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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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address -- P.O. Box 179, The Morne, Castries, St. Lucia

telephone -- [1] (809) 452 2537

FAX -- [1] (809) 453 1628

established -- 18 June 1981

effective -- 4 July 1981

aim -- to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation

members -- (7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

associate member -- (1) British Virgin Islands

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

address -- Obere Donaustrasse 93, A-1020 Vienna, Austria

telephone -- [43] (1) 21 11 20

FAX -- [43] (1) 26 43 20

established -- 14 September 1960

aim -- to coordinate petroleum policies

members -- (12) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya,
Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)

address -- Kilo 6, Mecca Road, P.O. Box 178, Jeddah 21411, Saudi
Arabia

telephone -- [966] (2) 680-0800

FAX -- [966] (2) 687-3568

established -- 22-25 September 1969

aim -- to promote Islamic solidarity in economic, social, cultural,
and political affairs

members -- (48 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin,
Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania,
Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization

observers -- (3) Kazakhstan, Mozambique, "Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus"

Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

note -- formerly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(CSCE)

address -- Thunovska 12, Mala Strana, 110 00 Prague 1, Czech Republic

telephone -- [422] (2) 24311069

FAX -- [422] (2) 24310629

established -- 1 January 1995

aim -- to discuss issues of mutual concern and to review
implementation of the Helsinki Agreement

members -- (53) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany,
Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan,
Yugoslavia (suspended)

observer -- (1) The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Paris Club

see -- Group of 10

Partnership for Peace (PFP)

established -- 10-11 January 1994

aim -- to expand and intensify political and military cooperation
throughout Europe, increase stability, diminish threats to peace, and
build relationships by promoting the spirit of practical cooperation
and commitment to democratic principles that underpin NATO; program
under the auspices of NATO

members -- (24) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech
Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Sweden, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

address -- Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, NL-2517 KJ The Hague,
Netherlands

telephone -- [31] (70) 346 96 80

FAX -- [31] (70) 356 13 38

established -- 29 July 1899

aim -- to facilitate the settlement of international disputes

members -- (80) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium,
Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile,
China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran,
Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon,
Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey,
Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zaire, Zimbabwe

Population Commission

address -- c/o ECOSOC, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 754 1234

established -- 3 October 1946

aim -- to deal with population matters of importance to the UN, as
part of Economic and Social Council organization

members -- (27) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

Rio Group (RG)

note -- formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established in December
1986

established -- NA 1988

aim -- to consult on regional Latin American issues

members -- (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela; note - Panama was expelled
in 1988

Second World

another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states of the USSR
and Eastern Europe, with authoritarian governments and command
economies based on the Soviet model; the term is fading from use; see
centrally planned economies

Social Commission

see -- Commission for Social Development

socialist countries

in general, countries in which the government owns and plans the use
of the major factors of production; note - the term is sometimes used
incorrectly as a synonym for Communist countries

South

a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries generally
located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of the
North; see less developed countries (LDCs)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

address -- P.O. Box 4222, Kathmandu, Nepal

telephone -- [977] (1) 221785, 221787, 221794

FAX -- [977] (1) 227033

established -- 8 December 1985

aim -- to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation

members -- (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan,
Sri Lanka

South Pacific Commission (SPC)

address -- Anse Vata, BP D5 Noumea CEDEX, New Caledonia

telephone -- [687] 26 20 00 FAX [687] 26 38 18

established -- 6 February 1947

effective -- 29 July 1948

aim -- to promote regional cooperation in economic and social matters

members -- (27) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France,
French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States
of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue, Northern Mariana
Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Solomon Islands,
Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna, Western
Samoa

South Pacific Forum (SPF)

address -- c/o forum Secretariat, Ratu Sukuna Road GPO Box 856, Suva,
Fiji

telephone -- [679] 312 600, 303 106

FAX -- [679] 302 204

established -- 5 August 1971

aim -- to promote regional cooperation in political matters

members -- (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall
Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New
Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa

observer -- (1) Palau

South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (SPARTECA)

address -- (see South Pacific Forum)

established -- NA 1981

aim -- to redress unequal trade relationship of Australia and New
Zealand with small island economies in Pacific region

members -- (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall
Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New
Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa

Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

address -- Director General, Trade and Industry, Private Bag X84,
Pretoria 0001, South Africa

established -- 11 December 1969

aim -- to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters

members -- (9) Bophuthatswana, Botswana, Ciskei, Lesotho, Namibia,
South Africa, Swaziland, Transkei, Venda

