Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1995 CIA World Factbook

Part 38 out of 45

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.6 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador E. Michael SOUTHWICK
embassy: Parliament Avenue, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795
FAX: [256] (41) 259794

Flag: six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black,
yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and
depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff
side

@Uganda:Economy

Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile
soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and
cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy,
employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop
and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the
government - with the support of foreign countries and international
agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by
undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops,
increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service
wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation
and boosting production and export earnings. In 1990-94, the economy
turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the
rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production
and exports, and gradually improving domestic security. The economy
again prospered in 1994 with rapid growth, low inflation, growing
foreign investment, a trimmed bureaucracy, and the continued return of
exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $16.2 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $850 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $365 million
expenditures: $545 million, including capital expenditures of $165
million (1989 est.)

Exports: $237 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: coffee 97%, cotton, tea
partners: US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

Imports: $696 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods,
metals, transportation equipment, food
partners: Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

External debt: $2.9 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% (1992); accounts for 5% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 160,000 kW
production: 780 million kWh
consumption per capita: 32 kWh (1993)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Agriculture: mainly subsistence; accounts for 57% of GDP and over 80%
of labor force; cash crops - coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops
- cassava, potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; livestock products - beef,
goat meat, milk, poultry; self-sufficient in food

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $169 million

Currency: 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1 - 1,195 (December
1994), 1,195.0 (1993), 1.133.8 (1992), 734.0 (1991), 428.85 (1990),
223.1 (1989)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Uganda:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,300 km single track
narrow gauge: 1,300 km 1.000-m-gauge

Highways:
total: 26,200 km
paved: 1,970 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 5,849 km; earth, tracks 18,381 km

Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George,
Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports
are at Jinja and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria

Ports: Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

Merchant marine:
total: 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
5,091 GRT/NA DWT

Airports:
total: 29
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 9
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 6
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9

@Uganda:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; fair system
local: NA
intercity: microwave and radio communications stations
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 9
televisions: NA

@Uganda:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Wing

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,231,019; males fit for
military service 2,298,654 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 1.7% of
budget (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

UKRAINE

@Ukraine:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and
Russia

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

Area:
total area: 603,700 sq km
land area: 603,700 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 4,558 km, Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km,
Moldova 939 km, Poland 428 km, Romania (southwest) 169 km, Romania
(west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km

Coastline: 2,782 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: undefined
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine -
including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by
Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was
incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940; potential dispute with Russia over
Crimea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved
the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other
nation

Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern
Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest
in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from
cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm
across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and
plateaux, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians),
and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt,
sulphur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury,
timber

Land use:
arable land: 56%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 12%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 30%

Irrigated land: 26,000 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water
pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast
from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Note: strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia;
second largest country in Europe

@Ukraine:People

Population: 51,867,828 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (female 5,217,850; male 5,407,450)
15-64 years: 65% (female 17,563,924; male 16,334,299)
65 years and over: 14% (female 4,976,893; male 2,367,412) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.04% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.31 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.67 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.11 years
male: 65.59 years
female: 74.87 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian

Ethnic divisions: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%

Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian
Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox,
Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish

Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 98%
male: 100%
female: 97%

Labor force: 23.55 million (January 1994)
by occupation: industry and construction 33%, agriculture and forestry
21%, health, education, and culture 16%, trade and distribution 7%,
transport and communication 7%, other 16% (1992)

@Ukraine:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
local short form: Ukrayina
former: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: UP

Type: republic

Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)

Administrative divisions: 24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1
autonomous republic* (avtomnaya respublika), and 2 municipalites
(mista, singular - misto) with oblast status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy),
Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka (Chernivtsi),
Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka (Donets'k),
Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv),
Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka
(Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka (Luhans'k),
L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa),
Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka
(Rivne), Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sevastopol'), Ternopil's'ka
(Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka
(Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr)
note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name
differs from oblast' name

Independence: 1 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 August (1991)

Constitution: using 1978 pre-independence constitution; new
constitution currently being drafted

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994);
election last held 26 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA 1999);
results - Leonid KUCHMA 52.15%, Leonid KRAVCHUK 45.06%
head of government: Acting Prime Minister Yeuben MARCHUK (since 3
March 1995); First Deputy Prime Ministers Yevhen MARCHUK and Viktor
PYNZENYK (since 31 October 1994) and six deputy prime ministers
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and approved
by the Supreme Council
National Security Council: originally created in 1992, but
signficantly revamped and strengthened under President KUCHMA; members
include the president, prime minister, Ministers of Finance,
Environment, Justice, Internal Affairs, Foreign Economic Relations,
Economic and Foreign Affairs; the NSC staff is tasked with developing
national security policy on domestic and international matters and
advising the president
Presidential Administration: helps draft presidential edicts and
provides policy support to the president
Council of Regions: advisory body created by President KUCHMA in
September 1994; includes the Chairmen of Oblast and Kiev and
Sevastopol City Supreme Councils

