large public-sector companies. Nevertheless, in recent years,
Bhutan has shifted toward decentralized development planning and
greater private initiative. The government privatized several large
public-sector firms, is revamping its trade regime and liberalizing
administerial procedures over industrial licensing. The government's
industrial contribution to GDP decreased from 13% in 1988 to about 11%
in 1993.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $700 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (October 1994)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $52 million
expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $95
million (FY93/94 est.)
note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's
budget expenditures

Exports: $66.8 million (f.o.b., FY93/94)
commodities: cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit,
electricity (to India), precious stones, spices
partners: India 87%, Bangladesh

Imports: $97.6 million (c.i.f., FY93/94 est.)
commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics, rice
partners: India 79%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

External debt: $141 million (October 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.); accounts for 18%
of GDP; primarily cottage industry and home based handicrafts

Electricity:
capacity: 360,000 kW
production: 1.7 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 143 kWh (1993)
note: Bhutan exports electricity to India

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

Agriculture: rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products,
foodgrains, eggs

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $115 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11
million

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is
also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 31.374 (January 1995), 31.374
(1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990);
note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,165 km
paved: NA
unpaved: gravel 1,703 km
undifferentiated: 462 km

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Bhutan:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; domestic telephone service is very
poor with very few telephones in use
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
land line through India; an earth station was planned (1990)

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1990)
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0 (1990)
televisions: NA

@Bhutan:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia, Royal Bhutan
Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 434,586; males fit for military
service 232,121; males reach military age (18) annually 17,365 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

BOLIVIA

@Bolivia:Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 1,098,580 sq km
land area: 1,084,390 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total 6,743 km, Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km,
Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 52%
other: 20%

Irrigated land: 1,650 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the
international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss
of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for
drinking and irrigation
natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March to
April)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest
navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

@Bolivia:People

Population: 7,896,254 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (female 1,542,931; male 1,565,624)
15-64 years: 57% (female 2,276,308; male 2,188,100)
65 years and over: 4% (female 174,419; male 148,872) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 31.61 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.12 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.85 years
male: 61.39 years
female: 66.43 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic divisions: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed European and
Indian ancestry) 25%-30%, European 5%-15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
total population: 80%
male: 88%
female: 72%

Labor force: 3.54 million
by occupation: agriculture NA, services and utilities 20%,
manufacturing, mining and construction 7% (1993)

@Bolivia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Republica de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia

Digraph: BL

Type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE
LOZADA Bustamente (since 6 August 1993); Vice President Victor Hugo
CARDENAS Conde (since 6 August 1993); election last held 6 June 1993
(next to be held May 1997); results - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR)
34%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN/MIR alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles
(CONDEPA) 14%, Max FERNANDEZ Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR Quiroga
(MBL) 5%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote;
Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA won a congressional runoff election on 4
August 1993 after forming a coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and Antonio
ARANIBAR; FERNANDEZ left the coalition in 1994
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from panel proposed by
the Senate

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 6 June
1993 (next to be held May 1997); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (130 total) MNR 52, UCS 20, ADN 17, MIR 17, CONDEPA 13,
MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PCD 1
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): elections last held 6 June
1993 (next to be held May 1997); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (27 total) MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4, CONDEPA 1, UCS 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders:
Left parties: Free Bolivia Movement (MBL), Antonio ARANIBAR; April 9
Revolutionary Vanguard (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE; Alternative of
Democratic Socialism (ASD), Jerjes JUSTIANO; Revolutionary Front of
the Left (FRI), Oscar ZAMORA; Bolivian Socialist Falange (FSB);
Socialist Unzaguista Movement (MAS); Socialist Party One (PS-1);
Bolivian Communist Party (PCB)
Center-Left parties: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo
SANCHEZ DE LOZADA; Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ
Zamora, Oscar EID; Christian Democrat (PCD), Jorge AGREDA
Center-Right party: Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Jorge
LANDIVAR, Hugo BANZER
populist parties: Civic Solidarity Union (UCS), Max FERNANDEZ Rojas;
Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles;
Popular Patriotic Movement (MPP), Julio MANTILLA; Unity and Progress
Movement (MUP), Ivo KULJIS
Evangelical: Bolivian Renovating Alliance (ARBOL), Hugo VILLEGAS
indigenous: Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement (MRTK-L),
Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde; Patriotic Axis of Convergence (EJE-P),
Ramiro BARRANCHEA; National Katarista Movement (MKN), Fernando UNTOJA