Southern African Development Community (SADC)

note -- evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination
Conference (SADCC)

address -- Private Bag 008, Gaborone, Botswana

telephone -- [267] (31) 51863, 51864, 51865

FAX -- [267] (31) 372848

established -- 17 August 1992

aim -- to promote regional economic development and integration

members -- (11) Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique,
Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR)

address -- c/o Cancilleria de la Republica de Argentina, Buenos Aires,
Argentina

established -- 26 March 1991

aim -- to increase regional economic cooperation

members -- (4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay

Statistical Commission

address -- c/o ECOSOC, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 758 2718

established -- 21 June 1946

aim -- to deal with development and standardization of national
statistics of interest to the UN, as part of the Economic and Social
Council organization

members -- (24) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

Third World

another term for the less developed countries; the term is fading from
use;

see -- less developed countries (LDCs)

underdeveloped countries

refers to those less developed countries with the potential for above-
average economic growth; see less developed countries (LDCs)

undeveloped countries

refers to those extremely poor less developed countries (LDCs) with
little prospect for economic growth; see least developed countries
(LLDCs)

Union Douaniere et Economique de l

'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC)

see -- Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)

United Nations (UN)

address -- United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 758 2718

established -- 26 June 1945

effective -- 24 October 1945

aim -- to maintain international peace and security and to promote
cooperation involving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian
problems

members -- (184 excluding Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria,
Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,
Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of
Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San
Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - all UN members
are represented in the General Assembly

observers -- (2 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Holy See,
Switzerland, Palestine Liberation Organization

United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II)

note -- successor to original UNAVEM

address -- c/o United Nations, UNAVEM II, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 758 2718

established -- 20 December 1988

aim -- to verify the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola;
established by the UN Security Council

members -- (16) Argentina, Brazil, Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary,
India, Jordan, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway,
Slovakia, Sweden, Zimbabwe

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)

established -- 5 October 1993

aim -- to monitor ceasefire agreement, to support and provide safe
conditions for displaced persons; established by the UN Security
Council

members -- (17) Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, Congo, Egypt, Fiji,
Ghana, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia,
Uruguay, Zimbabwe

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

note -- acronym retained from the predecessor organization UN
International Children's Emergency Fund

address -- UNICEF House, Three United Nations Plaza, New York, NY
10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 326 7000

established -- 11 December 1946

aim -- to help establish child health and welfare services

members -- (41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

address -- Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland

telephone -- [41] (22) 917 12 34, 907 12 34

FAX -- [41] (22) 907 00 57

established -- 30 December 1964

aim -- to promote international trade

members -- (187) all UN members plus Holy See, Switzerland, Tonga

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

address -- One United National Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 906 5788, 906 500 FAX [1] (212) 906 5365

established -- 22 November 1965

aim -- to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and
social development

members -- (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)

address -- c/o UNDOF, P.O. Box 5368, Damascus, Syrian AR

established -- 31 May 1974

aim -- to observe the 1973 Arab-Israeli ceasefire; established by the
UN Security Council

members -- (4) Austria, Canada, Finland, Poland

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

address -- 7 place de Fontenoy, F-75700 Paris, France

telephone -- [33] (1) 45 68 10 00

FAX -- [33] (1) 45 67 16 90

established -- 16 November 1945

effective -- 4 November 1946

aim -- to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture

members -- (182) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria,
Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao
Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members -- (3) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Netherlands
Antilles

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

address -- One United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 906 5000

FAX -- [1] (212) 826 2057

established -- 15 December 1972

aim -- to promote international cooperation on all environmental
matters

members -- (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 4 March 1964

aim -- to serve as a peacekeeping force between Greek Cypriots and
Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus; established by the UN Security Council

members -- (8) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, Ireland, UK

United Nations General Assembly

address -- see United Nations

established -- 26 June 1945

effective -- 24 October 1945

aim -- to function as the primary deliberative organ of the UN

members -- (185) all UN members are represented in the General
Assembly

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

address -- Vienna International Center, P.O. Box 300, A-1400 Vienna,
Austria

telephone -- [43] (1) 211 310

FAX -- [43] (1) 23 21 56

established -- 17 November 1966

effective -- 1 January 1967

aim -- UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development
especially among the members

members -- (166) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,
Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia
(suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)

established -- 11 December 1963

aim -- to help the UN become more effective through training and
research members (Board of Trustees) - (24) Argentina, Belgium,
Canada, China, Cote d'Ivoire, France, Germany, India, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Libya, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tunisia, Uganda, UK, US, Yugoslavia