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Council: elections last held 27 March 1994 with repeat
elections continuing through December 1998 to fill empty seats (next
to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450
total) Communists 91, Rukh 22, Agrarians 18, Socialists 15,
Republicans 11, Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 5, Labor 5, Party
of Democratic Revival 4, Democrats 2, Social Democrats 2, Civil
Congress 2, Conservative Republicans 1, Party of Economic Revival of
Crimea 1, Christian Democrats 1, independents 225; note - 405 deputies
have been elected; run-off elections for the remaining 45 seats to be
held by December 1998

Judicial branch: joint commission formed in April 1995 to define a
program of judicial reform by year-end

Political parties and leaders: Green Party of Ukraine, Vitaliy
KONONOV, leader; Liberal Party of Ukraine; Liberal Democratic Party of
Ukraine, Volodymyr KLYMCHUK, chairman; Democratic Party of Ukraine,
Volodymyr Oleksandrovych YAVORIVSKIY, chairman; People's Party of
Ukraine, Leopol'd TABURYANSKYY, chairman; Peasants' Party of Ukraine,
Serhiy DOVHRAN', chairman; Party of Democratic Rebirth (Revival) of
Ukraine, Volodymyr FILENKO, chairman; Social Democratic Party of
Ukraine, Yuriy VUZDUHAN, chairman; Socialist Party of Ukraine,
Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman; Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party,
Vitaliy ZHURAVSKYY, chairman; Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party,
Stepan KHMARA, chairman; Ukrainian Labor Party, Valentyn LANDYK,
chairman; Ukrainian Party of Justice, Mykhaylo HRECHKO, chairman;
Ukrainian Peasants' Democratic Party, Serhiy PLACHINDA, chairman;
Ukrainian Republican Party, Mykhaylo HORYN', chairman; Ukrainian
National Conservative Party, Viktor RADIONOV, chairman; Ukrainian
People's Movement for Restructuring (Rukh), Vyacheslav CHORNOVIL,
chairman; Ukrainian Communist Party, Petr SYMONENKO; Agrarian Party;
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists, S. STESTKO; Civil Congress, O.
BAZYLUK; Party of Economic Revival of Crimea; Democratic Party Of
Ukraine, Serhiy DOVMAN', chairman

Other political or pressure groups: New Ukraine (Nova Ukrayina);
Congress of National Democratic Forces

Member of: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CEI (associate members), CIS, EBRD,
ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC,
OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy SHCHERBAK
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-0606
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador William Green MILLER
embassy: 10 Yuria Kotsyubinskovo, 252053 Kiev 53
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (044) 244-73-49, 244-37-45
FAX: [7] (044) 244-73-50

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow
represent grainfields under a blue sky

@Ukraine:Economy

Overview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the
most important economic component of the former Soviet Union,
producing more than three times the output of the next-ranking
republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of
Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial
quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics.
Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied equipment and raw
materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the
former USSR. In early 1992, the Ukrainian government liberalized most
prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread
resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon
stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Loose monetary
and fiscal policies pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels in
late 1993. Greater monetary and fiscal restraint lowered inflation in
1994, but also contributed to an accelerated decline in industrial
output. Since his election in July 1994, President KUCHMA has
developed - and parliament has approved - a comprehensive economic
reform program, maintained financial discipline, and reduced state
controls over prices, the exchange rate, and foreign trade.
Implementation of KUCHMA's economic agenda will encounter considerable
resistance from parliament, entrenched bureaucrats, and industrial
interests and will contribute to further declines in output and rising
unemployment which will sorely test the government's ability to stay
the course on reform in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $189.2 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -19% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,650 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% per month (1994)

Unemployment rate: 0.4% officially registered; large number of
unregistered or underemployed workers

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $11.8 billion (1994)
commodities: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, grain, meat
partners: FSU countries, China, Italy, Switzerland

Imports: $14.2 billion (1994)
commodities: energy, machinery and parts, transportation equipment,
chemicals, textiles
partners: FSU countries, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic

External debt: $7.5 billion (yearend 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate -28% (1994 est.); accounts for 50%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 54,380,000 kW
production: 182 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,200 kWh (1994)

Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing
(especially sugar)

Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GDP; grain, vegetables, meat,
milk, sugar beets

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

Economic aid: $550 million economic aid and $350 million to help
disassemble the atomic weapons from the US in 1994

