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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: consists of a 31-member body appointed by the president
House of Representatives: elections last held 16 December 1991 (next
to be held by December 1996); results - PNM 32%, UNC 13%, NAR 2%;
seats - (36 total) PNM 21, UNC 13, NAR 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: People's National Movement (PNM),
Patrick MANNING; United National Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY;
National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), Selby WILSON; Movement for
Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH; National Joint Action
Committee (NJAC), Makandal DAAGA; Republican Party, Nello MITCHELL;
National Development Party (NDP), Carson CHARLES; Movement for Unity
and Progress (MUP), Hulsie BHAGGAN

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Corinne Averille McKNIGHT
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Brian DONNELLY (since September 1994)
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone: [1] (809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176
FAX: [1] (809) 628-5462

Flag: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist
side

@Trinidad And Tobago:Economy

Overview: Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy still enjoys a
high per capita income by Latin American standards, even though output
and living standards are substantially below the boom years of
1973-82. The country suffers from widespread unemployment, large
foreign-debt payments, and periods of low international oil prices.
The government has begun to make progress in its efforts to diversify
exports and to liberalize its trade regime, making 1994 the first year
of substantial growth since the early 1980s.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $15 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $11,280 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.1% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 18.1% (1994 )

Budget:
revenues: $1.6 billion
expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $158
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel
products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
partners: US 44%, CARICOM 15%, Latin America 9%, EC 5% (1993)

Imports: $996 million (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods,
food, live animals
partners: US 43%, Venezuela 10%, UK 8%, other EC 8% (1993)

External debt: $2 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 1% (1994 est.); accounts for 39% of
GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 1,150,000 kW
production: 3.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,740 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement,
beverage, cotton textiles

Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GDP; major crops - cocoa, sugarcane;
sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee,
vegetables; poultry sector most important source of animal protein;
must import large share of food needs

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe and producer of cannabis

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $373 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $518 million

Currency: 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1 - 5.8758
(January 1995), 5.9160 (1994), 5.3511 (1993), 4.2500 (fixed rate
1989-1992); note - effective 13 April 1993, the exchange rate of the
TT dollar is market-determined as opposed to the prior fixed
relationship to the US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Trinidad And Tobago:Transportation

Railroads:
note: minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando

Highways:
total: 8,000 km
paved: 4,000 km
unpaved: improved earth 1,000 km; unimproved earth 3,000 km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas
904 km

Ports: Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain,
Scarborough, Tembladora

Merchant marine:
total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,507 GRT/21,923
DWT

Airports:
total: 6
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Trinidad And Tobago:Communications

Telephone system: 109,000 telephones; excellent international service
via tropospheric scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local
service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station; linked to
Barbados and Guyana by tropospheric scatter system

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 5
televisions: NA

@Trinidad And Tobago:Defense Forces

Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (includes Ground Forces,
Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 347,841; males fit for military
service 249,904 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $83 million, 1.5% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

TROMELIN ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Tromelin Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1 sq km
land area: 1 sq km
comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3.7 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and
Seychelles

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sandy

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (scattered bushes)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones;
wildlife sanctuary

@Tromelin Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Tromelin Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tromelin Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Tromelin

Digraph: TE

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic,
resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

@Tromelin Island:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Tromelin Island:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Tromelin Island:Communications

Note: important meteorological station

@Tromelin Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

TUNISIA

@Tunisia:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Algeria and Libya

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 163,610 sq km
land area: 155,360 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries: total 1,424 km, Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

Coastline: 1,148 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Libya; land
boundary dispute with Algeria settled in 1993; Malta and Tunisia are
discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf
between their countries, particularly for oil exploration

Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry
summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south
merges into the Sahara

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 10%
meadows and pastures: 19%
forest and woodland: 4%
other: 47%

Irrigated land: 2,750 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and
presents human health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited
natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Marine Life
Conservation

Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean

@Tunisia:People

Population: 8,879,845 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 1,507,866; male 1,563,411)
15-64 years: 60% (female 2,665,586; male 2,672,712)
65 years and over: 5% (female 226,201; male 244,069) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.69% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.52 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.86 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.25 years
male: 71.16 years
female: 75.44 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.73 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tunisian(s)
adjective: Tunisian

Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%

Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce),
French (commerce)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 57%
male: 69%
female: 45%