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 19 March 1978

aim -- to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces, restore peace, and
reestablish Lebanese authority in southern Lebanon; established by the
UN Security Council

members -- (9) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Nepal,
Norway, Poland

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Mission, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212)
963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 9 April 1991

aim -- to observe and monitor the demilitarized zone established
between Iraq and Kuwait; established by the UN Security Council

members -- (33) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China,
Denmark, Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India,
Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey,
UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela

United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

address -- c/o OUSGSPA, Room 3853, United Nations, New York, NY 10017,
USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 4457

FAX -- [1] (212) 758 2718

established -- 13 August 1948

aim -- to observe the 1949 India-Pakistan ceasefire; established by
the UN Security Council

members -- (8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway,
Sweden, Uruguay

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)

established -- 23 September 1993

aim -- to assist in implementing the agreement to transfer power back
into the civilian government; established by the UN Security Council

members -- (14) Algeria, Argentina, Austria, Canada, France,
Indonesia, Madagascar, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia,
US, Venezuela

United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)

established -- 22 September 1993

aim -- to assist in the implementation of the peace agreement;
established by the UN Security Council

members -- (13) Austria, Bangladesh, China, Czech Republic, Egypt,
Guinea- Bissau, India, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Slovakia,
Uruguay

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 29 April 1991

aim -- to supervise the referendum in Western Sahara; established by
the UN Security Council

members -- (27) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium,
Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea,
Honduras, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland,
Russia, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, US, Venezuela

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 20 May 1991

aim -- to verify ceasefire arrangements and to monitor the maintenance
of public order pending the organization of a new National Civil
Police; established by the UN Security Council

members -- (14) Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia,
France, Guyana, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 1993 for a period of six months

aim -- to verify compliance with the cease-fire agreement reached 27
July 1993 and investigate reports of violations of that agreement;
established by the UN Security Council

members -- (7) Bangladesh, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Sweden,
Switzerland

United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 1993 for six months

aim -- to monitor the Uganda/Rwanda border to verify that no military
assistance reaches Rwanda across the border; established by the UN
Security Council

members -- (8) Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Hungary, Netherlands,
Senegal, Slovakia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

address -- Case postale 2500, Depot, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland

telephone -- [41] (22) 739 81 11

FAX -- [41] (22) 731 95 46

established -- 3 December 1949

effective -- 1 January 1951

aim -- to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find
permanent solutions to refugee problems

members -- (47) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands,
Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Spain,
Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire

United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ)

note -- supposed to shut down 31 January 1995

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 16 December 1992

aim -- to supervise the ceasefire; established by the UN Security
Council

members -- (27) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil,
Canada, Cape Verde, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau,
Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, US, Uruguay, Zambia

United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II)

note -- UN peacekeepers left Somalia on 1 March 1995; some UN
personnel remain in Somalia engaged in humanitarian work

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 24 April 1992

aim -- to facilitate an immediate cessation of hostilities, to
maintain a ceasefire in order to promote a political settlement, and
to provide urgent humanitarian assistance; established by the UN
Security Council

members -- (14) Australia, Bangladesh, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, India,
Ireland, Malaysia, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Romania, Zimbabwe

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

note -- acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for
Population Activities

address -- 220 E. 42nd Street, 19th Floor, Room DN-1901, New York, NY
10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 297 5000

FAX -- [1] (212) 557 6416

established -- NA July 1967

aim -- to assist both developed and developing countries to deal with
their population problems

members -- (52) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)

address -- c/o UN Peace Keeping Mission, Office for Special Political
Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 963 4879

established -- 28 February 1992

aim -- to create conditions for peace and security required for the
negotiation of an overall settlement of the "Yugoslav" crisis;
established by the UN Security Council

members -- (35) Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Ghana,
Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US, Venezuela

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near

East (UNRWA)

address -- Vienna International Center, P. O. Box 700, A-1400 Vienna,
Austria

telephone -- [43] (1) 211 31, ext. 4530

FAX -- [43] (1) 230 7487

established -- 8 December 1949

aim -- to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees

members -- (10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria,
Turkey, UK, US