Member of: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andres PETRICEVIC Raznatovic
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410 through 4412
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Curt Warren KAMMAN
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone: [591] (2) 430251
FAX: [591] (2) 4339000

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag
of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the
yellow band

@Bolivia:Economy

Overview: With its long history of semifeudal social controls,
dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of
hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least
developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has experienced
generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ Estenssoro
administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented policies which
reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in 1988. PAZ
Estenssoro was followed as President by Jaime PAZ Zamora (1989-93) who
continued the free-market policies of his predecessor, despite
opposition from his own party and from Bolivia's once powerful labor
movement. By maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce
inflation to 9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average of
3.25% during his tenure. Inaugurated in August 1993, President SANCHEZ
DE LOZADA has vowed to advance the market-oriented economic reforms he
helped launch as PAZ Estenssoro's planning minister. His successes so
far have included an inflation rate that continues to decrease - the
1994 rate of 8.5% was the lowest in ten years - the signing of a free
trade agreement with Mexico, and progress on his unique privatization
plan. The main privatization bill was passed by the Bolivian
legislature in late March 1994. Related laws - one that establishes
SIRESE, the regulatory agency that will oversee the privatizations,
and another that outlines the rules for privatization in the
electricity sector - were approved later in the year.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $18.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,370 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.75 billion
expenditures: $3.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $556.2
million (1995 est.)

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: metals 39%, natural gas 9%, soybeans 11%, jewelry 11%,
wood 8%
partners: US 26%, Argentina 15% (1993 est.)

Imports: $1.21 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5%
(1993 est.)
partners: US 24%, Argentina 13%, Brazil 11%, Japan 11% (1993 est.)

External debt: $4.2 billion (January 1995)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 756,200 kW
production: 2.116 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 367 kWh (1994)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces 15%
of its revenues

Agriculture: accounts for about 21% of GDP (including forestry and
fisheries); principal commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn,
sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru)
with an estimated 48,100 hectares under cultivation in 1994; voluntary
and forced eradication programs unable to prevent production from
rising to 89,800 metric tons in 1994 from 84,400 tons in 1993;
government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate
coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and Brazil
to the US and other international drug markets; alternative crop
program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $2.025 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 4.72 (January 1995), 4.6205
(1994), 4.2651 (1993), 3.9005 (1992), 3.5806 (1991), 3.1727 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bolivia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,684 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 32 km 0.760-m gauge

Highways:
total: 42,815 km
paved: 1,865 km
unpaved: gravel 12,000 km; improved/unimproved earth 28,950 km

Inland waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in the maritime
ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT

Airports:
total: 1,382
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 1,016
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 77
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 275

@Bolivia:Communications

Telephone system: about 150,000 telephones; about 2.0 telephones/100
persons; new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most
telephones in La Paz and other cities; microwave radio relay system
being expanded; improved international services
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay system
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 129, FM 0, shortwave 68
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 43
televisions: NA

@Bolivia:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval Boliviana,
includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National Police
Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,885,485; males fit for
military service 1,226,218; males reach military age (19) annually
81,065 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $134 million; 1.9% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Note--Bosnia and Herzegovina is set to enter its third year of
interethnic civil strife which began in the spring of 1992 after the
Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on
independence. Bosnia's Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia -
responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic
along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to 'greater Serbia'. In
March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced the number of warring
factions from three to two by signing an agreement in Washington, DC,
creating the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A group of rebel
Muslims, however, continues to battle government forces in the
northwest enclave of Bihac. A Contact Group of countries, the US, UK,
France, Germany, and Russia, continues to seek a resolution between
the Federation and the Bosnian Serbs. In July of 1994 the Contact
Group presented a plan to the warring parties that roughly equally
divides the country between the two, while maintaining Bosnia in its
current internationally recognized borders. The Federation agreed to
the plan almost immediately, while the Bosnian Serbs rejected it.