Currency: Ukraine withdrew the Russian ruble from circulation on 12
November 1992 and declared the karbovanets (plural karbovantsi) sole
legal tender in Ukrainian markets; Ukrainian officials claim this is
an interim move toward introducing a new currency - the hryvnya -
possibly in mid-1995

Exchange rates: karbovantsi per 1$US - 107,900 (end December 1994),
130,000 (April 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ukraine:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 23,350 km
broad gauge: 23,350 km 1.524-m gauge (8,600 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 273,700 km
paved and graveled: 236,400 km
unpaved: earth 37,300 km

Inland waterways: 1,672 km perennially navigable (Pryp''yat' and
Dnipro Rivers)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,010 km; petroleum products 1,920 km; natural
gas 7,800 km (1992)

Ports: Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev (Kyyiv),
Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Pivdenne, Reni

Merchant marine:
total: 379 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,799,253 GRT/5,071,175
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 7, bulk 55, cargo 221, chemical tanker 2,
container 20, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 10,
passenger 12, passenger-cargo 5, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo
5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 32, short-sea passenger 7

Airports:
total: 706
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 14
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 55
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 57
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 7
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 16
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 37
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 476

@Ukraine:Communications

Telephone system: 7,886,000 telephone circuits; about 151.4 telephone
circuits/1,000 persons (1991); the telephone system is inadequate both
for business and for personal use; 3.56 million applications for
telephones had not been satisfied as of January 1991; electronic mail
services have been established in Kiev, Odesa, and Luhans'k by Sprint
local: an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates in Kiev
(Kyyiv) and allows direct dialing of international calls through
Kiev's EWSD digital exchange
intercity: NA
international: calls to other CIS countries are carried by land line
or microwave; other international calls to 167 countries are carried
by satellite or by the 150 leased lines through the Moscow gateway
switch; INTELSAT, INMARSAT, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: 15 million

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: 20 million

@Ukraine:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic Security
Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 12,324,832; males fit for
military service 9,667,642; males reach military age (18) annually
359,546 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 544.3 billion karbovantsi, less than 4% of GDP
(forecast for 1993); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US
dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading
results

________________________________________________________________________

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

@United Arab Emirates:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian
Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 75,581 sq km
land area: 75,581 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total 867 km, Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 457 km

Coastline: 1,318 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: location and status of boundary with Saudi
Arabia is not final; no defined boundary with most of Oman, but
Administrative Line in far north; claims two islands in the Persian
Gulf occupied by Iran (Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and
Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); claims island in the Persian
Gulf jointly administered with Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa);
in 1992, the dispute over Abu Musa and the Tunb islands became more
acute when Iran unilaterally tried to control the entry of third
country nationals into the UAE portion of Abu Musa island, Tehran
subsequently backed off in the face of significant diplomatic support
for the UAE in the region

Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of
vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 2%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 98%

Irrigated land: 50 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: lack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by
desalination plants; desertification; beach pollution from oil spills
natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of
Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

@United Arab Emirates:People

Population: 2,924,594 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 499,559; male 521,415)
15-64 years: 64% (female 643,819; male 1,229,730)
65 years and over: 1% (female 10,296; male 19,775) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.55% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 27.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 3.03 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.51 years
male: 70.42 years
female: 74.71 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.53 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Emirian(s)
adjective: Emirian

Ethnic divisions: Emirian 19%, other Arab 23%, South Asian 50%, other
expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)
note: less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)

Religions: Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4%

Languages: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of
literary not available (1985)
total population: 71%
male: 72%
female: 69%

Labor force: 580,000 (1986 est.)
by occupation: industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%,
government 5%
note: 80% of labor force is foreign (est.)

@United Arab Emirates:Government

Names:
conventional long form: United Arab Emirates
conventional short form: none
local long form: Al Imarata al Arabiyah al Muttahidah
local short form: none
former: Trucial States

Abbreviation: UAE

Digraph: TC

Type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central
government and other powers reserved to member emirates

Capital: Abu Dhabi

Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu
Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Dubai, Ra's al Khaymah,
Sharjah, Umm al Qaywayn

Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

Constitution: 2 December 1971 (provisional)

Legal system: secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government
and in several member emirates; Islamic law remains influential

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (since 2
December 1971), ruler of Abu Dhabi; Vice President Shaykh MAKTUM bin
Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy
head of government: Prime Minister Shaykh MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum
(since 8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy; Deputy Prime Minister SULTAN
bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 20 November 1990)
Supreme Council of Rulers: composed of the seven emirate rulers, the
council is the highest constitutional authority in the UAE;
establishes general policies and sanctions federal legislation, Abu
Dhabi and Dubayy rulers have veto power; council meets four times a
year
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council (Majlis Watani
Itihad); no elections

Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT,
GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad bin Husayn al-SHAALI
chancery: Suite 600, 3000 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 338-6500