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)

established -- 1 July 1964

aim -- to conduct research into the problems of economic development
during different phases of economic growth

members -- no country members, but a Board of Directors consisting of
a chairman appointed by the UN secretary general and 10 individual
members

United Nations Secretariat

address -- see United Nations

established -- 26 June 1945

effective -- 24 October 1945

aim -- to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a
Secretary General is appointed for a five-year term by the General
Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council

members -- the UN secretary general and staff

United Nations Security Council

address -- c/o United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA

telephone -- [1] (212) 963 1234

FAX -- [1] (212) 758 2718

established -- 26 June 1945

effective -- 24 October 1945

aim -- to maintain international peace and security

permanent members -- (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US

nonpermanent members -- (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN
General Assembly; Argentina (1994-95), Brazil (1993-94), Czech
Republic (1994-95), Djibouti (1993-94), NZ (1993-94), Nigeria
(1994-95), Oman (1994-95), Pakistan (1993-94), Rwanda (1994-95), Spain
(1993-94)

United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)

established by the UN Security Council on 28 February 1992 to
contribute to the restoration and maintenance of peace and to the
holding of free elections; disbanded sometime after the UN-supervised
election in May 1993; members were Algeria, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada,
Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary,
India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia,
Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand,
Tunisia, UK, US, Uruguay

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

address -- Government House, P.O. Box 490, Jerusalem, Israel

telephone -- [972] (2) 734 223

established -- NA May 1948

aim -- to supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli ceasefire and subsequently
extended to work in the Sinai, Lebanon, Jordan, Afghanistan, and
Pakistan; initially established by the UN Security Council

members -- (19) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile,
China, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, NZ,
Norway, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, US

United Nations Trusteeship Council

established on 26 June 1945, effective on 24 October 1945, to
supervise the administration of the 11 UN trust territories; members
were China, France, Russia, UK, US; its mandate ended on 1 October
1994 when the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau) became
the Republic of Palau, a self-governing territory in free association
with the US

United Nations University (UNU)

established -- 6 December 1973

aim -- to conduct research in development, welfare, and human survival
and to train scholars

members (associated institutes) -- (32) Argentina, Australia,
Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan,
Kenya, South Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Philippines, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US,
Venezuela

Universal Postal Union (UPU)

address -- Bureau International de lUPU, Weltpoststrasse 4, CH-3000
Berne 15, Switzerland

telephone -- [41] (31) 350 31 11

FAX -- [41] (31) 350 31 10

established -- 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947

effective -- 1 July 1948

aim -- to promote international postal cooperation; a UN specialized
agency

members -- (189) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar,
Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Overseas Territories of the UK, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and
Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa,
Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe ------ Warsaw
Pact (WP) established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members
met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of
dissolution were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania,
and the USSR; earlier members included East Germany and Albania

West African Development Bank (WADB)

note -- also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD)

address -- BOAD, BP 1172, 68 av de la liberation, Lome, Togo

telephone -- [228] 21 59 06, 21 42 44, 21 01 13

FAX -- [228] 21 52 67, 21 72 69

established -- 14 November 1973

aim -- to promote regional economic development and integration

members -- (7) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal,
Togo

West African Economic Community (CEAO)

note -- acronym from Communaute Economique de lAfrique de lOuest
established on 3 June 1972 to promote regional economic development;
its members were Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania,
Niger, Senegal; it was disbanded in 1994

Western European Union (WEU)

address -- Rue de la Regence 4, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium

telephone -- [32] (2) 500 44 11

FAX -- [32] (2) 511 35 19

established -- 23 October 1954

effective -- 6 May 1955

aim -- to provide mutual defense and to move toward political
unification

members -- (10) Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK

associate members -- (3) Iceland, Norway, Turkey

associate partners -- (9) Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia

observers -- (2) Denmark, Ireland

World Bank

see -- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

World Bank Group

includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD),
International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance
Corporation (IFC)

World Confederation of Labor (WCL)

address -- Rue de Treves 33, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium

telephone -- [32] (2) 230 62 95

FAX -- [32] (2) 230 87 22

established -- 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of
Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968

aim -- to promote the trade union movement

members -- (99 national organizations) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, The
Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho,
Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta,
Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Court

see -- International Court of Justice (ICJ)

