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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (female 35,924; male 36,504)
15-64 years: 66% (female 87,868; male 82,780)
65 years and over: 6% (female 8,247; male 5,293) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 19.23 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.79 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.12 years
male: 67.37 years
female: 76.97 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bahamian(s)
adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic divisions: black 85%, white 15%

Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist
6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other
2%

Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of
literary not available (1963 est.)
total population: 90%
male: 90%
female: 89%

Labor force: 136,900 (1993)
by occupation: government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business
services 10%, agriculture 5% (1989)

@The Bahamas:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of The Bahamas
conventional short form: The Bahamas

Digraph: BF

Type: commonwealth

Capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands,
Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour,
Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long
Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nicholls Town and
Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador
and Rum Cay

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January
1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Hubert A. INGRAHAM (since 19 August
1992)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor on the prime minister's
recommendation

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: a 16-member body appointed by the governor general
House of Assembly: elections last held 19 August 1992 (next to be held
by August 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (49
total) FNM 32, PLP 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir
Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander
INGRAHAM;

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Timothy Baswell DONALDSON
chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-2660
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sidney WILLIAMS
embassy: Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau
mailing address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau
telephone: [1] (809) 322-1181, 328-2206
FAX: [1] (809) 328-7838

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
aquamarine with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

@The Bahamas:Economy

Overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation whose economy is
based primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone
provides about 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about
50,000 people or 40% of the local work force. The economy has
slackened in recent years, as the annual increase in the number of
tourists slowed. Nonetheless, per capita GDP is one of the highest in
the region.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $15,900 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 13.1% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $696 million
expenditures: $756 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95)

Exports: $257 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish, refined petroleum
products
partners: US 51%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5%

Imports: $1.15 billion (f.o.b,,1993 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil, vehicles,
electronics
partners: US 55%, Japan 17%, Nigeria 12%, Denmark 7%, Norway 6%

External debt: $455 million (December 1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 424,000 kW
production: 929 million kWh
consumption per capita: 3,200 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment,
salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel
pipe

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale
producers; principal products - citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry;
large net importer of food

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
US and Europe; also a money-laundering center

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $345 million

Currency: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1 - 1.00 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@The Bahamas:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,400 km
paved: 1,350 km
unpaved: gravel 1,050 km

Ports: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:
total: 936 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,815,474
GRT/35,253,416 DWT
ships by type: bulk 162, cargo 181, chemical tanker 39, combination
bulk 9, combination ore/oil 19, container 52, liquefied gas tanker 20,
oil tanker 182, passenger 55, refrigerated cargo 146, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 43, short-sea passenger 16, vehicle carrier 12
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 46 countries among
which are UK 158 ships, Norway 125, Greece 100, US 94, Denmark 80,
Netherlands 53, France 36, Finland 35, Japan 35, Sweden 25

Airports:
total: 60
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 11
with paved runways under 914 m: 22
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@The Bahamas:Communications

Telephone system: 99,000 telephones; totally automatic system; highly
developed
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to
Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@The Bahamas:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only), Royal
Bahamas Police Force

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $65 million, 2.7% of
GDP (1990)

________________________________________________________________________

BAHRAIN

@Bahrain:Geography

Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi
Arabia

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 620 sq km
land area: 620 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar
Islands; maritime boundary with Qatar

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
escarpment

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 6%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 90%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of
limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal
degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation)
resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil
refineries, and distribution stations; no natural fresh water
resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only sources for
all water needs
natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity

Note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic
location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's
petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain:People

Population: 575,925 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (female 87,398; male 89,976)
15-64 years: 67% (female 152,363; male 231,586)
65 years and over: 2% (female 7,051; male 7,551) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.12 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 3.31 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.94 years
male: 71.46 years
female: 76.49 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bahraini(s)
adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic divisions: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%,
other 6%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 84%
male: 89%
female: 77%

Labor force: 140,000
by occupation: industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%,
government 3% (1982)
note: 42% of labor force is Bahraini

@Bahrain:Government

Names:
conventional long form: State of Bahrain
conventional short form: Bahrain
local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
local short form: Al Bahrayn

Digraph: BA

Type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah);
Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta,
Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al
Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur
Hawar, Sitrah

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1961)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November
1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the
Amir, born 28 January 1950)
head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
(since 19 January 1970)
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26
August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited; several
small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are
active

Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IBRD,
ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR al-Abdallah
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741, 342-0742
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador David M. RANSOM
embassy: Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Ahli Sports Club), Zinj
District, Manama
mailing address: FPO AE 09834-5100; P.O. Box 26431, Manama
(International Mail)
telephone: [973] 273300; afterhours [973] 275-126
FAX: [973] 272594

Flag: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist
side

@Bahrain:Economy

Overview: Tiny in area, Bahrain is well-to-do in economic resources
and per capita income. Petroleum production and processing account for
about 80% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of
GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of
oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of
1990-91. With its highly developed communication and transport
facilities Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with
business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum
products made from imported crude. Prospects for 1995 are good, with
private enterprise the main driving force, e.g., in banking and
construction. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the
depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major
long-term economic problems.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $12,100 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.2 billion (1989)
expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992)

Exports: $3.69 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
partners: Japan 11%, UAE 5%, South Korea 4%, India 4%, Saudi Arabia 3%
(1992)

Imports: $3.83 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
partners: Saudi Arabia 47%, UK 7%, Japan 7%, US 6%, Germany 5% (1992)

External debt: $2.6 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 13% (1992); accounts for 38% of
GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 1,050,000 kW
production: 3.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,453 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
offshore banking, ship repairing

Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not
self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces
fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $45 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion

Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bahrain:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,670 km
paved: 2,010 km
unpaved: 660 km (1991 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32
km

Ports: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 79,949 GRT/120,900 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 4, chemical tanker 1

Airports:
total: 4
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1

@Bahrain:Communications

Telephone system: 98,000 telephones; 170 telephones/1,000 persons;
modern system; good domestic services; excellent international
connections
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1
ARABSAT earth station; tropospheric scatter to Qatar, UAE; microwave
radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi
Arabia

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: 60 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: 21 million

@Bahrain:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Coast Guard, Police
Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 210,725; males fit for military
service 117,414; males reach military age (15) annually 4,346 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $247 million, 5.5% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

BAKER ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Baker Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 1.4 sq km
land area: 1.4 sq km
comparative area: about 2.3 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: no natural fresh water resources
natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard
international agreements: NA

Note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of
grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting,
roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
wildlife

@Baker Island:People

Population: uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942
after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by
US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public
entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to
scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located
near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Baker Island

Digraph: FQ

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge system

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

@Baker Island:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Baker Island:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one boat landing
area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m

Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

@Baker Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the
US Coast Guard

________________________________________________________________________

BANGLADESH

@Bangladesh:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma
and India

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 144,000 sq km
land area: 133,910 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: a portion of the boundary with India is in
dispute; water-sharing problems with upstream riparian India over the
Ganges

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid
summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

Land use:
arable land: 67%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 16%
other: 11%

Irrigated land: 27,380 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and
cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water;
water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing
areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent
water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and
central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe
overpopulation
natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
flooded during the summer monsoon season
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh:People

Population: 128,094,948 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 25,195,262; male 26,352,299)
15-64 years: 57% (female 34,862,105; male 37,867,705)
65 years and over: 3% (female 1,761,336; male 2,056,241) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.32% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 34.62 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.43 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 104.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.46 years
male: 55.69 years
female: 55.22 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic divisions: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1
million

Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 35%
male: 47%
female: 22%

Labor force: 50.1 million
by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 21%, industry and mining 14%
(1989)
note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

@Bangladesh:Government

Names:
conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
former: East Pakistan

Digraph: BG

Type: republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna,
Rajshahi

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended
following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended
many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991);
election last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October
1996); results - Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary
vote
head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN (since 20
March 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad): elections last held 27 February
1991 (next to be held by February 1996); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats reserved for
women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20, BCP 5, National Awami Party
(Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, JSD 1, Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya
Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP),
Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN; Awami League (AL), Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo
Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD (in jail); Jamaat-E-Islami (JI),
Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK;
National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers Party, leader NA; Jatiyo
Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN; Ganotantri Party, leader NA;
Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National Democratic Party (NDP), leader
NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR; Democratic League, Khondakar
MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United
People's Party, Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed

Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN,
UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR,
UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Humayun KABIR
chancery: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-8372 through 8376
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador David N. MERRILL
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212
telephone: [880] (2) 884700 through 884722
FAX: [880] (2) 883-744

Flag: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of
center; green is the traditional color of Islam

@Bangladesh:Economy

Overview: Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to
improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains one of
the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least developed
nations. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural, with the
cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the economy.
Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, the
inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force
that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy
resources (natural gas), and inadequate power supplies. Excellent rice
crops and expansion of the export garment industry led to real growth
of 4% in 1992 and again in 1993. Policy measures intended to reduce
government regulation of private industry, to curb population growth,
and to expand employment opportunities have had only partial success
given the serious nature of Bangladesh's basic problems.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $130.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,040 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $2.8 billion
expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8
billion (FY92/93)

Exports: $2.38 billion (1993)
commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
partners: US 33%, Western Europe 39% (Germany 8.4%, Italy 6%) (FY91/92
est.)