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador William A. RUGH
embassy: Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi
mailing address: P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi; American Embassy Abu
Dhabi, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-6010 (pouch)
telephone: [971] (2) 436691, 436692
FAX: [971] (2) 434771
consulate(s) general: Dubayy (Dubai)

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black
with a thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

@United Arab Emirates:Economy

Overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's highest
incomes per capita and with a sizable annual trade surplus. Its wealth
is based on oil and gas output (about 40% of GDP), and the fortunes of
the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since
1973, the UAE has undergone a profound transformation from an
impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state
with a high standard of living. At present levels of production, crude
oil reserves should last for over 100 years. Although much stronger
economically than most Gulf states, the UAE faces similar problems
with weak international oil prices and the pressures for cuts in OPEC
oil production quotas. The UAE government is encouraging increased
privatization within the economy.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $62.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -0.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $22,480 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1988)

Budget:
revenues: $4.3 billion
expenditures: $4.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993 est)

Exports: $24 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: crude oil 66%, natural gas, re-exports, dried fish, dates

partners: Japan 35%, South Korea 5%, Iran 4%, Oman 4%, Singapore 4%
(1993)

Imports: $20 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment,
food
partners: Japan 12%, UK 10%, US 9%, Germany 7%, South Korea 5% (1993)

External debt: $11.6 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.7% (1992 est.); accounts for 50%
of GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 4,760,000 kW
production: 16.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,796 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction
materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GDP and 5% of labor force; cash crop -
dates; food products - vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy,
fish; only 25% self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: growing role as heroin transshipment and
money-laundering center

Economic aid:
donor: pledged in bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89)
$9.1 billion

Currency: 1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1 - 3.6710 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@United Arab Emirates:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,000 km
paved: 1,800 km
unpaved: gravel, graded earth 200 km

Pipelines: crude oil 830 km; natural gas, including natural gas
liquids, 870 km

Ports: Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Das Island, Khawr Fakkan, Mina' Jabal' Ali,
Mina' Khalid, Mina' Rashid, Mina' Saqr, Mina' Zayid, Umm al Qiwain

Merchant marine:
total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,128,253 GRT/1,938,770
DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 18, chemical tanker 1, container 10,
liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 21,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3

Airports:
total: 41
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 12
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@United Arab Emirates:Communications

Telephone system: 386,600 telephones; modern system consisting of
microwave and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy
local: NA
intercity: microwave and coaxial cable
international: 3 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1
ARABSAT earth station; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and
Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to
Saudi Arabia

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 12
televisions: NA

@United Arab Emirates:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes Federal Police
Force)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,072,261; males fit for
military service 583,967; males reach military age (18) annually
19,266 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.59 billion, 4.3%
of GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

UNITED KINGDOM

@United Kingdom:Geography

Location: Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of
the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North
Sea, northwest of France

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 244,820 sq km
land area: 241,590 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon
note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands

Land boundaries: total 360 km, Ireland 360 km

Coastline: 12,429 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in
accordance with agreed upon boundaries
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Northern Ireland question with Ireland;
Gibraltar question with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in British
Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in
Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)

Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the
North Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast

Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling
plains in east and southeast

Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron
ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

Land use:
arable land: 29%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 48%
forest and woodland: 9%
other: 14%

Irrigated land: 1,570 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants contribute
to air pollution; some rivers polluted by agricultural wastes and
coastal waters polluted because of large-scale disposal of sewage at
sea
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Desertification

Note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France
and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily
indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

@United Kingdom:People

Population: 58,295,119 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 5,572,189; male 5,843,192)
15-64 years: 65% (female 18,723,583; male 18,935,931)
65 years and over: 16% (female 5,471,383; male 3,748,841) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.27% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.18 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.66 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77 years
male: 74.18 years
female: 79.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective: British

Ethnic divisions: English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh
1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%

Religions: Anglican 27 million, Roman Catholic 9 million, Muslim 1
million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 400,000, Hindu
350,000, Jewish 300,000 (1991 est.)
note: the UK does not include a question on religion in its census

Languages: English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales),
Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 28.048 million
by occupation: services 62.8%, manufacturing and construction 25.0%,
government 9.1%, energy 1.9%, agriculture 1.2% (June 1992)

@United Kingdom:Government

Names:
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland
conventional short form: United Kingdom

Abbreviation: UK

Digraph: UK

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: London

Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26
districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas
England: 39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford,
Berkshire, Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall,
Cumbria, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester,
Greater London*, Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and
Worcester, Hertford, Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire,
Leicester, Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland,
North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South
Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West
Midlands*, West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire
Northern Ireland: 26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena,
Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine,
Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady,
Lisburn, Londonderry, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne,
Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane
Scotland: 9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and
Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*,
Strathclyde, Tayside, Western Isles*
Wales: 8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys,
South Glamorgan, West Glamorgan

Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar,
Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China on 1 July 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat,
Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich
Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

Independence: 1 January 1801 (United Kingdom established)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern
continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir
Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government: Prime Minister John MAJOR (since 28 November 1990)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
House of Lords: consists of a 1,200-member body, four-fifths are
hereditary peers, 2 archbishops, 24 other senior bishops, serving and
retired Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, other life peers, Scottish peers
House of Commons: elections last held 9 April 1992 (next to be held by
NA April 1997); results - Conservative 41.9%, Labor 34.5%, Liberal
Democratic 17.9%, other 5.7%; seats - (651 total) Conservative 336,
Labor 271, Liberal Democratic 20, other 24

Judicial branch: House of Lords

Political parties and leaders: Conservative and Unionist Party, John
MAJOR; Labor Party, Anthony (Tony) Blair; Liberal Democrats (LD),
Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN; Scottish National Party, Alex SALMOND; Welsh
National Party (Plaid Cymru), Dafydd Iwan WIGLEY; Ulster Unionist
Party (Northern Ireland), James MOLYNEAUX; Democratic Unionist Party
(Northern Ireland), Rev. Ian PAISLEY; Ulster Popular Unionist Party
(Northern Ireland); Social Democratic and Labor Party (SDLP, Northern
Ireland), John HUME; Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland), Gerry ADAMS

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress;
Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Campaign
for Nuclear Disarmament

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC,
CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC,
EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO,
NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD,
UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Robin William RENWICK
chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-1340
FAX: [1] (202) 898-4255
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston,
Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco,
consulate(s): Dallas, Miami, and Seattle

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Adm. William W. CROWE
embassy: 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W. 1A1AE
mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone: [44] (71) 499-9000
FAX: [44] (71) 409-1637
consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh

Flag: blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of
England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of
Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the
diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known
as the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the
Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including
dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

@United Kingdom:Economy

Overview: The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and
financial centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in
Western Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic; over the past
13 years the ruling Tories have greatly reduced public ownership and
contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is
intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards,
producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. The
UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves, and primary energy
production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any
industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and
business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP
while industry continues to decline in importance, now employing only
25% of the work force and generating only 21% of GDP. The economy
registered 4.2% GDP growth in 1994, its fastest annual rate for six
years. Exports and manufacturing output are the primary engines of
growth. Unemployment is gradually falling. Inflation is at the lowest
level in 27 years, but British monetary authorities raised interest
rates to 6.25% in 1994 in a preemptive strike on emerging inflationary
pressures such as higher taxes and rising manufacturing costs. The
combination of a buoyant economy and fiscal tightening is projected to
trim the FY94/95 budget shortfall to about $50 billion - down from
about $75 billion in FY93/94. The major economic policy question for
Britain in the 1990s is the terms on which it participates in the
financial and economic integration of Europe.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.0452 trillion
(1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $17,980 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 9.3% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $325.5 billion
expenditures: $400.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $33
billion (FY93/94 est.)

Exports: $200 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals,
semifinished goods, transport equipment
partners: EU countries 56.7% (Germany 14.0%, France 11.1%, Netherlands
7.9%), US 10.9%

Imports: $215 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods,
foodstuffs, consumer goods
partners: EU countries 51.7% (Germany 14.9%, France 9.3%, Netherlands
8.4%), US 11.6%

External debt: $16.2 billion (June 1992)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.6% (1994)

Electricity:
capacity: 65,360,000 kW
production: 303 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,123 kWh (1993)

Industries: production machinery including machine tools, electric
power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment,
shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and
communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper
and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other
consumer goods

Agriculture: accounts for only 1.5% of GDP; wide variety of crops and
livestock products

Illicit drugs: gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the
European market; producer of synthetic drugs; transshipment point for
Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering center

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1992-93), $3.2 billion

Currency: 1 British pound (#) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: British pounds (#) per US$1 - 0.6350 (January 1995),
0.6529 (1994), 0.6033 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@United Kingdom:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 16,888 km; note - several additional small standard-gauge and
narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and operated
broad gauge: 330 km 1.600-m gauge (190 km double track)
standard gauge: 16,558 km 1.435-m gauge (4,950 km electrified; 12,591
km double or multiple track)

Highways:
total: 360,047 km (includes Northern Ireland)
paved: 360,047 km (includes Northern Ireland; Great Britain has 3,100
km limited access divided highway)

Inland waterways: 2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km; Port
Authorities, 706 km; other, 979 km

Pipelines: crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km; petroleum
products 2,993 km; natural gas 12,800 km