Labor force: 2.25 million
by occupation: agriculture 32%
note: shortage of skilled labor

@Tunisia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis

Digraph: TS

Type: republic

Capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions: 23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte,
Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef,
Mahdia, Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana,
Sousse, Tataouine, Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

Constitution: 1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint
session

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November
1987); election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999);
results - President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI was reelected without
opposition
head of government: Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September
1989)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab): elections last held 20 March
1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - RCD 97.7%, MDS 1.0%, others
1.3%; seats - (163 total) RCD 144, MDS 10, others 9; note - the
government changed the electoral code to guarantee that the opposition
won seats

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party
(RCD), President BEN ALI (official ruling party); Movement of
Democratic Socialists (MDS), Mohammed MOUAADA; five other political
parties are legal, including the Communist Party

Other political or pressure groups: the Islamic fundamentalist party,
An Nahda (Rebirth), is outlawed

Member of: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC (withdrew from active membership in 1986), OAS
(observer), OAU, OIC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNITAR, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Azzouz ENNAIFER
chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY
embassy: 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [216] (1) 782-566
FAX: [216] (1) 789-719

Flag: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent
nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are
traditional symbols of Islam

@Tunisia:Economy

Overview: Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural,
mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Detailed
governmental control of economic affairs has gradually lessened over
the past decade, including increasing privatization of trade and
commerce, simplification of the tax structure, and a cautious approach
to debt. Real growth has averaged roughly 5% in 1991-94, and inflation
has been moderate. Growth in tourism and IMF support have been key
elements in this solid record. Further privatization and further
improvements in government administrative efficiency are among the
challenges for the future.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $37.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,250 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.2% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $4.3 billion
expenditures: $5.5 billion, including capital expenditures to $NA
(1993 est.)

Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and
chemicals
partners: EC countries 75%, Middle East 10%, Algeria 2%, India 2%, US
1%

Imports: $6.5 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%,
food 12%, consumer goods
partners: EC countries 70%, US 5%, Middle East 2%, Japan 2%,
Switzerland 1%, Algeria 1%

External debt: $7.7 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for 22% of GDP,
including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 1,410,000 kW
production: 5.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 595 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore),
tourism, textiles, footwear, food, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force;
output subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts;
export crops - olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products -
grain, sugar beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not
self-sufficient in food

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $730 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89) $52 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $410 million

Currency: 1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1 - 0.9849 (January 1995),
1.0116 (1994), 1.0037 (1993), 0.8844 (1992), 0.9246 (1991), 0.8783
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Tunisia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,260 km
standard gauge: 492 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,758 km 1.000-m gauge
dual gauge: 10 km 1.000-m and 1.435-m gauges

Highways:
total: 29,183 km
paved: bituminous 17,510 km
unpaved: improved, unimproved earth 11,673 km

Pipelines: crude oil 797 km; petroleum products 86 km; natural gas 742
km

Ports: Bizerte, Gabes, La Goulette, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, Zarzis

Merchant marine:
total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 129,035 GRT/168,032 DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 5, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1

Airports:
total: 31
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 8
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Tunisia:Communications

Telephone system: 233,000 telephones; 28 telephones/1,000 persons; the
system is above the African average; key centers are Sfax, Sousse,
Bizerte, and Tunis
local: NA
intercity: facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and
microwave radio relay
international: 5 submarine cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) and 1
ARABSAT earth station with back-up control station; coaxial cable and
microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 8, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 19
televisions: NA

@Tunisia:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces, National Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,294,912; males fit for
military service 1,317,642; males reach military age (20) annually
93,601 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $549 million, 3% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

TURKEY

@Turkey:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is
sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between
Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 780,580 sq km
land area: 770,760 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: total 2,627 km, Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km,
Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331
km, Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary
agreed upon with the former USSR
territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea, 12 nm in the Black Sea and in
the Mediterranean Sea

International disputes: complex maritime, air and territorial disputes
with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria;
ongoing dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water
development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher
in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau
(Anatolia)

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate,
sulphur, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 30%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 12%
forest and woodland: 26%
other: 28%

Irrigated land: 22,200 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and
detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation
natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern
Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Desertification,
Environmental Modification

Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus,
Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