Imports: $3.99 billion (1993)
commodities: capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
partners: Hong Kong 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, China 7.4%, Japan 7.1%
(FY91/92 est.)

External debt: $13.5 billion (June 1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.9% (FY92/93 est.); accounts for
9.4% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 2,740,000 kW
production: 9.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 70 kWh (1993)

Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing,
steel, fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for 33% of GDP, 65% of employment, and one-fifth
of exports; world's largest exporter of jute; commercial products -
jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk, poultry;
shortages include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in
neighboring countries

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $11.65 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.5 billion

Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poiska

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1 - 40.250 (January 1995), 40.212
(1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951 (1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bangladesh:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,892 km
broad gauge: 978 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,914 km 1.000-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total: 7,240 km
paved: 3,840 km
unpaved: 3,400 km (1985)

Inland waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes
2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

Ports: Barisal, Chandpur, Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dacca, Khulna,
Mongla (includes Chalna), Narayanganj

Merchant marine:
total: 38 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 293,304 GRT/428,013 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 31, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3

Airports:
total: 16
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 7

@Bangladesh:Communications

Telephone system: 241,250 telephones; 1 telephone/522 persons; poor
domestic telephone service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 2 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth stations; adequate
international radio communications and landline service

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 11
televisions: NA

@Bangladesh:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force
paramilitary forces: Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed
Police Reserve, Village Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 33,039,035; males fit for
military service 19,607,817 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $448 million, 1.7% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

BARBADOS

@Barbados:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 430 sq km
land area: 430 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Natural resources: petroleum, fishing, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 77%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 9%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 14%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by
ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens
contamination of aquifers
natural hazards: hurricanes (especially June to October); periodic
landslides
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity

Note: easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados:People

Population: 256,395 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (female 30,175; male 31,507)
15-64 years: 66% (female 86,103; male 82,727)
65 years and over: 10% (female 15,849; male 10,034) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.24% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.45 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.16 years
male: 71.47 years
female: 77.06 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Barbadian(s)
adjective: Barbadian

Ethnic divisions: African 80%, European 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%,
other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99%

Labor force: 124,800 (1992)
by occupation: services and government 41%, commerce 15%,
manufacturing and construction 18%, transportation, storage,
communications, and financial institutions 8%, agriculture 6%,
utilities 2% (1992 est.)

@Barbados:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Barbados

Digraph: BB

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint
Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
note: the new city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative
acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6
September 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the
prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor general

House of Assembly: election last held 6 September 1994 (next to be
held by January 1999); results - percentage vote by party NA; seats -
(28 total) DLP 8, BLP 19, NDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Labor Party (DLP),David
THOMPSON; Barbados Labor Party (BLP), Owen ARTHUR; National Democratic
Party (NDP), Richard HAYNES

Other political or pressure groups: Barbados Workers Union, Leroy
TROTMAN; People's Progressive Movement, Eric SEALY; Workers' Party of
Barbados, Dr. George BELLE; Clement Payne Labor Union, David
COMMISSIONG

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Courtney BLACKMAN
chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-9218, 9219
FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
consulate(s): Los Angeles

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jeanette W. HYDE
embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
Bridgetown
mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
telephone: [1] (809) 436-4950
FAX: [1] (809) 429-5246

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

@Barbados:Economy

Overview: A per capita income of $9,200 gives Barbados one of the
highest standards of living of all the small island states of the
eastern Caribbean. Historically, the economy was based on the
cultivation of sugarcane and related activities. In recent years,
however, the economy has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. A
moderate recovery that began in late 1993 after 3 years of contraction
is mainly due to increased tourism and expansion in the construction
sector. Economic prospects for 1995 depend mostly on continued growth
in the industrialized countries, especially in Europe, which would
spur further expansion in tourism.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $9,200 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20.5% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $509 million
expenditures: $636 million, including capital expenditures of $86
million (FY94/95 est.)