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 51,233 sq km
land area: 51,233 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro
527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: as of January 1995, Bosnian Government and
Bosnian Serb leaders remain far apart on territorial and
constitutional solutions for Bosnia; the two sides did, however, sign
a four-month cessation of hostilities agreement effective January 1;
the Bosnian Serbs continue to reject the Contact Group Plan submitted
by the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Russia, and
accepted by the Bosnian Government, which stands firm in its desire to
regain lost territory and preserve Bosnia as a multiethnic state
within its current borders; Bosnian Serb forces control approximately
70% of Bosnian territory

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood
products, copper, chromium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 36%
other: 17%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for
disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water
shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife
natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:People

Population: 3,201,823 (July 1995 est.)
note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable
error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
cleansing

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 337,787; male 370,966)
15-64 years: 68% (female 1,082,357; male 1,085,610)
65 years and over: 10% (female 190,992; male 134,111) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.29 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.51 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.47 years
male: 72.75 years
female: 78.37 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic divisions: Muslim 38%, Serb 40%, Croat 22% (est.)

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
other 10%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 99%

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 1,026,254
by occupation: NA%

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Government

Note: The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, formed by the Muslims and Croats
in March 1994, remains in the implementation stages.

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Digraph: BK

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: 109 districts (opstinas, singular - opstina)
Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica,
Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi,
Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko,
Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk,
Derventa, Doboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde,
Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica,
Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic,
Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare,
Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad,
Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor,
Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most,
Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas,
Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad,
Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac,
Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac, Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj,
Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika
Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez, Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica,
Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
note: currently under negotiation with the assistance of international
mediators

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended
1989, 1990, and 1991; the Assembly planned to draft a new constitution
in 1991, before conditions deteriorated; constitution of Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina (including Muslim and Croatian controlled parts
of Republic) ratified April 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990),
other members of the collective presidency: Ejup GANIC (since NA
November 1990), Nijaz DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan
KLJUJIC (since NA October 1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993),
Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since
NA December 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA October
1993)
cabinet: executive body of ministers; members of, and responsible to,
the National Assembly
note: the president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is
Kresimir ZUBAK (since 31 May 1994); Vice President Ejup GANIC (since
31 May 1994)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina): elections last held
November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party of
Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo): elections last held
November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34, HDZ BiH 21, Party of
Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, LBO 2, DSS 1, DSZ 1, LS 1
note: legislative elections for Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
are slated for late 1994

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Alija
IZETBEGOVIC; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ
BiH), Dario KORDIC; Serbian Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(SDS BiH), Radovan KARADZIC, president; Liberal Bosnian Organization
(LBO), Adil ZULFIKARPASIC, president; Democratic Party of Socialists
(DSS), Nijaz DURAKOVIC, president; Party of Democratic Changes, leader
NA; Serbian Movement for Renewal (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC; Alliance of
Reform Forces of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ BiH), Dr.
Nenad KECMANOVIC, president; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ), Drazen
PETROVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: CE (guest), CEI, ECE, FAO, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest),
OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ
chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615
FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH
embassy: address NA
mailing address: American Embassy Bosnia, c/o AmEmbassy Vienna
Boltzmangasse 16, A-1091, Vienna, Austria; APO: (Bosnia) Vienna,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-9900
telephone: [43] (1) 313-39
FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman
crosses with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner
to the lower fly side

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Economy

Overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav
federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands,
farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally
has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly
overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central
planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of military
industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large
share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of February 1995, Bosnia and
Herzegovina was being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic
warfare that has caused production to plummet, unemployment and
inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. No economic
statistics for 1992-94 are available, although output clearly has
fallen substantially below the levels of earlier years and almost
certainly is well below $1,000 per head. The country receives
substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the international
community.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Imports: $NA
commodities: NA
partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; production is sharply down
because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-94)

Electricity:
capacity: 3,800,000 kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Industries: steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc,
manganese, and bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles,
tobacco products, wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's
armaments including tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances),
oil refining (1991)

Agriculture: accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces
less than 50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support
orchards, vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters
and heavy precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural
output in the mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and
not very productive (1991)

Illicit drugs: NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held area,
presumably to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new Serbian
dinars used in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably supplanting
local currencies in areas held by Bosnian government

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 21,168 km
paved: 11,436 km
unpaved: gravel 8,146 km; earth 1,586 km (1991)

Inland waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note -
pipelines now disrupted

Ports: Bosanski Brod

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 27
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 11
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@Bosnia And Herzegovina:Communications

Telephone system: 727,000 telephones; telephone and telegraph network
is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below
average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics

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