Ports: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith,
Liverpool, London, Manchester, Medway, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne

Merchant marine:
total: 155 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,249,823 GRT/3,978,336
DWT
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 24, chemical tanker 2, container 23,
liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 56, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 1,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger
13, specialized tanker 1

Airports:
total: 505
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 10
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 174
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 91
with paved runways under 914 m: 172
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 27

@United Kingdom:Communications

Telephone system: 30,200,000 telephones; technologically advanced
domestic and international system
local: NA
intercity: NA equal mix of buried cables, microwave and optical-fiber
systems
international: 40 coaxial submarine cables; 10 INTELSAT (7 Atlantic
Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 INMARSAT, and 1 EUTELSAT earth satellite;
at least 8 large international switching centers

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 225, FM 525 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0
radios: 70 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 207 (repeaters 3,210)
televisions: 20 million

@United Kingdom:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 14,429,485; males fit for
military service 12,041,935 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $35.1 billion, 3.1%
of GDP (FY95/96)

________________________________________________________________________

UNITED STATES

@United States:Geography

Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and
the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico

Map references: North America

Area:
total area: 9,372,610 sq km
land area: 9,166,600 sq km
comparative area: about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths
the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South America (or
slightly larger than Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about two
and one-half times the size of Western Europe
note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia

Land boundaries: total 12,248 km, Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km
with Alaska), Cuba 29 km (US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), Mexico
3,326 km

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary disputes with Canada (Dixon
Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island);
US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual
agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti
claims Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica
(but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the
claims of any other nation; Republic of Marshall Islands claims Wake
Island

Climate: mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida and
arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi
River and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter
temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January
and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the
Rocky Mountains

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low
mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska;
rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates,
uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver,
tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 26%
forest and woodland: 29%
other: 25%

Irrigated land: 181,020 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US
and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide
from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of
pesticides and fertilizers; very limited natural fresh water resources
in much of the western part of the country require careful management;
desertification
natural hazards: tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around
Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic coast; tornadoes in the
midwest; mudslides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding;
permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Desertification,
Hazardous Wastes, Tropical Timber 94

Note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and China)

@United States:People

Population: 263,814,032 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 28,391,451; male 29,845,630)
15-64 years: 65% (female 86,454,415; male 85,474,002)
65 years and over: 13% (female 19,949,978; male 13,698,559) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.38 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.88 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.99 years
male: 72.8 years
female: 79.7 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: American(s)
adjective: American

Ethnic divisions: white 83.4%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Native
American 0.8% (1992)

Religions: Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%,
none 10% (1989)

Languages: English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)

Literacy: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
schooling (1979)
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97%

Labor force: 131.056 million (includes unemployed) (1994)
by occupation: managerial and professional 27.5%, technical, sales and
administrative support 30.3%, services 13.7%, manufacturing, mining,
transportation, and crafts 25.5%, farming, forestry, and fishing 2.9%

@United States:Government

Names:
conventional long form: United States of America
conventional short form: United States

Abbreviation: US or USA

Digraph: US

Type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Capital: Washington, DC

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska,
Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah,
Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa
Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, Wake Island
note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US has administered
the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently entered into
a new political relationship with all four political units: the
Northern Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth in political union with the
US (effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free
Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994); the Federated
States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands
signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October
1986)

Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President William Jefferson
CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr.
(since 20 January 1993); election last held 3 November 1992 (next to
be held 5 November 1996); results - William Jefferson CLINTON
(Democratic Party) 43.2%, George BUSH (Republican Party) 37.7%, Ross
PEROT (Independent) 19.0%, other 0.1%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president with Senate approval

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress
Senate: elections last held 8 November 1994 (next to be held 5
November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (100
total) Republican Party 54, Democratic Party 46
House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1994 (next to
be held 5 November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
- (435 total) Republican Party 231, Democratic Party 203, independent
1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Haley BARBOUR,
national committee chairman; Jeanie AUSTIN, co-chairman; Democratic
Party, David C. WILHELM, national committee chairman; several other
groups or parties of minor political significance

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CCC, CP, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP, FAO, G- 2, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8,
G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OSCE, PCA,
SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR,
UNMIH, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO, ZC

Flag: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged
in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom)
alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50
states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as
Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of
other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

