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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
- 96.25 (January 1995), 100.94 (1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992),
102.57 (1991), 99.0 (1990); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: NA

@Wallis And Futuna:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 120 km (Ile Uvea 100 km, Ile Futuna 20km)
paved: 16 km (on Il Uvea)
unpaved: 104 km (Ile Uvea 84 km, Ile Futuna 20 km)

Inland waterways: none

Ports: Leava, Mata-Utu

Merchant marine:
total: 1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 26,000 GRT/40,000 DWT

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Wallis And Futuna:Communications

Telephone system: 225 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Wallis And Futuna:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

WEST BANK

Note--The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13
September 1993, provides for a transitional period not exceeding five
years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the
West Bank. Under the DOP, final status negotiations are to begin no
later than the beginning of the third year of the transitional period.

@West Bank:Geography

Location: Middle East, west of Jordan

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 5,860 sq km
land area: 5,640 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware
note: includes West Bank, Latrun Salient, and the northwest quarter of
the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus; East Jerusalem and Jerusalem No
Man's Land are also included only as a means of depicting the entire
area occupied by Israel in 1967

Land boundaries: total 404 km, Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied
with interim status subject to Israeli/Palestinian negotiations -
final status to be determined

Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude,
warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but
barren in east

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 32%
forest and woodland: 1%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Israel's
coastal aquifers; there are 199 Jewish settlements and civilian land
use sites in the West Bank and 25 in East Jerusalem (August 1994 est.)

@West Bank:People

Population: 1,319,991 (July 1995 est.)
note: in addition, there are 122,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank
and 149,000 in East Jerusalem (August 1994 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (female 293,269; male 308,775)
15-64 years: 51% (female 335,193; male 337,722)
65 years and over: 3% (female 25,759; male 19,273) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 39.83 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.84 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.42 years
male: 69.91 years
female: 73 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.34 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 83%, Jewish 17%

Religions: Muslim 75% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 17%, Christian and
other 8%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English
(widely understood)

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: construction 28.2%, agriculture 21.8%, industry 14.5%,
commerce, restaurants, and hotels 12.6%, other services 22.9% (1991)
note: excluding Jewish settlers

@West Bank:Government

Note: Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arragements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed to transfer
certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, and
subsequently to an elected Palestinian Council, as part of interim
self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A
transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho
has taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement
on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area. A transfer of powers and
responsibilities in certain spheres for the rest of the West Bank has
taken place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 29 August 1994 Agreement on
Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities. The DOP provides
that Israel will retain responsibility during the transitional period
for external security and for internal security and public order of
settlements and Israelis. Final status is to be determined through
direct negotiations within five years.

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: West Bank

Digraph: WE

@West Bank:Economy

Overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by
Israeli military administration and the effects of the Palestinian
uprising (intifadah). Industries using advanced technology or
requiring sizable investment have been discouraged by a lack of local
capital and restrictive Israeli policies. Capital investment consists
largely of residential housing, not productive assets that would
enable local Palestinian firms to compete with Israeli industry. GDP
has been substantially supplemented by remittances of workers employed
in Israel and Persian Gulf states. Such transfers from the Gulf
dropped after Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. In the wake of the
Persian Gulf crisis, many Palestinians have returned to the West Bank,
increasing unemployment, and export revenues have dropped because of
the decline of markets in Jordan and the Gulf states. Israeli measures
to curtail the intifadah also have added to unemployment and lowered
living standards. The area's economic situation has worsened since
Israel's partial closure of the territories in 1993.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $2,800 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 35% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $43.4 million
expenditures: $43.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY89/90)

Exports: $217 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: olives, fruit, vegetables
partners: Jordan, Israel

Imports: $867 million (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners: Jordan, Israel

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: NA kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh
note: most electricity imported from Israel; East Jerusalem Electric
Company buys and distributes electricity to Palestinians in East
Jerusalem and its concession in the West Bank; the Israel Electric
Company directly supplies electricity to most Jewish residents and
military facilities; at the same time, some Palestinian
municipalities, such as Nabulus and Janin, generate their own
electricity from small power plants