@Turkey:People

Population: 63,405,526 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 10,815,288; male 11,203,723)
15-64 years: 60% (female 18,723,772; male 19,391,037)
65 years and over: 5% (female 1,764,363; male 1,507,343) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.97% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 25.33 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.64 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.48 years
male: 69.11 years
female: 73.96 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.12 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish

Ethnic divisions: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and
Jews)

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 79%
male: 90%
female: 68%

Labor force: 20.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 44%, services 41%, industry 15%
note: between 1.5 million and 1.8 million Turks work abroad (1994)

@Turkey:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye

Digraph: TU

Type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana,
Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin,
Aydin, Balikesir, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu,
Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne,
Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gazi Antep, Giresun, Gumushane,
Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras,
Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir,
Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus,
Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanli Urfa, Siirt,
Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van,
Yozgat, Zonguldak

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29
October (1923)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Suleyman DEMIREL (since 16 May 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Tansu CILLER (since 5 July 1993);
Deputy Prime Minister Hikmet CETIN (since 27 March 1995)
National Security Council: advisory body to the President and the
Cabinet
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on
nomination of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Grand National Assembly of Turkey: (Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi)
elections last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1996);
results - DYP 27.03%, ANAP 24.01%, SHP 20.75%, RP 16.88%, DSP 10.75%,
SBP 0.44%, independent 0.14%; seats - (450 total) DYP 178, ANAP 115,
SHP 86, RP 40, MCP 19, DSP 7, other 5
note: seats held by various parties are subject to change due to
defections, creation of new parties, and ouster or death of sitting
deputies; present seats by party are as follows: DYP 183, ANAP 97, RP
38, CHP 65, MHP 17, BBP 7, DSP 10, YP 3, MP 2, independents 6, vacant
22

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders: True Path Party (DYP), Tansu CILLER;
Motherland Party (ANAP), Mesut YILMAZ; Welfare Party (RP), Necmettin
ERBAKAN; Democratic Left Party (DSP), Bulent ECEVIT; Nationalist
Action Party (MHP - members also regroup under the name of National
Labor Party or MCP), Alparslan TURKES; Socialist Unity Party (SBP),
Sadun AREN; New Party (YP), Yusuf Bozkurt OZAL; Republican People's
Party (CHP), Hikmet CETIN; note - Social Democrat Populist Party (SHP)
has merged with CHP; Workers Party (IP), Dogu PERINCEK; Nation Party
(MP), Aykut EDIBALI; Democrat Party (DP), Aydin MENDERES; Grand Unity
Party (BBP), Muhsin YAZICIOGLU; Rebirth Party (YDP), Hasan Celal
GUZEL; People's Democracy Party (HADEP), Murat BOZLAK; Main Path Party
(ANAYOL), Gurcan BASER; Democratic Target Party (DHP), Abdulkadir
Yasar TURK; Liberal Party (LP), Besim TIBUK; New Democracy Movement
(YDH), Cem BOYNER; Democracy and Change Party (DDP), Ibrahim AKSOY

Other political or pressure groups: Turkish Confederation of Labor
(TURK-IS), Bayram MERAL; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions
(DISK), Ridvan BUDAK; Moral Rights Workers Union (HAK-IS), Negati
CECIK; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association (TUSIAD),
Halis KOMILI; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity
Exchanges (TOBB), Yalim EREZ; Turkish Confederation of Employers'
Unions (TISK), Refik BAYDUR

Member of: AsDB, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, ECO,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NATO, NEA, OECD, OIC, OSCE, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNRWA, UPU, WEU (associate),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR
chancery: 1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 659-8200
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marc GROSSMAN
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, Ankara; APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 468-6110 through 6128
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana

Flag: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward
the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the
crescent opening