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)

address -- Branicka 112, Branik, CS-14700 Prague 4, Czech Republic

telephone -- [42] (2) 46 21 40

FAX -- [42] (2) 46 13 78

established -- 3 October 1945

aim -- to promote the trade union movement

members -- (116) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, The
Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Martinique,
Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania,
Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zaire, Zimbabwe

World Food Council (WFC)

address -- c/o FAO, Via Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome, Italy

telephone -- [39] (6) 522821

FAX -- [39] (6) 574 5091

established -- 17 December 1974

aim -- to study world food problems and to recommend solutions; ECOSOC
organization

members -- (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

World Food Program (WFP)

address -- Via Cristoforo Colombo 426, I-00145 Rome, Italy

telephone -- [39] (6) 522821

FAX -- [39] (6) 5123700, 5133537, 52282840

established -- 24 November 1961

aim -- to provide food aid in support of economic development or
disaster relief; an ECOSOC organization

members -- (41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

World Health Organization (WHO)

address -- CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland

telephone -- [41] (22) 791 21 11, 791 32 23

FAX -- [41] (22) 791 07 46

established -- 22 July 1946

effective -- 7 April 1948

aim -- UN specialized agency concerned with health matters

members -- (189) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niue,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended),
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

associate members -- (2) Puerto Rico, Tokelau

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

address -- 34 chemin des Colombettes, Case Postale 18, CH-1211 Geneva
20, Switzerland

telephone -- [41] (22) 730 9111

FAX -- [41] (22) 733 5428

established -- 14 July 1967

effective -- 26 April 1970

aim -- to furnish protection for literary, artistic, and scientific
works; a UN specialized agency

members -- (147) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and
Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

address -- Case Postale 2300, 41 Av Giuseppe-Motta, CH-1211 Geneva 2,
Switzerland

telephone -- [41] (22) 730 81 11

FAX -- [41] (22) 734 23 26

established -- 11 October 1947

effective -- 4 April 1951

aim -- to sponsor meteorological cooperation; a specialized UN agency

members -- (175) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Caribbean Territories,
Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Tourism Organization (WTO or WToO)

address -- Calle Capitan Haya 41, 28020 Madrid, Spain

telephone -- [34] (1) 571 06 28

FAX -- [34] (1) 571 37 33

established -- 2 January 1975

aim -- to promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic
development, international understanding, and peace

members -- (121) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad,
Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hungary,
India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco,
Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama,
Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino,
Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

associate members -- (4) Aruba, Macau, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto
Rico

observer -- (1) Holy See

World Trade Organization (WTrO)

will be added in The World Factbook 1996

Zangger Committee (ZC)

established -- early 1970s

aim -- to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of
the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

members -- (29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
UK, US

________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX D

Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements

A

Air Pollution -- Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution

Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides -- Protocol to the 1979 Convention
on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution concerning the Control
of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes

Air Pollution-Sulphur 85 -- Protocol to the 1979 Convention on
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur
Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30%

Air Pollution-Sulphur 94 -- Protocol to the 1979 Convention on
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of
Sulphur Emissions

Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds -- Protocol to the 1979
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution concerning
the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their
Transboundary Fluxes

Antarctic-Environmental Protocol -- Protocol on Environmental
Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

B

Biodiversity -- Convention on Biological Diversity

C

Climate Change -- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change

D

Desertification -- United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought
and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa

E

Endangered Species -- Convention on the International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)

Environmental Modification -- Convention on the Prohibition of
Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification
Techniques

H

Hazardous Wastes -- Basel Convention on the Control of
Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

L

Law of the Sea -- United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(LOS)

M

Marine Dumping -- Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution
by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter; note - also known as the
London Convention

Marine Life Conservation -- Convention on Fishing and Conservation
of Living Resources of the High Seas

N

Nuclear Test Ban -- Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the
Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water

O

Ozone Layer Protection -- Montreal Protocol on Substances That
Deplete the Ozone Layer

S

Ship Pollution -- Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973
(MARPOL)

T

Tropical Timber 83 -- International Tropical Timber Agreement,
1983

Tropical Timber 94 -- International Tropical Timber Agreement,
1994

W

Wetlands -- Convention on Wetlands of International Importance
Especially As Waterfowl Habitat; note - also known as Ramsar

Whaling -- International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

Note: Not all of the selected international environmental agreements
have abbreviations.