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs;
the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in
the settlements and industrial centers

Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef, and
dairy products

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot; 1 Jordanian
dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 3.0270 (December
1994), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301 (1993), 2.4591 (1992), 2.2791 (1991),
2.0162 (1990); Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.6995 (January 1995),
0.6987 (1994), 0.6928 (1993), 0.6797 (1992), 0.6808 (1991), 0.6636
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@West Bank:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA
note: small road network; Israelis have developed many highways to
service Jewish settlements

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@West Bank:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; note - 8% of Palestinian households
have telephones (1992 est.)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA
note: Israeli company BEZEK is responsible for communication services
in the West Bank

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA; note - 82% of Palestinian households have radios (1992
est.)

Television:
broadcast stations: 0; note - 1 planned for Jericho
televisions: NA; note - 54% of Palestinian households have televisions
(1992 est.)

@West Bank:Defense Forces

Branches: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

WESTERN SAHARA

@Western Sahara:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Mauritania and Morocco

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 266,000 sq km
land area: 266,000 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries: total 2,046 km, Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km,
Morocco 443 km

Coastline: 1,110 km

Maritime claims: contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue

International disputes: claimed and administered by Morocco, but
sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a
referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been
currently in effect since September 1991

Climate: hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents
produce fog and heavy dew

Terrain: mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy
surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 19%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 81%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: sparse water and arable land
natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur
during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of
time, often severely restricting visibility
international agreements: NA

@Western Sahara:People

Population: 217,211 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.48% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 46.9 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.52 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 148.95 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.31 years
male: 45.34 years
female: 47.59 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.91 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sahrawi(s), Sahraoui(s)
adjective: Sahrawian, Sahraouian

Ethnic divisions: Arab, Berber

Religions: Muslim

Languages: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 12,000
by occupation: animal husbandry and subsistence farming 50%

@Western Sahara:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Western Sahara

Digraph: WI

Type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty
unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front
(Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de
Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government in exile
of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR); territory partitioned
between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring
northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario
guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979;
Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since
asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government in exile
was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued
sporadically, until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6
September 1991

Capital: none

Administrative divisions: none (under de facto control of Morocco)

Executive branch: none

Member of: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none

US diplomatic representation: none

@Western Sahara:Economy

Overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and
having little rainfall, depends on pastoral nomadism, fishing, and
phosphate mining as the principal sources of income for the
population. Most of the food for the urban population must be
imported. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by
the Moroccan Government. Incomes and standards of living are
substantially below the Moroccan level.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.)
commodities: phosphates 62%
partners: Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade
partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

Imports: $30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.)
commodities: fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs
partners: Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade
partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 60,000 kW
production: 79 million kWh
consumption per capita: 339 kWh (1993)

Industries: phosphate mining, handicrafts

Agriculture: limited largely to subsistence agriculture and fishing;
some barley is grown in nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are
grown in the few oases; food imports are essential; camels, sheep, and
goats are kept by the nomadic natives; cash economy exists largely for
the garrison forces

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 8.892 (January 1995),
9.203 (1994), 9.299 (1993), 8.538 (1992), 8.707 (1991), 8.242 (1990)

Fiscal year: NA

@Western Sahara:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 6,200 km
unpaved: gravel 1,450 km; improved, unimproved earth, tracks 4,750 km

Ports: Ad Dakhla, Cabo Bojador, El Aaiun

Airports:
total: 14
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Western Sahara:Communications

Telephone system: 2,000 telephones; sparse and limited system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay,
troposcatter, and 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations linked to
Rabat, Morocco

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Western Sahara:Defense Forces

Branches: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

WESTERN SAMOA

@Western Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 2,860 sq km
land area: 2,850 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 403 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to
October)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains
in interior

Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 24%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 47%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: soil erosion
natural hazards: occasional typhoons; active volcanism
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Law of the Sea

@Western Samoa:People

Population: 209,360 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 41,503; male 42,844)
15-64 years: 56% (female 55,683; male 61,065)
65 years and over: 4% (female 4,323; male 3,942) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.37% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 31.74 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.88 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.38 years
male: 65.99 years
female: 70.88 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.04 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Western Samoan(s)
adjective: Western Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European
and Polynesian blood), Europeans 0.4%

Religions: Christian 99.7% (about one-half of population associated
with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman
Catholic, Methodist, Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Samoan (Polynesian), English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 60%

@Western Samoa:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Independent State of Western Samoa
conventional short form: Western Samoa

Digraph: WS

Type: constitutional monarchy under native chief

Capital: Apia

Administrative divisions: 11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua,
Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea,
Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

Independence: 1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered by New
Zealand)

National holiday: National Day, 1 June (1962)

Constitution: 1 January 1962

Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial
review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the
citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chief Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State
from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April
1963)
head of government: Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April
1988)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the head of state with the prime
minister's advice

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Fono): elections last held 5 April 1991 (next to
be held by NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(47 total) HRPP 28, SNDP 18, independents 1
note: only matai (head of family) are able to run for the Legislative
Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP),
TOFILAU Eti Alesana, chairman; Samoan National Development Party
(SNDP), TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman

Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tuiloma Neroni SLADE
chancery: 820 Second Avenue, Suite 800, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196, 6197
FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: the ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to
Western Samoa
embassy: 5th floor, Beach Road, Apia
mailing address: P.O. Box 3430, Apia
telephone: [685] 21631
FAX: [685] 22030

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant
bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross
constellation

@Western Samoa:Economy

Overview: Agriculture employs more than half of the labor force,
contributes 50% to GDP, and furnishes 90% of exports. The bulk of
export earnings comes from the sale of coconut oil and copra. The
economy depends on emigrant remittances and foreign aid to support a
level of imports much greater than export earnings. Tourism has become
the most important growth industry. The economy continued to falter in
1994, as remittances and tourist earnings remained low. Production of
taro, the primary food export crop, has dropped 97% since a fungal
disease struck the crop in 1993. The rapid growth in 1994 of the giant
African snail population in Western Samoa is also threatening the
country's basic food crops, such as bananas and coconuts.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $400 million (1992
est.)

National product real growth rate: -4.3% (1992 est.)

National product per capita: $2,000 (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $95.3 million
expenditures: $76.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $6.4 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: coconut oil and cream, taro, copra, cocoa
partners: New Zealand 34%, American Samoa 21%, Germany 18%, Australia
11%

Imports: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%
partners: New Zealand 37%, Australia 25%, Japan 11%, Fiji 9%

External debt: $141 million (June 1993)

Industrial production: growth rate -0.3% (1992 est.); accounts for 16%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 29,000 kW
production: 50 million kWh
consumption per capita: 200 kWh (1993)

Industries: timber, tourism, food processing, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for about 50% of GDP; coconuts, fruit (including
bananas, taro, yams)

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $18 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $306 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million

Currency: 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene

Exchange rates: tala (WS$) per US$1 - 2.4600 (January 1995), 2.5349
(1994), 2.5681 (1993), 2.4655 (1992), 2.3975 (1991), 2.3095 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Western Samoa:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,042 km
paved: 375 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 1,667 km

Ports: Apia, Asau, Mulifanua, Salelologa

Merchant marine:
total: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
3,838 GRT/5,536 DWT

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2

@Western Samoa:Communications

Telephone system: 7,500 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 70,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Western Samoa:Defense Forces

Branches: no regular armed services; Western Samoa Police Force

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

WORLD

@World:Geography

Map references: World, Time Zones

Area:
total area: 510.072 million sq km
land area: 148.94 million sq km
water area: 361.132 million sq km
comparative area: land area about 16 times the size of the US
note: 70.8% of the world is water, 29.2% is land

Land boundaries: the land boundaries in the world total 250,883.64 km
(not counting shared boundaries twice)