@Turkey:Economy

Overview: In early 1995, after an impressive economic performance
through most of the 1980s, Turkey continues to suffer through its most
damaging economic crisis in the last 15 years. Sparked by the
downgrading in January 1994 of Turkey's international credit rating by
two US credit rating agencies, the crisis stems from years of loose
fiscal and monetary policies that had exacerbated inflation and
allowed the public debt, money supply, and current account deficit to
explode. In April 1994, Prime Minister CILLER introduced an austerity
package aimed at restoring domestic and international confidence in
her fragile coalition government. Three months later the IMF endorsed
the program, paving the way for a $740 million IMF standby loan.
Although the economy showed signs of improvement following the
stabilization measures, CILLER has been unable to overcome the
political obstacles to tough structural reforms necessary for
sustained, longer-term growth. As a consequence, the economy is
suffering the worst of both worlds: at the end of 1994, inflation hit
a record 126% (annual rate), and real GDP dropped an estimated 5% for
the year as a whole, the worst decline in Turkey's post-war history.
At the same time, the government missed key 1994 targets stipulated in
the IMF agreement: the budget deficit is estimated to have overshot
the government's goal by 47%; the total public sector borrowing
requirement likely reached 10%-12% of GDP, rather than 8.5% called for
in the program; and the Turkish lira's value fell 5% to 7% more than
expected. The unprecedented effort by the Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK) to raise the economic costs of its insurgency against the
Turkish state is adding to Turkey's economic problems. Attacks against
tourists have jeopardized tourist revenues, which account for about 3%
of GDP, while economic activity in southeastern Turkey, where most of
the violence occurs, has dropped considerably. Turkish officials are
now negotiating a new letter of intent with the IMF that will
stipulate more realistic macroeconomic goals for 1995 and allow the
release of remaining funds of the standby agreement.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $305.2 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,910 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 106% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 12.6% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $28.3 billion
expenditures: $33.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.2
billion (1995)

Exports: $15.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: manufactured products 72%, foodstuffs 23%, mining
products 4% (1993)
partners: Germany 24%, Russia 7%, US 7%, UK 6% (1993)

Imports: $27.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: manufactured products 71%, fuels 14%, foodstuffs 6%
(1993)
partners: Germany 15%, US 11%, Italy 9%, Russia 8% (1993)

External debt: $66.6 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.7% (1993); accounts for 26% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 18,710,000 kW
production: 71 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,079 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper,
boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP; products - tobacco, cotton,
grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal
products; self-sufficient in food most years

Illicit drugs: major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and
hashish to Western Europe and the US via air, land, and sea routes;
major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking
organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert
imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as
well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas
of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.3 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $10.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $4.5 billion
note: aid for Persian Gulf war efforts from coalition allies (1991),
$4.1 billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund, $2.5 billion

Currency: 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 37,444.1 (December
1994), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8
(1991), 2,608.6 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turkey:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 10,413 km
standard gauge: 10,413 km 1.435-m gauge (1,033 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 320,611 km
paved: 29,915 km (including 862 km of expressways)
unpaved: 290,696 km (1992)

Inland waterways: about 1,200 km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural
gas 708 km

Ports: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Izmit, Mersin,
Samsun, Trabzon

Merchant marine:
total: 423 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,014,004 GRT/8,695,636
DWT
ships by type: bulk 113, cargo 203, chemical tanker 14, combination
bulk 7, combination ore/oil 12, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 4,
livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 46, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated
cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9, short-sea passenger 7, specialized
tanker 2

Airports:
total: 116
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 16
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21
with paved runways under 914 m: 34
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 11

@Turkey:Communications

Telephone system: 3,400,000 telephones; fair domestic and
international systems
local: NA
intercity: trunk radio relay microwave network; limited open wire
network
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT earth
station; 1 submarine cable

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 94, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 357
televisions: NA

@Turkey:Defense Forces

Branches: Land Forces, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry),
Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 16,519,152; males fit for
military service 10,067,089; males reach military age (20) annually
625,476 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $6.9 billion, 4.1% of
GDP (1993); note - figures do not include about $7 billion for the
government's counterinsurgency efforts against the separatist
Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)

________________________________________________________________________

TURKMENISTAN

@Turkmenistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
Kazakhstan

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian
States

Area:
total area: 488,100 sq km
land area: 488,100 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total 3,736 km, Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km,
Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined

Climate: subtropical desert

Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains
in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian
Sea in west

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulphur, salt

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 69%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 29%

Irrigated land: 12,450 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with
agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salinization, water-logging of
soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion
of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation
contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea;
desertification
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Ozone Layer Protection