Exports: $161 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages,
chemicals, electrical components, clothing
partners: US 13%, UK 10%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 8%

Imports: $703 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction
materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
partners: US 36%, UK 11%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 3%

External debt: $652 million (1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2% (FY93/94 est.); accounts for
about 10% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 152,100 kW
production: 510 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,841 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export

Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane;
other crops - vegetables, cotton; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $171 million

Currency: 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed
rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Barbados:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,570 km
paved: 1,475 km
unpaved: gravel, earth 95 km

Ports: Bridgetown

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 61,563 GRT/103,632 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 6, oil tanker 2

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1

@Barbados:Communications

Telephone system: 89,000 telephones
local: island wide automatic telephone system;
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station; tropospheric
scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2 (1 pay)
televisions: NA

@Barbados:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes the Ground Forces and
Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 71,153; males fit for military
service 49,488 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

BASSAS DA INDIA

(possession of France)

@Bassas Da India:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel,
about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 0.2 km2
land area: 0.2 km2
comparative area: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water
during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

international agreements: NA

@Bassas Da India:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bassas Da India:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bassas da India

Digraph: BS

Type: French possession administered by a Commissioner of the
Republic, resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

@Bassas Da India:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Bassas Da India:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bassas Da India:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

BELARUS

@Belarus:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

Area:
total area: 207,600 sq km
land area: 207,600 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries: total 3,098 km, Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km,
Poland 605 km, Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

Natural resources: forest land, peat deposits, small quantities of oil
and natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 29%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 15%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 55%

Irrigated land: 1,490 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of
the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor
accident at Chornobyl'
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity,
Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Law of
the Sea

Note: landlocked

@Belarus:People

Population: 10,437,418 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 1,126,062; male 1,166,439)
15-64 years: 65% (female 3,494,891; male 3,293,196)
65 years and over: 13% (female 913,508; male 443,322) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.3% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.98 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.23 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.03 years
male: 66.36 years
female: 75.93 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.87 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belarusian(s)
adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic divisions: Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%,
Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox, other

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96%

Labor force: 4.887 million
by occupation: industry and construction 40%, agriculture and forestry
21%, other 39% (1992)

@Belarus:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
conventional short form: Belarus
local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
local short form: none
former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: BO

Type: republic

Capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one
municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest),
Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna),
Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
note: the administrative centers of the voblastsi are included in
parentheses

Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 July (1990)

Constitution: adopted 15 March 1994; replaces constitution of April
1978

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994);
election held June 24 and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA 1999);
Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 80%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 14%
head of government: Prime Minister Mikhail CHIGIR (since July 1994);
Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir GARKUN, Viktor GONCHAR, Sergey LING,
Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH, Valeriy KOKAREV (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
note: first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Soviet: elections last held 4 April 1990 (next to be held 14
May 1995); results - Communists 87%; seats - (360 total) number of
seats by party NA; note - 50 seats are for public bodies; the
Communist Party obtained an overwhelming majority

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Belarusian Popular Front (BPF), Zenon
POZNYAK, chairman; Party of Popular Accord, Gennadiy KARPENKO; Union
of Belarusian Entreprenuers, V. N. KARYAGIN; Belarusian Party of
Communists, Vasiliy NOVIKOV, Viktor CHIKIN, chairmen; Belarus Peasant
Party, Yevgeniy LUGIN, chairman; Belarusian Socialist Party,
Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV, chairman; Belarusian Social Democrat Party
(SDBP), Oleg TRUSOV, Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairmen; Agrarian Party
of Belarus, Aleksandr DUBKO; United Democratic Party of Belarus
(UDPB), Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY, chairman; Independent Trade Unions,
Sergey ANTONCHIK, chairman

Member of: CCC, CE (guest), CEI (associate members), CIS, EBRD, ECE,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Nikolayevich MARTYNOV
chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth Spencer YALOWITZ
embassy: Starovilenskaya #46, Minsk
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (0172) 34-65-37