________________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX E

Selected International Environmental Agreements

Air Pollution

see -- Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides

see -- Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or
Their Transboundary Fluxes

Air Pollution-Sulphur 85

see -- Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary
Fluxes by at least 30%

Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

see -- Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions

Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

see -- Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic
Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes

Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

see -- Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

Antarctic Treaty

opened for signature -- 1 December 1959

entered into force -- 23 June 1961

objective -- to ensure that Antarctica is used for peaceful purposes,
such as, for international cooperation in scientific research, and
that it does not become the scene or object of international discord

parties -- (42) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala,
Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Netherlands,
New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia,
Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United
Kingdom, United States, Uruguay

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and Their Disposal

note -- abbreviated as Hazardous Wastes

opened for signature -- 22 March 1989

entered into force -- 5 May 1992

objective -- to reduce transboundary movements of wastes subject to
the Convention to a minimum consistent with the environmentally sound
and efficient management of such wastes; to minimize the amount and
toxicity of wastes generated and ensure their environmentally sound
management as closely as possible to the source of generation; and to
assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and
other wastes they generate

parties -- (81) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile,
China, Comoros, Cote dIvoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, European Union,
Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius,
Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,
Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Arab
Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Zaire, Zambia

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (9) Afghanistan,
Bolivia, Colombia, Germany, Guatemala, Haiti, Thailand, United States,
Venezuela

Biodiversity

see -- Convention on Biological Diversity

Convention on Biological Diversity

note -- abbreviated as Biodiversity

opened for signature -- 5 June 1992

entered into force -- 29 December 1993

objective -- to develop national strategies for the conservation and
sustainable use of biological diversity

parties -- (111) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Cameroon, Canada,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote
dIvoire, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, European
Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea,
South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives,
Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia,
Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria,
Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
San Marino, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Uganda, United
Kingdom, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (64) Afghanistan,
Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belgium, Bhutan, Botswana,
Bulgaria, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Congo,
Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Gabon, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau,
Haiti, Honduras, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Kuwait, Latvia, Liberia,
Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Madagascar, Mali, Malta, Mauritania,
Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Poland,
Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Singapore, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United
Arab Emirates, United States, Yemen, former Yugoslavia

Climate Change

see -- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas

note -- abbreviated as Marine Life Conservation

opened for signature -- 29 April 1958

entered into force -- 20 March 1966

objective -- to solve through international cooperation the problems
involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas,
considering that because of the development of modern technology some
of these resources are in danger of being overexploited

parties -- (37) Australia, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina,
Cambodia, Colombia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Finland,
France, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Portugal, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States,
Venezuela, former Yugoslavia

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (21) Afghanistan,
Argentina, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ghana, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran,
Ireland, Israel, Lebanon, Liberia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan,
Panama, Sri Lanka, Taiwan (Canada signed on behalf of Taiwan),
Tunisia, Uruguay

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

note -- abbreviated as Air Pollution

opened for signature -- 13 November 1979

entered into force -- 16 March 1983

objective -- to protect the human environment against air pollution
and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including
long-range transboundary air pollution

parties -- (39) Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, European
Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States,
former Yugoslavia

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (2) Holy See, San
Marino

Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and
Fauna (CITES)

note -- abbreviated as Endangered Species

opened for signature -- 3 March 1973

entered into force -- 1 July 1975

objective -- to protect certain endangered species from
overexploitation by means of a system of import/export permits

parties -- (130) Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon,
Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote dIvoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea,
Liechtenstein, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates,
United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (5) Cambodia,
Ireland, Kuwait, Lesotho, Vietnam

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other
Matter (London Convention)

note -- abbreviated as Marine Dumping

opened for signature -- 29 December 1972

entered into force -- 30 August 1975

objective -- to control pollution of the sea by dumping and to
encourage regional agreements supplementary to the Convention

parties -- (76) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, European
Union, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kenya, Kiribati, Libya, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco,
Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saint Lucia,
Seychelles, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname,
Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates,
United Kingdom, United States, Vanuatu, former Yugoslavia, Zaire

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of
Environmental Modification Techniques

note -- abbreviated as Environmental Modification

opened for signature -- 10 December 1976

entered into force -- 5 October 1978

objective -- to prohibit the military or other hostile use of
environmental modification techniques in order to further world peace
and trust among nations

parties -- (63) Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Dominica, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Malawi, Mauritius, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Russia,
Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom,
United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (17) Bolivia,
Ethiopia, Holy See, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg,
Morocco, Nicaragua, Portugal, Sierra Leone, Syria, Turkey, Uganda,
Zaire