Note: landlocked

@Turkmenistan:People

Population: 4,075,316 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 798,620; male 821,550)
15-64 years: 56% (female 1,155,392; male 1,128,844)
65 years and over: 4% (female 105,424; male 65,486) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.97% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 29.93 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.34 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 68.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.35 years
male: 61.85 years
female: 69.02 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Turkmen(s)
adjective: Turkmen

Ethnic divisions: Turkmen 73.3%, Russian 9.8%, Uzbek 9%, Kazakh 2%,
other 5.9%

Religions: Muslim 87%, Eastern Orthodox 11%, unknown 2%

Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97%

Labor force: 1.642 million (January 1994)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 44%, industry and construction
20%, other 36% (1992)

@Turkmenistan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: TX

Type: republic

Capital: Ashgabat

Administrative divisions: 5 welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal
Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty
(formerly Tashauz), Lebap Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name
differs from welayat name

Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)

Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Saparmurad NIYAZOV (since NA October 1990);
election last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA 2002); results -
Saparmurad NIYAZOV 99.5% (ran unopposed); note - a 15 January 1994
referendum extended NIYAZOV's term an additional five years until 2002
(99.99% approval)
head of government: Prime Minister (vacant); Deputy Prime Ministers
Orazgeldi AYDOGDIYEV (since NA), Babamurad BAZAROV (since NA), Khekim
ISHANOV (since NA), Valeriy OTCHERTSOV (since NA), Yagmur OVEZOV
(since NA), Matkarim RAJAPOV (since NA), Abad RIZAYEVA (since NA),
Rejep SAPAROV (since NA), Boris SHIKHMURADOV (since NA), Batyr
SARJAYEV (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: under 1992 constitution there are two
parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council (Halk Maslahaty -
having more than 100 members and meeting infrequently) and a 50-member
unicameral Assembly (Majlis)
Assembly (Majlis): elections last held 11 December 1994 (next to be
held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (50 total)
Democratic Party 45, other 5; note - all 50 preapproved by President
NIYAZOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan,
Saparmurad NIYAZOV; Party for Democratic Development, Durdymurat
HOJA-MUKHAMMED, chairman; Agzybirlik, Nurberdy NURMAMEDOV, cochairman,
Hubayberdi HALLIYEV, cochairman
note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small
opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries

Member of: CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Khalil UGUR
chancery: 1511 K Street NW, Suite 412, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 737-4800
FAX: [1] (202) 737-1152

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph S. HULINGS III
embassy: 6 Teheran Street, Yubilenaya Hotel, Ashgabat
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3632) 24-49-25, 24-49-22
FAX: [7] (3632) 25-53-79

Flag: green field, including a vertical stripe on the hoist side, with
a claret vertical stripe in between containing five white, black, and
orange carpet guls (an assymetrical design used in producing rugs)
associated with five different tribes; a white crescent and five white
stars in the upper left corner to the right of the carpet guls

@Turkmenistan:Economy

Overview: Turkmenistan is largely desert country with nomadic cattle
raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and
oil resources. Half its irrigated land is planted in cotton making it
the world's tenth largest producer. It also has the world's fifth
largest reserves of natural gas and significant oil resources. Until
the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption
than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost
from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard
currency earnings. In 1994, Russia's refusal to export Turkmen gas to
hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the
former USSR for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in
industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to
a slight deficit. Furthermore, with an authoritarian ex-Communist
regime in power and a tribally-based social structure, Turkmenistan
has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas
and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. With the onset of
economic hard times, even cautious moves toward economic restructuring
and privatization have slowed down. For 1995, Turkmenistan will face
continuing constraints on its earnings because of its customers'
inability to pay for their gas and a low average cotton crop in 1994.
Turkmenistan is working hard to open new gas export channels through
Iran and Turkey, but these may take many years to realize.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $13.1 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -24% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,280 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% per month (1994)

Unemployment rate: NA

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $382 million to states outside the FSU (1994)
commodities: natural gas, cotton, petroleum products, electricity,
textiles, carpets
partners: Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Georgia,
Azerbaijan, Armenia, Eastern Europe, Turkey, Argentina

Imports: $304 million from states outside the FSU (1994)
commodities: machinery and parts, grain and food, plastics and rubber,
consumer durables, textiles
partners: Russia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey

External debt: NEGL

Industrial production: growth rate -25% (1994)

Electricity:
capacity: 2,480,000 kW
production: 10.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,600 kWh (1994)

Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food
processing

Agriculture: cotton, grain, animal husbandry

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Western
Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: Turkmenistan has received about $200 million in bilateral
aid credits

Currency: Turkmenistan introduced its national currency, the manat, on
1 November 1993

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - multiple rate system: 10 (official)
and 230 (permitted in transactions between the government and
individuals)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turkmenistan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,120 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 2,120 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 23,000 km
paved and graveled: 18,300 km
unpaved: earth 4,700 km (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km

Ports: Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnowodsk)

Airports:
total: 64
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 35

@Turkmenistan:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; only 7.5 telephones/100 persons
(1991); poorly developed
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: linked by cable and microwave to other CIS republics
and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow
international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to
Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches
international traffic through Turkey via INTELSAT; 1 Orbita and 1
INTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Turkmenistan:Defense Forces

Branches: National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and
border troops), Joint Command Turkmenistan/Russia (Ground, Air, and
Air Defense)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 993,321; males fit for military
service 810,392; males reach military age (18) annually 40,430 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Turks And Caicos Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of The Bahamas

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 430 sq km
land area: 430 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 389 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and
relatively dry

Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 98%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: limited natural fresh water resources, private
cisterns collect rainwater
natural hazards: frequent hurricanes
international agreements: NA

Note: 30 islands (eight inhabited)

@Turks And Caicos Islands:People

Population: 13,941 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.41% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.46 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.16 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 15.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.63 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.37 years
male: 73.44 years
female: 77.04 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: none
adjective: none

Ethnic divisions: African

Religions: Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries;
some subsistence agriculture

@Turks And Caicos Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turks and Caicos Islands

Digraph: TK

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Grand Turk

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, restored
and revised 5 March 1988

Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small number
adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953),
represented by Governor Martin BOURKE (since NA February 1993)
head of government: Chief Minister Derek H. TAYLOR (since 31 January
1995)
cabinet: Executive Council; consists of three ex-officio members and
five appointed by the governor from the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Council: elections last held 31 January 1995 (next to be
held by NA 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (20
total, 13 elected) PDM 8, PNP 4, independent (Norman SAUNDERS) 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive National Party (PNP),
Washington MISSICK; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Derek H.
TAYLOR; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel MISSICK

Member of: CARICOM (associate), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the
shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

@Turks And Caicos Islands:Economy

Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore
banking. Only subsistence farming - corn, cassava, citrus, and beans -
exists on the Caicos Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood
products, must be imported.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $80.8 million (1992
est.)

National product real growth rate: -1.5% (1992)

National product per capita: $6,000 (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 12% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $20.3 million
expenditures: $44 million, including capital expenditures of $23.9
million (1989 est.)

Exports: $6.8 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
partners: US, UK

Imports: $42.8 million (1993)
commodities: food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures,
construction materials
partners: US, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 9,050 kW
production: 11.1 million kWh
consumption per capita: 860 kWh (1992)

Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

Agriculture: subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans;
fishing more important than farming; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics
destined for the US

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $110 million

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turks And Caicos Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 121 km (including 24 km tarmac)
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Cockburn Harbour, Grand Turk, Providenciales, Salt Cay

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 7
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Turks And Caicos Islands:Communications

Telephone system: 1,446 telephones; fair cable and radio services
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 2 submarine cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Turks And Caicos Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

TUVALU

@Tuvalu:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group consisting of nine coral atolls in the
South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to
Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 26 sq km
land area: 26 sq km
comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to
November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%
note: Tuvalu's nine coral atolls have enough soil to grow coconuts and
support subsistence agriculture

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: since there are no streams or rivers and groundwater
is not potable, all water needs must be met by catchment systems with
storage facilities; beachhead erosion because of the use of sand for
building materials; excessive clearance of forest undergrowth for use
as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the spread of the crown of thorns
starfish
natural hazards: severe tropical storms are rare
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

@Tuvalu:People

Population: 9,991 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (female 1,787; male 1,852)
15-64 years: 59% (female 3,105; male 2,764)
65 years and over: 5% (female 258; male 225) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.82 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.01 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 27.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.15 years
male: 61.87 years
female: 64.34 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.11 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tuvaluans(s)
adjective: Tuvaluan

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian 96%

Religions: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%

Languages: Tuvaluan, English

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: NA

@Tuvalu:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tuvalu
former: Ellice Islands