Flag: three horizontal bands of white (top), red, and white

@Belarus:Economy

Overview: Belarus ranks among the most developed of the former Soviet
states, with a relatively modern - by Soviet standards - and diverse
machine building sector and a robust agriculture sector. It also
serves as a transport link for Russian oil exports to the Baltic
states and Eastern and Western Europe. The breakup of the Soviet Union
and its command economy has resulted in a sharp economic contraction
as traditional trade ties have collapsed. The Belarusian government
has lagged behind the governments of most other former Soviet states
in economic reform, with privatization almost nonexistent. The system
of state orders and distribution persists. In mid-1994, the Belarusian
government embarked on an austerity program with IMF support to slash
state credits and consumer subsidies in order to bring down the budget
deficit and reduce inflation. However, despite its promising start,
the regime's drive to reinvigorate the economy has fallen short, and
the IMF has criticized its failure to implement the reforms that the
Fund had negotiated. As a result, the IMF has suspended talks on
introducing a stand-by arrangement. Economic relations with Russia,
which will have an important bearing on the future course of the
economy, will be strengthened if Minsk adopts the necessary
legislation to implement a customs union agreed to in January 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $53.4 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -20% (1994)

National product per capita: $5,130 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29% per month (1994)

Unemployment rate: 1.4% officially registered unemployed (December
1993); large numbers of underemployed workers

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $968 million to outside of the FSU countries (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Bulgaria

Imports: $534 million from outside the FSU countries (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: fuel, natural gas, industrial raw materials, textiles,
sugar
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland

External debt: $1.5 billion (July 1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -19% (1994); accounts for about 40%
of GDP (1992)

Electricity:
capacity: 7,010,000 kW
production: 31.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,010 kWh (1994)

Industries: employ about 40% of labor force and produced a wide
variety of products including (in percent share of total output of
former Soviet Union): tractors (12%); metal-cutting machine tools
(11%); off-highway dump trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity
(100%); wheel-type earthmovers for construction and mining (100%);
eight-wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25
metric tons for use in tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for
animal husbandry and livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%);
television sets (11%); chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen
fabric (11%); wool fabric (7%); radios; refrigerators; and other
consumer goods

Agriculture: accounts for almost 25% of GDP and 5.7% of total
agricultural output of former Soviet Union; employs 21% of the labor
force; in 1988 produced the following (in percent of total Soviet
production): grain (3.6%), potatoes (12.2%), vegetables (3.0%), meat
(6.0%), milk (7.0%); net exporter of meat, milk, eggs, flour, potatoes

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly
for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Western Europe

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: Belarusian rubel (BR)

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubels per US$1 - 10,600 (end December
1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belarus:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 5,570 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 5,570 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 98,200 km
paved: 66,100 km
unpaved: earth 32,100 km (1990)

Inland waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas
1,980 km (1992)

Ports: Mazyr

Merchant marine:
note: claims 5% of former Soviet fleet

Airports:
total: 118
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 11
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 62

@Belarus:Communications

Telephone system: 1,849,000 telephones (December 1991); 18
telephones/100 persons; telephone service inadequate for the purposes
of either business or the population; about 70% of the telephones are
in homes; over 750,000 applications from households for telephones
remain unsatisfied (1992); new investment centers on international
connections and business needs; the new BelCel NMT 450 cellular system
(a joint venture) is now operating in Minsk
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international traffic is carried by the Moscow
international gateway switch and also by 2 satellite earth stations
near Minsk - INTELSAT (through Canada) and EUTELSAT (through the UK)

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0
radios: 3.14 million (5,615,000 with multiple speaker systems for
program diffusion)

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: 3.538 million

@Belarus:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Republic Security Forces
(internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,550,500; males fit for
military service 1,999,138; males reach military age (18) annually
71,808 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 56.5 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (1993 est.);
note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

BELGIUM

@Belgium:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and
the Netherlands

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 30,510 sq km
land area: 30,230 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 1,385 km, France 620 km, Germany 167 km,
Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: median line with neighbors
exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68
km from coast)
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 21%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: Meuse River, a major source of drinking water,
polluted from steel production wastes; other rivers polluted by animal
wastes and fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes to acid
rain in neighboring countries
natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal
land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals
within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of the EU

@Belgium:People

Population: 10,081,880 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 875,079; male 919,939)
15-64 years: 66% (female 3,303,219; male 3,363,250)
65 years and over: 16% (female 969,966; male 650,427) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.17% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.46 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.22 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.21 years
male: 73.94 years
female: 80.67 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belgian(s)
adjective: Belgian

Ethnic divisions: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Dutch 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11%
divided along ethnic lines

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 4.126 million
by occupation: services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%,
agriculture 2.3% (1988)

@Belgium:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
conventional short form: Belgium
local long form: Royaume de Belgique
local short form: Belgique

Digraph: BE

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French: provinces, singular -
province; Flemish: provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen,
Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen,
West-Vlaanderen

Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to
the throne in 1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament
approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March
1992)
cabinet: Cabinet; the king appoints the ministers who are approved by
the legislature

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: (Flemish - Senaat, French - Senat); elections last held 24
November 1991 (next to be held by the end of 1995); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (184 total; of which 106 are directly
elected; in the 1995 elections, seats will decrease to 71) CVP 20, SP
14, VLD 13, VU 5, AGALEV 5, VB 5, ROSSEN 1, PS 18, PRL 9, PSC 9, ECOLO
6, FDF 1
Chamber of Deputies: (Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers,
French - Chambre des Representants); elections last held 24 November
1991 (next to be held by 21 May 1995); results - CVP 16.7%, PS 13.6%,
SP 12.0%, VLD 11.9%, PRL 8.2%, PSC 7.8%, VB 6.6%, VU 5.9%, ECOLO 5.1%,
AGALEV 4.9%, FDF 2.6%, ROSSEM 3.2%, FN 1.5%; seats - (212 total; in
1995 elections, seats will decrease to 150) CVP 39, PS 35, SP 28, VLD
26, PRL 20, PSC 18, VB 12, VU 10, ECOLO 10, AGALEV 7, FDF 3, ROSSEM 3,
FN 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie,
French - Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders: Flemish Christian Democrats (CVP -
Christian People's Party), Johan van HECKE, president; Francophone
Christian Democrats (PSC - Social Christian Party), Gerard DEPREZ,
president; Flemish Socialist Party (SP), Louis TOBBACK, president;
Francophone Socialist Party (PS), Philippe BUSQUIN, president; Flemish
Liberal Democrats (VLD), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president; Francophone
Liberal Reform Party (PRL), Jean GOL, president; Francophone
Democratic Front (FDF), Georges CLERFAYT, president; Volksunie (VU),
Bert ANCIAUX, president; Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel DILLEN, chairman;
ROSSEM, Jean Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National Front (FN), Daniel FERET,
president; AGALEV (Flemish Greens), no president; ECOLO (Francophone
Ecologists), no president; other minor parties

Other political or pressure groups: Christian and Socialist Trade
Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations
representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the
legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the
cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such
as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax
Christi

Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux,
BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G- 9, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNRWA,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andre ADAM (appointed 3 October 1994)
chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN
embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
mailing address: APO AE 09724; PSC 82, Box 002, Brussels
telephone: [32] (2) 513 38 30
FAX: [32] (2) 511 27 25

Flag: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and
red; the design was based on the flag of France

@Belgium:Economy

Overview: This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its
central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and
diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated
mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although the
government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region of
Walloon. With few natural resources Belgium must import substantial
quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures,
making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets.
Three-fourths of its trade is with other EU countries. The economy
grew at a strong 4% pace during the period 1988-90, slowed to 1% in
1991-92, dropped by 1.5% in 1993, and recovered with 2.3% growth in
1994. Belgium's public debt has risen to 140% of GDP, and the
government is trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure
more into line with other industrialized countries.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $181.5 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $18,040 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 14.1% (December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $97.8 billion
expenditures: $109.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1989)

Exports: $117 billion (f.o.b., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union

commodities: iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors,
diamonds, petroleum products
partners: EC 75.5%, US 3.7%, former Communist countries 1.4% (1991)

Imports: $120 billion (c.i.f., 1992) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union

commodities: fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: EC 73%, US 4.8%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%,
former Communist countries 1.8% (1991)

External debt: $31.3 billion (1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -0.1% (1993 est.); accounts for 25%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 14,040,000 kW
production: 66 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 6,334 kWh (1993)

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles,
glass, petroleum, coal

Agriculture: accounts for 2.0% of GDP; emphasis on livestock
production - beef, veal, pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets,
fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; net importer of farm
products

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine entering the
European market

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion

Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 31.549 (January 1995),
33.456 (1994), 34.597 (1993), 32.150 (1992), 34.148 (1991), 33.418
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belgium:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,410 km (2,362 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)
standard gauge: 3,410 km 1.435-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 137,912 km
paved: 129,639 km (including 1,667 km of limited access divided
highway)

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