Coastline: 356,000 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm claimed by most but can vary
continental shelf: 200-m depth claimed by most or to depth of
exploitation, others claim 200 nm or to the edge of the continental
margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm claimed by most but can vary
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm claimed by most but can vary
territorial sea: 12 nm claimed by most but can vary
note: boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many
countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200
nm; 43 nations and other areas that are landlocked include
Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad,
Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San
Marino, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West
Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather
narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to
subtropical climates

Terrain: highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest
depression is the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest
ocean depth is the Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters

Natural resources: the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral
resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction
of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water
quality (especially in Eastern Europe and the former USSR) pose
serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only
beginning to address

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 24%
forest and woodland: 31%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial
disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss
of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of
wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion
natural hazards: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical
cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis,
volcanic eruptions)
international agreements: 23 selected international environmental
agreements included under the Environment entry for each country and
in Appendix E: Selected International Environmental Agreements

@World:People

Population: 5,733,687,096 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31.6% (female 882,809,689; male 928,121,801)
15-64 years: 62% (female 1,752,393,539; male 1,802,004,124)
65 years and over: 6.4% (female 209,437,234; male 158,246,581) (July
1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 64 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62 years
male: 61 years
female: 64 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.24 billion (1992)
by occupation: NA

@World:Government

Digraph: XX

Administrative divisions: 265 nations, dependent areas, other, and
miscellaneous entries

Legal system: varies by individual country; 186 (note including
Yugoslavia) are parties to the United Nations International Court of
Justice (ICJ or World Court)

@World:Economy

Overview: Led by recovery in Western Europe and strong performances by
the US, Canada, and key Third World countries, real global output -
gross world product (GWP) - rose 3% in 1994 compared with 2% in 1993.
Results varied widely among regions and countries. Average growth of
3% in the GDP of industrialized countries (60% of GWP in 1994) and
average growth of 6% in the GDP of less developed countries (34% of
GWP) were partly offset by a further 11% drop in the GDP of the former
USSR/Eastern Europe area (now only 6% of GWP). With the notable
exception of Japan at 2.9%, unemployment was typically 5%-12% in the
industrial world. The US accounted for 22% of GWP in 1994; Western
Europe accounted for another 22%; and Japan accounted for 8%. These
are the three "economic superpowers" which are presumably destined to
compete for mastery in international markets on into the 21st century.
As for the less developed countries, China, India, and the Four
Dragons - South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore - once again
posted records of 5% growth or better; however, many other countries,
especially in Africa, continued to suffer from drought, rapid
population growth, inflation, and civil strife. Central Europe made
considerable progress in moving toward "market-friendly" economies,
whereas the 15 ex-Soviet countries (with the notable exceptions of the
three Baltic states) typically experienced further declines in output,
sometimes as high as 30%. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock
economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over
international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology.
Internally, the central government in a number of cases is losing
control over resources as separatist regional movements - typically
based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in the successor states of
the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, and in India. In
Western Europe, governments face the difficult political problem of
channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to increase
investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The addition
of nearly 100 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe
is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification,
underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal
problems, the industrialized countries have inadequate resources to
deal effectively with the poorer areas of the world, which, at least
from the economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized.
(For the specific economic problems of each country, see the
individual country entries in this volume.)

National product: GWP (gross world product) - purchasing power parity
- $30.7 trillion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $5,400 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
all countries: 25%
developed countries: 5%
developing countries: 50% (1994 est.)
note: national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from
stable prices to hyperinflation

Unemployment rate: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in
many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically
5%-12% unemployment

Exports: $4 trillion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and
services
partners: in value, about 75% of exports from the developed countries

Imports: $4.1 trillion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and
services
partners: in value, about 75% of imports by the developed countries

External debt: $1 trillion for less developed countries (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 2,773,000,000 kW
production: 11.601 trillion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,937 kWh (1993)

Industries: industry worldwide is dominated by the onrush of
technology, especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and
medicines and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in
OECD nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have
succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these technological forces, and the
technological gap between the industrial nations and the
less-developed countries continues to widen; the rapid development of
new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating already
grim environmental problems