Digraph: TV

Type: democracy; began debating republic status in 1992

Capital: Funafuti

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

Constitution: 1 October 1978

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Tulaga MANUELLA (since NA June 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Kamuta LATASI (since 10 December
1993); Deputy Prime Minister Otinielu TAUSI (since 10 December 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on recommendation
of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament (Palamene): elections last held 25 November 1993 (next to
be held by NA 1997); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (12 total)

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Member of: ACP, AsDB, C (special), ESCAP, IFRCS (associate), INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: Tuvalu has no mission in the US

US diplomatic representation: none

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country
with nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

@Tuvalu:Economy

Overview: Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls
with poor soil. The country has no known mineral resources and few
exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic
activities. The islands are too small and too remote for development
of a tourist industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale
of stamps and coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is
received annually from an international trust fund established in 1987
by Australia, NZ, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South
Korea.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.8 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $800 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $4.3 million
expenditures: $4.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1989 est.)

Exports: $165,000 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: copra
partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ

Imports: $4.4 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured
goods
partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 2,600 kW
production: 3 million kWh
consumption per capita: 330 kWh (1990)

Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

Agriculture: coconuts and fish

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $101 million

Currency: 1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100
cents

Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per
US$1 - 1.3058 (January 1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600
(1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990)

Fiscal year: NA

@Tuvalu:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 8 km
unpaved: gravel 8 km

Ports: Funafuti, Nukufetau

Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,473 GRT/73,652 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 1,
passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1

Airports:
total: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1

@Tuvalu:Communications

Telephone system: 108 telephones; 300 radiotelephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 4,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Tuvalu:Defense Forces

Branches: no military forces; Police Force

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

UGANDA

@Uganda:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Kenya

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 236,040 sq km
land area: 199,710 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total 2,698 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan
435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to
February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use:
arable land: 23%
permanent crops: 9%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 30%
other: 13%

Irrigated land: 90 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural use;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching is widespread
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Environmental Modification

Note: landlocked

@Uganda:People

Population: 19,573,262 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (female 4,792,164; male 4,834,757)
15-64 years: 49% (female 4,802,650; male 4,704,159)
65 years and over: 2% (female 215,648; male 223,884) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 48.03 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 24.35 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: Uganda is host to refugees from a number of neighboring
countries, including Zaire, Sudan, and Rwanda; probably in excess of
100,000 southern Sudanese fled to Uganda during the past year; many of
the 8,000 Rwandans who took refuge in Uganda have returned home

Infant mortality rate: 112.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 36.58 years
male: 36.26 years
female: 36.91 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic divisions: Baganda 17%, Karamojong 12%, Basogo 8%, Iteso 8%,
Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Bunyoro 3%,
Batobo 3%, European, Asian, Arab 1%, other 23%

Religions: Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous
beliefs 18%

Languages: English (official), Luganda, Swahili, Bantu languages,
Nilotic languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 56%
male: 68%
female: 45%

Labor force: 4.5 million (est.)
by occupation: agriculture over 80%

@Uganda:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda

Digraph: UG

Type: republic

Capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 39 districts; Apac, Arua, Bundibugyo,
Bushenyi, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala,
Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum,
Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto,
Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai,
Rukungiri, Sototi, Tororo

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution: 8 September 1967, in process of constitutional revision

Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English
common law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29
January 1986); Vice President Dr. Specioza Wandira KAZIBWE (since 18
November 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Kintu MUSOKE (since 18 November
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Resistance Council: elections last held 28 March 1993 (next
to be held end of 1995); results - 284 non-partisan delegates elected
to an interim Constituent Assembly with the principal task of writing
a final draft of a new constitution for Uganda on the basis of which a
regular Constituent Assembly will be elected
note: first free and fair election in 30 years is to be held by end of
1995

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Political parties and leaders: only party - National Resistance
Movement (NRM), Yoweri MUSEVENI
note: Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Milton OBOTE; Democratic Party
(DP), Paul SSEMOGEERE; and Conservative Party (CP), Joshua S.
MAYANJA-NKANGI continue to exist but are all proscribed from
conducting public political activities

Other political or pressure groups: Lord's Resistance Army (LRA);
Ruwenzori Movement

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

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