@United States:Economy

Overview: The US has the most powerful, diverse, and technologically
advanced economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $25,850, the
largest among major industrial nations. The economy is market oriented
with most decisions made by private individuals and business firms and
with government purchases of goods and services made predominantly in
the marketplace. In 1989 the economy enjoyed its seventh successive
year of substantial growth, the longest in peacetime history. The
expansion featured moderation in wage and consumer price increases and
a steady reduction in unemployment to 5.2% of the labor force. In
1990, however, growth slowed to 1% because of a combination of
factors, such as the worldwide increase in interest rates, Iraq's
invasion of Kuwait in August, the subsequent spurt in oil prices, and
a general decline in business and consumer confidence. In 1991 output
fell by 0.6%, unemployment grew, and signs of recovery proved
premature. Growth picked up to 2.3% in 1992 and to 3.1% in 1993.
Unemployment, however, declined only gradually, the increase in GDP
being mainly attributable to gains in output per worker. The year 1994
witnessed a solid 4% gain in real output, a low inflation rate of
2.6%, and a drop in unemployment below 6%. The capture of both houses
of Congress by the Republicans in the elections of 8 November 1994
means substantial changes are likely in US economic policy, including
changes in the ways the US will address its major economic problems in
1995-96. These problems include inadequate investment in economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs of an aging population,
and sizable budget and trade deficits.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.7384 trillion
(1994)

National product real growth rate: 4.1% (1994)

National product per capita: $25,850 (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (March 1995)

Budget:
revenues: $1.258 trillion
expenditures: $1.461 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Exports: $513 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw
materials, consumer goods, agricultural products
partners: Western Europe 24.3%, Canada 22.1%, Japan 10.5% (1993)

Imports: $664 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery,
automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and
beverages
partners: Canada, 19.3%, Western Europe 18.1%, Japan 18.1% (1993)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 5.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 695,120,000 kW
production: 3.1 trillion kWh
consumption per capita: 11,236 kWh (1993)

Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified
and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles,
aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food
processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GDP and 2.9% of labor force; favorable
climate and soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock
production; world's second largest producer and number one exporter of
grain; surplus food producer; fish catch of 4.4 million metric tons
(1990)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for domestic consumption
with 1987 production estimated at 3,500 metric tons or about 25% of
the available marijuana; ongoing eradication program aimed at small
plots and greenhouses has not reduced production

Economic aid:
donor: commitments, including ODA and OOF, (FY80-89), $115.7 billion

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates:
British pounds: (#) per US$ - 0.6350 (January 1995), 0.6529 (1994),
0.6033 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990)
Canadian dollars: (Can$) per US$ - 1.4129 (January 1995), 1.3656
(1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992), 1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990)
French francs: (F) per US$ - 5.2943 (January 1995), 5.5520 (1994),
5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990)
Italian lire: (Lit) per US$ - 1,609.5 (January 1995), 1,612.4 (1994),
1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990)
Japanese yen: (Y) per US$ - 99.75 (January 1995), 102.21 (1994),
111.20 (1993), 126.65 (1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990)
German deutsche marks: (DM) per US$ - 1.5313 (January 1995), 1.6228
(1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617 (1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@United States:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 240,000 km mainline routes (nongovernment owned)
standard gauge: 240,000 km 1.435-m gauge (1989)

Highways:
total: 6,243,163 km
paved: 3,633,520 km (including 84,865 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,609,643 km (1990)

Inland waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of
the Great Lakes (est.)

Pipelines: petroleum 276,000 km; natural gas 331,000 km (1991)

Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago, Duluth,
Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Los Angeles, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Port Canaveral, Portland (Oregon),
Prudhoe Bay, San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Toledo

Merchant marine:
total: 354 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,462,000
GRT/16,477,000 DWT
ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 28, chemical tanker 16, intermodal 130,
liquefied gas tanker 13, passenger-cargo 2, tanker 130, tanker
tug-barge 13
note: in addition, there are 189 government-owned vessels

Airports:
total: 15,032
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 181
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 208
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,242
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2,489
with paved runways under 914 m: 8,994
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 180
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1,730

@United States:Communications

Telephone system: 126,000,000 telephones; 7,557,000 cellular
telephones
local: NA
intercity: large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay,
coaxial cable, and domestic satellites
international: 16 satellites and 24 ocean cable systems in use; 61
INTELSAT (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean) earth stations
(1990)

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4,987, FM 4,932, shortwave 0
radios: 530 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 1,092 (about 9,000 cable TV systems)
televisions: 193 million

@United States:Defense Forces

Branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (includes
Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force

Defense expenditures: $284.4 billion, 4.2% of GDP (1994 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

URUGUAY

@Uruguay:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Argentina and Brazil

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 176,220 sq km
land area: 173,620 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Washington State

Land boundaries: total 1,564 km, Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 200 nm; overflight and navigation guaranteed beyond
12 nm

International disputes: short section of boundary with Argentina is in
dispute; two short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute
- Arroyo de la Invernada (Arroio Invernada) area of the Rio Cuareim
(Rio Quarai) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Cuareim (Rio
Quarai) and the Uruguay River