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As Waterfowl
Habitat (Ramsar)

note -- abbreviated as Wetlands

opened for signature -- 2 February 1971

entered into force -- 21 December 1975

objective -- to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of
wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological
functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and
recreational value

parties -- (83) Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Canada, Chad,
Chile, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador,
Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Lesotho,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal,
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden,
Switzerland, Trinadad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United
Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, former
Yugoslavia, Zambia

Desertification

see -- United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those
Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification,
Particularly in Africa

Endangered Species

see -- Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)

Environmental Modification

see -- Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile
Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

Hazardous Wastes

see -- Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

note -- abbreviated as Whaling

opened for signature -- 2 December 1946

entered into force -- 10 November 1948

objective -- to protect all species of whales from overfishing; to
establish a system of international regulation for the whale fisheries
to ensure proper conservation and development of whale stocks; and to
safeguard for future generations the great natural resources
represented by whale stocks

parties -- (39) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Brazil,
Chile, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominica, Finland, France, Germany,
Grenada, India, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mexico, Monaco,
Netherlands (Netherlands also extended the convention to Netherlands
Antilles), New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Peru, Russia, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal,
Seychelles (withdrawing effective 30 June 1995), Solomon Islands,
South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United
States, Venezuela

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (1) Austria

former parties -- (10) Belize, Canada, Ecuador, Egypt, Iceland,
Jamaica, Mauritius, Panama, Philippines, Uruguay

International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983

note -- abbreviated as Tropical Timber 83

opened for signature -- 18 November 1983

entered into force -- 1 April 1985; this agreement will expire when
the International Tropical Timber Ageement, 1994 goes into force

objective -- to provide an effective framework for cooperation between
tropical timber producers and consumers and to encourage the
development of national policies aimed at sustainable utilization and
conservation of tropical forests and their genetic resources

parties -- (52) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma,
Cameroon, Canada, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote dIvoire, Denmark,
Ecuador, Egypt, European Union, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy,
Japan, South Korea, Liberia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands,
New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines,
Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Zaire

International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994

note -- abbreviated as Tropical Timber 94

opened for signature -- 26 January 1994, but not yet in force

objective -- to ensure that by the year 2000 exports of tropical
timber originate from sustainably managed sources; to establish a fund
to assist tropical timber producers in obtaining the resources
necessary to reach this objective

parties -- (3) Fiji, Japan, Liberia

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (11) Cameroon,
Congo, Ecuador, Egypt, Gabon, Indonesia, Norway, Panama, Peru, Togo,
United States

Law of the Sea

see -- United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)

Marine Dumping

see -- Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping
Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)

Marine Life Conservation

see -- Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of
the High Seas

Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

note -- abbreviated as Ozone Layer Protection

opened for signature -- 16 September 1987

entered into force -- 1 January 1989

objective -- to protect the ozone layer by controling emissions of
substances that deplete it

parties -- (148) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium,
Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei,
Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic,
Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, European
Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives,
Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal (Portugal has also extended the
protocol to Macau), Romania, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda,
Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, former
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (1) Morocco

Nuclear Test Ban

see -- Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in
Outer Space, and Under Water

Ozone Layer Protection

see -- Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention
of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)

note -- abbreviated as Ship Pollution

opened for signature -- 17 February 1978

entered into force -- 2 October 1983

objective -- to preserve the marine environment through the complete
elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances and the
minimization of accidental discharge of such substances

parties -- (91) Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burma, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Ecuador,
Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia,
Lebanon, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands,
Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Togo,
Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States,
Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, former Yugoslavia

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

note -- abbreviated as Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

opened for signature -- 4 October 1991, but not yet in force

objective -- to enhance the protection of the Antarctic environment
and dependent and associated ecosystems

parties -- (14) Argentina, Australia, Chile, China, Ecuador, France,
Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Spain, Sweden,
Uruguay

countries that have signed, but not yet ratified -- (27) Austria,
Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Finland, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan,
North Korea, South Korea, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Russia,
Slovakia, South Africa, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary
Fluxes

note -- abbreviated as Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides

opened for signature -- 31 October 1988

entered into force -- 14 February 1991

objective -- to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen
oxides and their transboundary fluxes

parties -- (25) Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic,

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