Agriculture: the production of major food crops has increased
substantially in the last 20 years; the annual production of cereals,
for instance, has risen by 50%, from about 1.2 billion metric tons to
about 1.8 billion metric tons; production increases have resulted
mainly from increased yields rather than increases in planted areas;
while global production is sufficient for aggregate demand, about
one-fifth of the world's population remains malnourished, primarily
because local production cannot adequately provide for large and
rapidly growing populations, which are too poor to pay for food
imports; conditions are especially bad in Africa where drought in
recent years has intensified the consequences of overpopulation

Economic aid: $NA

@World:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,201,337 km includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km of
electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in the
Far East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and 4,160 km
in North America; note - fastest speed in daily service is 300 km/hr
attained by France's SNCF TGV-Atlantique line
broad gauge: 251,153 km
standard gauge: 710,754 km
narrow gauge: 239,430 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, Mina' al Ahmadi
(Kuwait), New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama

Merchant marine:
total: 25,364 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 435,458,296
GRT/697,171,651 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 39, bulk 5,202, cargo 8,121, chemical
tanker 911, combination bulk 293, combination ore/oil 290, container
1,903, liquefied gas 675, livestock carrier 48, multifunction
large-load carrier 53, oil tanker 4,332, passenger 287,
passenger-cargo 114, railcar carrier 24, refrigerated cargo 1,023,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1,047, short-sea passenger 465, specialized
tanker 77, vehicle carrier 460 (April 1995)

@World:Communications

Telephone system:
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@World:Defense Forces

Branches: ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of technology

Defense expenditures: a further decline in 1994, by perhaps 5%-10%, to
roughly three-quarters of a trillion dollars, or 2.5% of gross world
product (1994 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

YEMEN

@Yemen:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and
Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 527,970 sq km
land area: 527,970 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or
North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
(PDRY or South Yemen)

Land boundaries: total 1,746 km, Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

Coastline: 1,906 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm in the North; 24 nm in the South
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: undefined section of boundary with Saudi
Arabia; a treaty with Oman defining the Yemeni-Omani boundary was
ratified in December 1992

Climate: mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in
western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot,
dry, harsh desert in east

Terrain: narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged
mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the
desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits
of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 30%
forest and woodland: 7%
other: 57%

Irrigated land: 3,100 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate
supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: sandstorms and dust storms in summer
international agreements: party to - Environmental Modification, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change

Note: controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the
Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

@Yemen:People

Population: 14,728,474 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (female 3,551,953; male 3,776,358)
15-64 years: 48% (female 3,505,735; male 3,508,229)
65 years and over: 2% (female 216,210; male 169,989) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.02% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 44.85 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.01 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.51 years
male: 61.57 years
female: 63.5 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.15 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni

Ethnic divisions: predominantly Arab; Afro-Arab concentrations in
western coastal locations; South Asians in southern regions; small
European communities in major metropolitan areas

Religions: Muslim including Sha'fi (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small
numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Languages: Arabic

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 38%
male: 53%
female: 26%

Labor force: no reliable estimates exist, most people are employed in
agriculture and herding or as expatriate laborers; services,
construction, industry, and commerce account for less than half of the
labor force

@Yemen:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman

Digraph: YM

Type: republic

Capital: Sanaa

Administrative divisions: 17 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al
Mahwit, Dhamar, Hadramaut, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Marib, Sadah, Sana,
Shabwah, Taizz
note: there may be a new governorate for the capital city of Sanaa

Independence: 22 May 1990 Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May
1990 with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or
North Yemen} and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of
Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen}; previously North Yemen had become
independent on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South
Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)

Constitution: 16 May 1991

Legal system: based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law,
and local tribal customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the
former president of North Yemen); Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur
al-HADI (since NA October 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Abd al-Aziz ABD AL-GHANI (since NA
October 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Representatives: elections last held 27 April 1993 (next to
be held NA 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (301
total) GPC 124, Islaah 61, YSP 55, others 13, independents 47,
election nullified 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: over 40 political parties are active in
Yemen, but only three project significant influence; since the
May-July 1994 civil war, President SALIH's General People's Congress
(GPC) and Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR's Yemeni Grouping for
Reform, or Islaah, have joined to form a coalition government; the
Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP), headed by Ali Salih UBAYD, has regrouped
as a loyal opposition

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Muhsin Ahmad al-AYNI
chancery: Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760, 4761
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador David NEWTON
embassy: Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa; Sanaa, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-6330
telephone: [967] (1) 238843 through 238852
FAX: [967] (1) 251563

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black;
similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and of Iraq
which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag
of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

@Yemen:Economy

Overview: Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political capital of
a united Yemen, the southern city Aden, with its refinery and port
facilities, is the economic and commercial capital. Future economic
development depends heavily on Western-assisted development of the
country's moderate oil resources. Former South Yemen's willingness to
merge stemmed partly from the steady decline in Soviet economic
support. The low level of domestic industry and agriculture has made
northern Yemen dependent on imports for practically all of its
essential needs. Once self-sufficient in food production, northern
Yemen has become a major importer. Land once used for export crops -
cotton, fruit, and vegetables - has been turned over to growing a
shrub called qat, whose leaves are chewed for their stimulant effect
by Yemenis and which has no significant export market. Economic growth
in former South Yemen has been constrained by a lack of incentives,
partly stemming from centralized control over production decisions,
investment allocation, and import choices. Yemen's large trade
deficits have been compensated for by remittances from Yemenis working
abroad and by foreign aid. Since the Gulf crisis, remittances have
dropped substantially. Growth in 1994-95 is constrained by low oil
prices, rapid inflation, and political deadlock that are causing a
lack of economic cooperation and leadership. However, a peace
agreement with Saudi Arabia in February 1995 and the expectation of a
rise in oil prices brighten Yemen's economic prospects.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $23.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -1.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,955 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 145% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $1.75 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables, dried and
salted fish
partners: Germany 28%, Japan 15%, UK 9%, Austria 7%, China 7% (1992)

Imports: $2.65 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum
products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, cement, machinery,
chemicals
partners: US 16%, UK 7%, Japan 6%, France 6%, Italy 6% (1992)

External debt: $7 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%, accounts for 18% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 810,000 kW
production: 1.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 149 kWh (1993)

Industries: crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale
production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing;
handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement

Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GDP; products - grain, fruits,
vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton, dairy,
poultry, meat, fish; not self-sufficient in grain

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $389 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.2 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion

Currency: Yemeni rial (new currency); 1 North Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100
fils; 1 South Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils
note: following the establishment of the Republic of Yemen on 22 May
1990, the North Yemeni riyal and the South Yemeni dinar are to be
replaced with a new Yemeni rial

Exchange rates: Yemeni rials per US$1 - 12.0 (official); 90 (market
rate, December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Yemen:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 51,390 km
paved: 4,830 km
unpaved: 46,560 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 644 km; petroleum products 32 km

Ports: Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla, Mocha, Nishtun

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,059 GRT/18,563 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, oil tanker 2

Airports:
total: 46
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 4
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 10
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 12

@Yemen:Communications

Telephone system: 65,000 telephones; since unification in 1990,
efforts are still being made to create a national domestic civil
telecommunications network
local: NA
intercity: the network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, and
troposcatter
international: 3 INTELSAT (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1
Intersputnik, and 2 ARABSAT earth stations; microwave radio relay to
Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 10
televisions: NA

@Yemen:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes Police)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,135,649; males fit for
military service 1,771,226; males reach military age (14) annually
181,057 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.65 billion, 7.1%
of GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

ZAIRE

@Zaire:Geography

Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 2,345,410 sq km
land area: 2,267,600 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than one-quarter the size of US

Land boundaries: total 10,271 km, Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km,
Central African Republic 1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km,
Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake
Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the
indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long
section with Congo along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of
the river or its islands has been made)

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and
drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands;
north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season
April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and
gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium,
radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 78%
other: 15%

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations; water
pollution; deforestation; 1.2 million Rwandan refugees are responsible
for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching in
eastern Zaire
natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; volcanic activity
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed,
but not ratified - Desertification, Environmental Modification

Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the
lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense
tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands

@Zaire:People

Population: 44,060,636 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 10,522,368; male 10,527,451)
15-64 years: 50% (female 11,211,353; male 10,630,118)
65 years and over: 2% (female 647,307; male 522,039) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 48.33 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 16.57 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: in 1994, more than one million refugees fled into Zaire to
escape the fighting between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda and
Burundi; a small number of these are returning to their homes in 1995
despite fear of the ongoing violence; additionally, Zaire is host to
105,000 Angolan, more than 250,000 Burundian and 100,000 Sudanese
refugees; repatriation of Angolan refugees was suspended in May 1994
because of the recurrence of fighting in Angola; if present peace
accords hold, repatriation of Angolans may recommence

Infant mortality rate: 108.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.54 years
male: 45.68 years
female: 49.46 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Zairian(s)
adjective: Zairian

Ethnic divisions: over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are
Bantu; four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the
Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim
10%, other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%

Languages: French, Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 72%
male: 84%
female: 61%

Labor force: 15 million (25% of the labor force comprises wage
earners)
by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 13%, services 12% (1985)

@Zaire:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Zaire
conventional short form: Zaire
local long form: Republique du Zaire
local short form: Zaire
former: Belgian Congo Congo/Leopoldville Congo/Kinshasa

Digraph: CG

Type: republic with a strong presidential system

Capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region) and
1 town* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire,
Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu,
Shaba, Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24
November (1965)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February
1978; amended April 1990; new transitional constitution promulgated in
April 1994

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za
Banga (since 24 November 1965) election last held 29 July 1984 (next
to be held by 9 July 1995); results - President MOBUTU was reelected
without opposition
head of government: Prime Minister Leon KENGO wa Dondo (since 14 June
1994)
cabinet: National Executive Council; appointed by mutual agreement of
the president and the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
parliament: a single body consisting of the High Council of the
Republic and the Parliament of the Transition with membership equally
divided between presidential supporters and opponents

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: sole legal party until January 1991 -
Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR); other parties include Union
for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa
Mulumba; Democratic Social Christian Party (PDSC); Union of
Federalists and Independent Republicans (UFERI); Unified Lumumbast
Party (PALU), Antoine GIZENGA; Union of Independent Democrats (UDI),
Leon KENGO wa Dondo

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador TATANENE Manata
chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires John M. YATES
embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
mailing address: Unit 31550, Kinshasha; APO AE 09828
telephone: [243] (12) 21532, 21628
FAX: [243] (12) 21534 ext. 2308, 21535 ext. 2308; (88) 43805, 43467

Flag: light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm
holding a red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away
from the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Zaire:Economy

Overview: Zaire's economy has continued to disintegrate although Prime
Minister KENGO has had some success in slowing the rate of economic
decline. While meaningful economic figures are difficult to come by,
Zaire's hyperinflation, chronic large government deficits, and
plunging mineral production have made the country one of the world's
poorest. Most formal transactions are conducted in hard currency as
indigenous bank notes have lost almost all value, and a barter economy
now flourishes in all but the largest cities. Most individuals and
families hang on grimly through subsistence farming and petty trade.
The government has not been able to meet its financial obligations to
the International Monetary Fund or put in place the financial measures
advocated by the IMF. Although short-term prospects for improvement
are dim, improved political stability would boost Zaire's long-term
potential to effectively exploit its vast wealth of mineral and
agricultural resources.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $18.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $440 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% per month (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $362 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: copper, coffee, diamonds, cobalt, crude oil
partners: US, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa

Imports: $356 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery,
transport equipment, fuels
partners: South Africa, US, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK

External debt: $9.2 billion (May 1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -20% (1993); accounts for 16% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 2,830,000 kW
production: 6.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 133 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including
textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages),
cement, diamonds

Agriculture: cash crops - coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food
crops - cassava, bananas, root crops, corn

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic
consumption

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.1 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $6.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $263 million
note: except for humanitarian aid to private organizations, no US
assistance has been given to Zaire since 1992

Currency: 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

Exchange rates: new zaires (Z) per US$1 - 3,275.71 (December 1994),
1,194.12 (1994), 2.51 (1993); zaire (Z) per US$1 - 645,549 (1992),
15,587 (1991), 719 (1990)
note: on 22 October 1993 the new zaire, equal to 3,000,000 old zaires,
was introduced

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Zaire:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 5,138 km; note - severely reduced trackage in use because of
civil strife
narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km
1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
total: 146,500 km
paved: 2,800 km
unpaved: gravel, improved earth 46,200 km; unimproved earth 97,500 km

Inland waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and
unconnected lakes

Pipelines: petroleum products 390 km

Ports: Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu, Kinshasa,
Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 270
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 97
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 22
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 127

@Zaire:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA barely adequate wire and microwave service in and
between urban areas; 14 domestic earth stations
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 18
televisions: NA

@Zaire:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, paramilitary
Civil Guard, Special Presidential Division

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 9,479,245; males fit for
military service 4,828,367 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $46 million, 1.5% of
GDP (1990)

________________________________________________________________________

ZAMBIA

@Zambia:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 752,610 sq km
land area: 740,720 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,664 km, Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km,
Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km,
Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and
Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake
Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the
indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to
April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold,
silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 47%
forest and woodland: 27%
other: 19%

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral
extraction and refining region; poaching seriously threatens
rhinoceros and elephant populations; deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human
health risks
natural hazards: tropical storms (November to April)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Desertification

Note: landlocked

@Zambia:People

Population: 9,445,723 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (female 2,331,820; male 2,363,319)
15-64 years: 48% (female 2,332,798; male 2,193,363)
65 years and over: 2% (female 112,484; male 111,939) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.47 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.42 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 86 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.88 years
male: 42.74 years
female: 43.03 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian

Ethnic divisions: African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%

Religions: Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous
beliefs 1%

Languages: English (official)
note: about 70 indigenous languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 73%
male: 81%
female: 65%

Labor force: 3.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 85%, mining, manufacturing, and
construction 6%, transport and services 9%

@Zambia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia

Digraph: ZA

Type: republic

Capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern,
Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution: 2 August 1991

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Frederick CHILUBA
(since 31 October 1991); Vice President General Godfrey MIYANDA (since
NA August 1994; he replaced Levy MWANAWASA who was elected 31 October
1991 and resigned in NA August 1994) election last held 31 October
1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Frederick CHILUBA 84%,
Kenneth KAUNDA 16%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from members of the
National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held 31 October 1991 (next to be
held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150
total) MMD 125, UNIP 25; note - the MMD's majority was weakened by the
defection of 13 of its parliamentary members during 1993 and the
defeat of its candidates in 4 of the resulting by-elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Multiparty Democracy
(MMD), Frederick CHILUBA; United National Independence Party (UNIP),
Kebby MUSOKATWANE; National Party (NP), Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA;

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-19, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dunstan Weston KAMANA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roland K. KUCHEL
embassy: corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue,
Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (1) 228595, 228601, 228602, 228603
FAX: [260] (1) 261538

Flag: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side),
black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of
the flag

@Zambia:Economy

Overview: Prior to 1993 the economy had been in decline for more than
a decade with falling imports and growing foreign debt. Economic
difficulties stemmed largely from a chronically depressed level of
copper production and weak copper prices, generally ineffective
economic policies, and high inflation. An annual population growth of
3% brought a decline in per capita GDP of 50% over the decade.
However, economic reforms enacted since 1992 have helped reduce
inflation, have begun to strengthen the social safety net, and have
been accompanied by GDP growth at an estimated 6.8% in 1993 and 4% in
1994. The huge external debt remains a key problem.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.9 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $860 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 89% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $665 million
expenditures: $767 million, including capital expenditures of $300
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $1.01 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners: EC countries, Japan, South Africa, US, India

Imports: $1.13 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels,
manufactures
partners: EC countries, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, US

External debt: $7.3 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate -1% (1992); accounts for 42% of GDP

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