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 78%
forest and woodland: 4%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 1,100 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: substantial pollution from Brazilian industry along
border; one-fifth of country affected by acid rain generated by
Brazil; water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate
solid/hazardous waste disposal
natural hazards: seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and
occasional violent wind which blows north from the Argentine pampas),
droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as
weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid
changes in weather fronts
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

@Uruguay:People

Population: 3,222,716 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (female 392,262; male 409,580)
15-64 years: 63% (female 1,026,314; male 995,492)
65 years and over: 12% (female 233,377; male 165,691) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.74% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 17.57 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.46 years
male: 71.24 years
female: 77.83 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.41 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan

Ethnic divisions: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%

Religions: Roman Catholic 66% (less than half adult population attends
church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other
30%

Languages: Spanish, Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian
frontier)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 96%

Labor force: 1.355 million (1991 est.)
by occupation: government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%,
commerce 12%, utilities, construction, transport, and communications
12%, other services 21% (1988 est.)

@Uruguay:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay

Digraph: UY

Type: republic

Capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno,
Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio
Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y
Tres

Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27
June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Julio Maria
SANGUINETTI (since 1 March 1995); Vice President Hugo BATALLA (since 1
March 1995); election last held 27 November 1994 (next to be held NA
November 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General)
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): elections last held 27
November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1999); results - Colorado
36%, Blanco 34 %, Encuentro Progresista 27%, New Sector 3%; seats -
(30 total) Colorado 11, Blanco 10, Encuentro Progresista 8, New Sector
1
Chamber of Representatives (Camera de Representantes): elections last
held 27 November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1999); results -
Colorado 32%, Blanco 31%, Encuentro Progresista 31%, New Sector 5%;
seats - (99 total) Colorado 32, Blanco 31, Encuentro Progresista 31,
New Sector 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National (Blanco) Party; Colorado
Party, Jorge BATLLE; Broad Front Coalition, Gen. Liber SEREGNI
Mosquera; New Sector Coalition, Hugo BATALLA; Encuentro Progresista

Member of: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MERCOSUR, NAM
(observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLYCUDDY
chancery: 1918 F Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, and New York
consulate(s): New Orleans

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. DODD
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 23 60 61, 48 77 77
FAX: [598] (2) 48 86 11

Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom)
alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side
corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May
and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy

@Uruguay:Economy

Overview: Uruguay's economy is a small one with favorable climate,
good soils, and substantial hydropower potential. Economic development
has been restrained in recent years by excessive government regulation
of economic detail and 40% to 130% inflation. Although the GDP growth
rate slowed in 1993 to 1.7%, following a healthy expansion to 7.5% in
1992, it rebounded in 1994 to an estimated 4%, spurred mostly by
increasing agricultural and other exports and a surprise reversal of
the downward trend in industrial production. In a major step toward
regional economic cooperation, Uruguay confirmed its commitment to the
Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) customs union by implementing
MERCOSUR's common external tariff on most tradables on 1 January 1995.
Inflation in 1994 declined for the third consecutive year, yet, at
44%, it remains the highest in the region; analysts predict that the
expanding fiscal deficit and wage indexation will force the inflation
rate back toward the 50% mark in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $23 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $7,200 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 44% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.9 billion
expenditures: $3 billion, including capital expenditures of $388
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $1.78 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: wool and textile manufactures, beef and other animal
products, leather, rice
partners: Brazil, Argentina, US, China, Italy

Imports: $2.461 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, minerals,
plastics
partners: Brazil, Argentina, US, Nigeria

External debt: $4.2 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.9% (1992); accounts for 28% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 2,070,000 kW
production: 9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,575 kWh (1993)

Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles,
footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, petroleum refining, wine

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP; large areas devoted to livestock
grazing; wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; fishing; self-sufficient in most
basic foodstuffs

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $420 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $69 million

Currency: 1 Uruguayan peso ($Ur) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: Uruguayan pesos ($Ur) per US$1 - 5.6 (January 1995),
4.4710 (January 1994), 3.9484 (1993), 3.0270 (1992), 2.0188 (1991),
1.1710 (1990)
note: on 1 March 1993 the former New Peso (N$Ur) was replaced as
Uruguay's unit of currency by the Peso which is equal to 1,000 of the
New Pesos

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Uruguay:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,000 km
standard gauge: 3,000 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 49,900 km
paved: 6,700 km
unpaved: gravel 3,000 km; earth 40,200 km

Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river
craft

Ports: Fray Bentos, Montevideo, Nueva Palmira, Paysandu, Punta del
Este

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,405 GRT/110,939 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, container 1, oil tanker 1

Airports:
total: 85
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8
with paved runways under 914 m: 54
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14

@Uruguay:Communications

Book of the day: