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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 23%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 71%

Irrigated land: 6,940 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of
soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; part of the
basin of the shrinking Aral Sea which suffers from severe
overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated
pollution
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: landlocked

@Tajikistan:People

Population: 6,155,474 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 1,303,627; male 1,340,086)
15-64 years: 53% (female 1,612,429; male 1,624,379)
65 years and over: 4% (female 157,841; male 117,112) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.6% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 34.06 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.58 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.03 years
male: 66.11 years
female: 72.1 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.55 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tajik(s)
adjective: Tajik

Ethnic divisions: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining
because of emigration), other 6.6%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%

Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and
business

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97%

Labor force: 1.95 million (1992)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 43%, government and services
24%, industry 14%, trade and communications 11%, construction 8%
(1990)

@Tajikistan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikistan
local short form: none
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: TI

Type: republic

Capital: Dushanbe

Administrative divisions: 2 oblasts (viloyatho, singular - viloyat)
and one autonomous oblast* (viloyati avtonomii); Viloyati Avtonomii
Badakhshoni Kuni* (Khorugh - formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon
(Qurghonteppa - formerly Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobad (Khujand -
formerly Leninabad)
note: the administrative center names are in parentheses

Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 9 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 6 November 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomili RAKHMONOV (since 6 November 1994;
was Head of State and Assembly Chairman since NA November 1992);
election last held 6 November 1994 (next to be held NA 1998); results
- Emomili RAKHMONOV 58%, Abdumalik ABDULLAJANOV 40%
head of government: Prime Minister Jamshed KARIMOV (since 2 December
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Soviet: elections last held 26 February 1994 (next to be held
NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; estimated seats - (181
total) Communist Party and affiliates 100, Popular Party 10, Party of
Political and Economic Progress 1, Party of Popular Unity 6, other 64

Judicial branch: Prosecutor General

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party (People's Party of
Tajikistan - PPT), Abdumalik ABDULAJANOV; Party of Economic Freedom
(PEF), Abdumalik ABDULAJANOV; Tajik Socialist Party (TSP), Shodi
SHABDOLOV; Tajik Democratic Party (TDP), Abdu-Nabi SATARZADE,
chairman; note - suspended for six months; Islamic Renaissance Party
(IRP), Sayed Abdullo NURI, chairman; Rebirth (Rastokhez), Takhir
ABDUZHABOROV; Lali Badakhshan Society, Atobek AMIRBEK; People's
Democratic Party (PDP), Abdujalil HAMIDOV, chairman; Tajikistan Party
of Economic and Political Renewal (TPEPR), Mukhtor BOBOYEV
note: all the above-listed parties except the Communist Party, the
Party of National Unity, and the People's Party were banned in June
1993

Other political or pressure groups: Tajikistan Opposition Movement
based in northern Afghanistan

Member of: CIS, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC,
OIC, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: NA
chancery: NA
telephone: NA

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley T. ESCUDERO
embassy: Interim Chancery, #39 Ainii Street, Oktyabrskaya Hotel,
Dushanbe
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3772) 21-03-56

Flag: three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white,
and green; a crown surmounted by seven five-pointed stars is located
in the center of the white stripe

@Tajikistan:Economy

Overview: Tajikistan had the next-to-lowest per capita GDP in the
former USSR, the highest rate of population growth, and an extremely
low standard of living. Agriculture dominates the economy, cotton
being the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited
in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry is
limited to a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small
obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The
Tajik economy has been gravely weakened by three years of civil war
and by the loss of subsidies and markets for its products, which has
left Tajikistan dependent on Russia and Uzbekistan and on
international humanitarian assistance for much of its basic
subsistence needs. Moreover, constant political turmoil and the
continued dominance by former Communist officials have impeded the
introduction of meaningful economic reforms. In the meantime,
Tajikistan's efforts to adopt the Russian ruble as its domestic
currency despite Russia's unwillingness to supply sufficient rubles
left the country in a severe monetary crisis throughout 1994, keeping
inflation low but leaving workers and pensioners unpaid for months at
a time. The government has announced plans to introduce its own
currency in 1995 to help resolve the problem.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -12% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,415 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 1.5% includes only officially registered
unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers and
unregistered unemployed people (September 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $320 million to outside the FSU countries (1994)
commodities: cotton, aluminum, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan

Imports: $318 million from outside the FSU countries (1994)
commodities: fuel, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment,
textiles, foodstuffs
partners: Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate -31% (1994)

Electricity:
capacity: 3,800,000 kW
production: 17 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,800 kWh (1994)

Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement,
vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Agriculture: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep
and goats

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly
for CIS consumption; used as transshipment points for illicit drugs
from Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America

Economic aid:
recipient: Russia and Uzbekistan reportedly provided substantial
general assistance throughout 1993 and 1994; Western aid and credits
promised through the end of 1993 were $700 million but disbursements
were only $104 million; large scale development loans await IMF
approval of a reform and stabilization plan

Currency: 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks; Tajikistan uses the Russian ruble
as its currency by agreement with Russia; government has plans to
introduce its own currency, the Tajik ruble, in 1995

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Tajikistan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 480 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines (1990)

Highways:
total: 29,900 km
paved: 21,400 km
unpaved: earth 8,500 km (1990)

Pipelines: natural gas 400 km (1992)

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 59
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 36

@Tajikistan:Communications

Telephone system: 303,000 telephones (December 1991); about 55
telephones/1,000 persons (1991); poorly developed and not well
maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network
local: NA
intercity: cable and microwave radio relay
international: linked by cable and microwave to other CIS republics,
and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch;
Dushanbe linked by INTELSAT to international gateway switch in Ankara;
1 Orbita and 2 INTELSAT earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA
note: 1 INTELSAT earth station provides TV receive-only service from
Turkey

@Tajikistan:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (being formed), National Guard, Security Forces
(internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,410,229; males fit for
military service 1,153,638; males reach military age (18) annually
57,942 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

TANZANIA

@Tanzania:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya
and Mozambique

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 945,090 sq km
land area: 886,040 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of California
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Land boundaries: total 3,402 km, Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi
475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1,424 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa;
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north,
south

Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore,
coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 40%
forest and woodland: 47%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 1,530 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: soil degradation; deforestation; desertification;
destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts
affected marginal agriculture
natural hazards: the tsetse fly and lack of water limit agriculture;
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification

Note: Mount Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

@Tanzania:People

Population: 28,701,077 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (female 6,724,575; male 6,676,652)
15-64 years: 50% (female 7,462,615; male 7,027,551)
65 years and over: 3% (female 425,211; male 384,473) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.55% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 19.81 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: in February 1995, a fresh influx of refugees from civil strife
in Burundi brought the total number of Burundian refugees in Tanzania
to about 60,000; in addition, since April 1994 more than a half
million refugees from Rwanda have taken refuge in Tanzania to escape
civil strife in Rwanda

Infant mortality rate: 109 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.53 years
male: 40.88 years
female: 44.22 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.15 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic divisions:
mainland: native African 99% (consisting of well over 100 tribes),
Asian, European, and Arab 1%
Zanzibar: NA

Religions:
mainland: Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 20%
Zanzibar: Muslim 99% plus

Languages: Swahili (official; widely understood and generally used for
communication between ethnic groups and is used in primary education),
English (official; primary language of commerce, administration, and
higher education)
note: first language of most people is one of the local languages

Literacy: age 15 and over has ability to read and write a letter or
message in Kisahili (1988)
total population: 59%
male: 71%
female: 48%

Labor force: 732,200 wage earners
by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 10% (1986 est.)

@Tanzania:Government

Names:
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Digraph: TZ

Type: republic

Capital: Dar es Salaam
note: some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which
is planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma,
Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara,
Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga,
Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North,
Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi

Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December
1961 (from UN trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar
became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with
Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985);
First Vice President Cleopa MSUYA (since 5 December 1994); Second Vice
President and President of Zanzibar Salmin AMOUR (since 9 November
1990) election last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held 29 October
1995); results - Ali Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition
head of government: Prime Minister Cleopa David MSUYA (since 7
December 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from the National
Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Bunge): elections last held 28 October 1990 (next
to be held 29 October 1995); results - CCM was the only party; seats -
(241 total, 168 elected) CCM 168

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM or
Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan MWINYI; Civic United Front (CUF),
James MAPALALA; National Convention for Construction and Reform
(NCCR), Lyatonga (Augustine) MREMA; Union for Multiparty Democracy
(UMD), Abdullah FUNDIKIRA; Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo
(CHADEMA), Edwin I. M. MTEI, chairman; Democratic Party
(unregistered), Reverend MTIKLA

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, FLS, G- 6, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles Musama NYIRABU
chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Brady ANDERSON
embassy: 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (51) 66010 through 66015
FAX: [255] (51) 66701

Flag: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the
lower triangle is blue

@Tanzania:Economy

Overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The
economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about
58% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work
force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated
crops to only 5% of the land area. Industry accounts for 8% of GDP and
is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light
consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in mid-1986
has generated notable increases in agricultural production and
financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank,
the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided
funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure.
Growth in 1991-94 has featured a pickup in industrial production and a
substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Recent
banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and
investment.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $21 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $750 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $495 million
expenditures: $631 million, including capital expenditures of $118
million (1990 est.)

Exports: $462 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: coffee, cotton, tobacco, tea, cashew nuts, sisal
partners: Germany, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transportation
equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs
partners: Germany, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark

External debt: $6.7 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 9.3% (1990); accounts for 8% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 440,000 kW
production: 880 million kWh
consumption per capita: 30 kWh (1993)

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer,
cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining,
shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for about 58% of GDP; cash crops - coffee,
sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums),
cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops - corn, wheat,
cassava, bananas, fruits, vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep,
and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production

Illicit drugs: growing role in transshipment of Southwest Asian heroin
destined for European and US markets

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $9.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $614 million

Currency: 1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1 - 523.40 (December
1994), 509.63 (1994), 405.27 (1993), 297.71 (1992), 219.16 (1991),
195.06 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Tanzania:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,600 km; note - not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation is
the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860
km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and New Kapiri
M'poshi in Zambia; 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km are in Zambia;
because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to
Tanzania Railways
narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 81,900 km
paved: 3,600 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 5,600 km; improved, unimproved earth
72,700 km

Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

Pipelines: crude oil 982 km

Ports: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Lindi, Mkoani, Mtwara, Musoma,
Mwanza, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar

Merchant marine:
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,145 GRT/39,186 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 108
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 30
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 16
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 51

@Tanzania:Communications

Telephone system: 103,800 telephones; fair system operating below
capacity
local: NA
intercity: open wire, microwave radio relay, troposcatter
international: 2 satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Tanzania:Defense Forces

Branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; includes Army, Navy,
and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit, Militia

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,188,455; males fit for
military service 3,584,912 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $69 million, NA% of
GDP (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

THAILAND

@Thailand:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of
Thailand, southeast of Burma

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 514,000 sq km
land area: 511,770 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries: total 4,863 km, Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos
1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved
maritime boundary with Vietnam; parts of border with Thailand in
dispute; maritime boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to
September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March);
southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; Khorat plateau in the east; mountains
elsewhere

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum,
timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite

Land use:
arable land: 34%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 30%
other: 31%

Irrigated land: 42,300 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution
from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife
populations threatened by illegal hunting
natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the
depletion of the water table; droughts
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea

Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

@Thailand:People

Population: 60,271,300 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (female 8,545,362; male 8,866,271)
15-64 years: 66% (female 19,733,773; male 20,185,392)
65 years and over: 5% (female 1,636,426; male 1,304,076) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.24% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 18.87 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.48 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.42 years
male: 64.94 years
female: 72.08 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai

Ethnic divisions: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

Religions: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism
0.1%, other 0.6% (1991)

Languages: Thai, English the secondary language of the elite, ethnic
and regional dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 93%
male: 96%
female: 91%

Labor force: 30.87 million
by occupation: agriculture 62%, industry 13%, commerce 11%, services
(including government) 14% (1989 est.)

@Thailand:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand

Digraph: TH

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 76 provinces (changwat, singular and
plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat,
Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon,
Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep
Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha
Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon
Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong
Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga,
Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok,
Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri
Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut
Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri,
Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak,
Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit,
Yala, Yasothon

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Constitution: new constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10
June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in
effect since 23 February 1991 military coup

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946); Heir
Apparent Crown Prince WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952)
head of government: Prime Minister CHUAN Likphai (since 23 September
1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
Privy Council: NA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha)
Senate (Vuthisatha): consists of a 270-member appointed body
House of Representatives (Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn): elections last
held 13 September 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (360 total) DP 79, TNP 77, NDP 60, NAP 51,
Phalang Tham 47, SAP 22, LDP 8, SP 8, Mass Party 4, Thai Citizen's
Party 3, People's Party 1, People's Force Party 0

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarndika)

Political parties and leaders: Democrat Party (DP), CHUAN Likphai;
Thai Nation Party (TNP or Chat Thai Party), Banhan SINLAPA-ACHA;
National Development Party (NDP or Chat Phattana), Chatchai CHUNHAWAN;
New Aspiration Party (NAP), Gen. Chawalit YONGCHAIYUT; Phalang Tham
(Palang Dharma), CHAMLONG Simuang; Social Action Party (SAP), Montri
PHONGPHANIT; Liberal Democratic Party (LDP or Seri Tham), Athit
URAIRAT; Solidarity Party (SP), Uthai PHIMCHAICHON; Mass Party
(Muanchon), Pol. Cpt. Choem YUBAMRUNG; Thai Citizen's Party (Prachakon
Thai), Samak SUNTHONWET; People's Party (Ratsadon), Chaiphak SIRIWAT;
People's Force Party (Phalang Prachachon), Col. Sophon HANCHAREON

Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador MANATPHAT Chuto
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador David F. LAMBERTSON
embassy: 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok
mailing address: APO AP 96546
telephone: [66] (2) 252-5040
FAX: [66] (2) 254-2990
consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai
consulate(s): Udorn (Udon Thani)

Flag: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width),
white, and red

@Thailand:Economy

Overview: Thailand's economy recovered rapidly from the political
unrest in May 1992 to post an impressive 7.5% growth rate for the
year, 7.8% in 1993, and 8% in 1994. One of the more advanced
developing countries in Asia, Thailand depends on exports of
manufactures and the development of the service sector to fuel the
country's rapid growth. Much of Thailand's recent imports have been
for capital equipment, suggesting that the export sector is poised for
further growth. With foreign investment slowing, Bangkok is working to
increase the generation of domestic capital. Prime Minister CHUAN's
government - Thailand's fifth government in less than three years - is
pledged to continue Bangkok's probusiness policies, and the return of
a democratically elected government has improved business confidence.
Even so, CHUAN must overcome divisions within his ruling coalition to
complete much needed infrastructure development programs if Thailand
is to remain an attractive place for business investment. Over the
longer-term, Bangkok must produce more college graduates with
technical training and upgrade workers' skills to continue its rapid
economic development.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $355.2 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $5,970 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.2% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $28.4 billion
expenditures: $28.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $9.6
billion (FY94/95 est.)

Exports: $46 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and manufactures 83%, agricultural products and
fisheries 16%, others 1% (1994 est.)
partners: US 22%, Japan 17%, Singapore 12%, Hong Kong 5%, Germany 4%
(1993)

Imports: $52.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: capital goods 44%, intermediate goods and raw materials
37%, consumer goods 16%, other 3% (1994 est.)
partners: Japan 30%, US 12%, Singapore 6%, Germany 5%, Taiwan 5%
(1993)

External debt: $64.3 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 11.5% (1993 est.); accounts for
about 26% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 12,810,000 kW
production: 56.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 909 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange;
textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco,
cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and
components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's
second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP and 62% of labor force; leading
producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops -
rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat,
self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: a minor producer of opium and marijuana; major illicit
transit point for heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, for the
international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area
of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring
countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication
efforts; also a major drug money laundering center; rapidly growing
role in amphetamine production for regional consumption; increasing
indigenous abuse of heroin and cocaine

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $870 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $8.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million

Currency: 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1 - 25.074 (January 1995), 25.150
(1994), 25.319 (1993), 25.400 (1992), 25.517 (1991), 25.585 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Thailand:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,940 km
narrow gauge: 3,940 km 1.000-m gauge (99 km double track)

Highways:
total: 77,697 km
paved: 35,855 km (including 88 km of expressways)
unpaved: gravel, other stabilization 14,092 km; earth 27,750 km (1988)

Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with
navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor
waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Pipelines: petroleum products 67 km; natural gas 350 km

Ports: Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha,
Songkhla

Merchant marine:
total: 229 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,231,172 GRT/1,931,117
DWT
ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 122, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
1, container 15, liquefied gas tanker 9, oil tanker 45, passenger 1,
refrigerated cargo 7, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1,
specialized tanker 1

Airports:
total: 105
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 23
with paved runways under 914 m: 42
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14

@Thailand:Communications

Telephone system: 739,500 telephones (1987); service to general public
inadequate; bulk of service to government activities provided by
multichannel cable and microwave radio relay network
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay and multichannel cable; domestic
satellite system being developed
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 200 (in government-controlled network), FM 100
(in government-controlled network), shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 11 (in government-controlled network)
televisions: NA

@Thailand:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (includes Royal Thai Marine
Corps), Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 17,297,854; males fit for
military service 10,489,564; males reach military age (18) annually
585,009 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $4.0 billion, 2.5% of
GNP (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

TOGO

@Togo:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Benin and Ghana

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 56,790 sq km
land area: 54,390 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total 1,647 km, Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km, Ghana
877 km

Coastline: 56 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern
plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 28%
other: 42%

Irrigated land: 70 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn
agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; recent droughts affecting
agriculture
natural hazards: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in
north during winter; periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

@Togo:People

Population: 4,410,370 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (female 1,069,171; male 1,079,999)
15-64 years: 49% (female 1,121,685; male 1,043,000)
65 years and over: 2% (female 51,392; male 45,123) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 46.78 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.01 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 86.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.42 years
male: 55.29 years
female: 59.6 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.83 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese

Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina,
and Kabye, European and Syrian-Lebanese under 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Christian 20%, Muslim 10%

Languages: French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and
Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Dagomba and Kabye
(the two major African languages in the north)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 43%
male: 56%
female: 31%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 80%
note: about 88,600 wage earners, evenly divided between public and
private sectors

@Togo:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Togo
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togo

Digraph: TO

Type: republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule

Capital: Lome

Administrative divisions: 23 circumscriptions (circonscriptions,
singular - circonscription); Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs), Atakpame
(Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar (Bassari), Dapango
(Tone), Kande (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Pagouda (Binah), Lama-Kara
(Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou), Notse
(Haho), Pagouda, Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Nyala,
Tchaoudjo, Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo)
note: the 23 units may now be called prefectures (singular -
prefecture) and reported name changes for individual units are
included in parentheses

Independence: 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1960)

Constitution: multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council
of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September
1992

Legal system: French-based court system

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April
1967); election last held 25 August 1993 (next election to be held NA
1998); all major opposition parties boycotted the election; Gen.
EYADEMA won 96.5% of the vote
head of government: Prime Minister Edem KODJO (since April 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and the
prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held 6 and 20 February 1994 (next to
be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total)
CAR 36, RPT 35, UTD 7, UJD 2, CFN 1
note: the Supreme Court ordered new elections for 3 seats of the
Action Committee for Renewal (CAR) and the Togolese Union for
Democracy (UTD), lowering their total to 34 and 6 seats, respectively;
the remaining 3 seats have not been filled

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court (Cour
Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Rally of the Togolese People (RPT),
President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA; Coordination des Forces Nouvelles
(CFN), Joseph KOFFIGOH; The Togolese Union for Democracy (UTD), Edem
KODJO; The Action Committee for Renewal (CAR), Yao AGBOYIBOR; The
Union for Democracy and Solidarity (UDS), Antoine FOLLY; The
Pan-African Sociodemocrats Group (GSP), an alliance of three radical
parties: The Democratic Convention of African Peoples (CDPA), Leopold
GNININVI; The Party for Democracy and Renewal (PDR), Zarifou AYEVA;
The Pan-African Social Party (PSP), Francis AGBAGLI; The Union of
Forces for Change (UFC), Gilchrist OLYMPIO (in exile); Union of
Justice and Democracy (UJD), Lal TAXPANDJAN
note: Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) led by President EYADEMA was
the only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized
12 April 1991

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS,
Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, MINURSO, NAM,
OAU, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Edem Frederic HEGBE
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG (since September 1994)
embassy: Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 21 77 17, 21 29 91 through 21 29 94
FAX: [228] 21 79 52

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom)
alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red
square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African
colors of Ethiopia

@Togo:Economy

Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture,
which accounts for about half of GDP and provides employment for 80%
of the labor force. Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee,
and cotton, which together generate about 30% of total export
earnings. Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests
are normal. In the industrial sector phosphate mining is by far the
most important activity, although it has suffered from the collapse of
world phosphate prices and increased foreign competition. Togo serves
as a regional commercial and trade center. The government's
decade-long IMF and World Bank supported effort to implement economic
reform measures to encourage foreign investment and bring revenues in
line with expenditures has stalled. Political unrest, including
private and public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, has
jeopardized the reform program, shrunk the tax base, and disrupted
vital economic activity. Although strikes had ended in 1994, political
unrest and lack of funds prevented the government from taking
advantage of the 50% currency devaluation of January 1994. Resumption
of World Bank and IMF flows will depend on implementation of several
controversial moves toward privatization and on downsizing the
military, on which the regime depends to stay in power.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.3 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $800 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $284 million
expenditures: $407 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1991 est.)

Exports: $221 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: phosphates, cotton, cocoa, coffee
partners: EC 40%, Africa 16%, US 1% (1990)

Imports: $292 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemical
products
partners: EC 57%, Africa 17%, US 5%, Japan 4% (1990)

External debt: $1.3 billion (1991)

Industrial production: growth rate 9% (1991 est.); accounts for 20% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 30,000 kW
production: 60 million kWh
consumption per capita: 83 kWh (1993)

Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement,
handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 49% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, cocoa,
cotton; food crops - yams, cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet,
sorghum; livestock production not significant; annual fish catch of
10,000-14,000 tons

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as transit hub by heroin traffickers

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $142 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-90), $2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $51 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning
12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French
franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Togo:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 532 km
narrow gauge: 532 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 6,462 km
paved: 1,762 km
unpaved: unimproved earth 4,700 km

Inland waterways: 50 km Mono River

Ports: Kpeme, Lome

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 9
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5

@Togo:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; fair system based on network of radio
relay routes supplemented by open wire lines
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay and open wire lines
international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 3 (relays 2)
televisions: NA

@Togo:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 936,270; males fit for military
service 491,578 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $48 million, 2.9% of
GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

TOKELAU

(territory of New Zealand)

@Tokelau:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 10 sq km
land area: 10 sq km
comparative area: about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 101 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

Terrain: coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: very limited natural resources and overcrowding are
contributing to emigration to New Zealand
natural hazards: lies in Pacific typhoon belt
international agreements: NA

@Tokelau:People

Population: 1,503 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -1.3% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Tokelauan(s)
adjective: Tokelauan

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian

Religions: Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%,
other 2%
note: on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on
Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the
Congregational Christian Church predominant

Languages: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English

Labor force: NA

@Tokelau:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tokelau

Digraph: TL

Type: territory of New Zealand

Capital: none; each atoll has its own administrative center

Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty over New Zealand)

Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as
amended in 1970

Legal system: British and local statutes

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government: Administrator Graham ANSELL (since NA 1990;
appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs in New Zealand); Official
Secretary Casimilo J. PEREZ (since NA), Office of Tokelau Affairs;
Tokelau's governing Council will elect its first head of government

Legislative branch: unicameral Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each
atoll

Judicial branch: High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand

Political parties and leaders: NA

Member of: SPC, WHO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of New Zealand)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of New Zealand)

Flag: the flag of New Zealand is used

@Tokelau:Economy

Overview: Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources
greatly restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the
subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to
maintain public services, annual aid being substantially greater than
GDP. The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra,
postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also
remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.5 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $1,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $430,830
expenditures: $2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $37,300
(1987 est.)

Exports: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983)
commodities: stamps, copra, handicrafts
partners: NZ

Imports: $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983)
commodities: foodstuffs, building materials, fuel
partners: NZ

External debt: $0

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 200 kW
production: 300,000 kWh
consumption per capita: 180 kWh (1990)

Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work,
plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

Agriculture: coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops - breadfruit,
papaya, bananas; pigs, poultry, goats

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $24 million

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5601 (January
1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), l.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Tokelau:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western
Samoa

@Tokelau:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: radiotelephone service between islands
international: radiotelephone service to Western Samoa

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Tokelau:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

________________________________________________________________________

TONGA

@Tonga:Geography

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 748 sq km
land area: 718 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to
May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral
formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 55%
meadows and pastures: 6%
forest and woodland: 12%
other: 2%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: deforestation results as more and more land is being
cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs
from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors;
overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic
activity on Fonuafo'ou
international agreements: party to - Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban

Note: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)

@Tonga:People

Population: 105,600 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.37 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.75 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.16 years
male: 65.8 years
female: 70.62 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.56 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tongan(s)
adjective: Tongan

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian, Europeans about 300

Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000
adherents)

Languages: Tongan, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write simple message in Tongan
or English (1976)
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 70%, mining (600 engaged in mining)

@Tonga:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
former: Friendly Islands

Digraph: TN

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nuku'alofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu,
Vava'u

Independence: 4 June 1970 (emancipation from UK protectorate)

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)
head of government: Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991);
Deputy Prime Minister S. Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the king
Privy Council: consists of the king and the cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral; consists of twelve cabinet ministers
sitting ex-officio, nine nobles selected by the country's thirty-three
nobles, and nine people's representatives elected by the populace
Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea): elections last held 3-4 February
1993 (next to be held NA February 1996); results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (30 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Tonga People's Party, Viliami FUKOFUKA

Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: Ambassador Sione KITE, resides in
London
consulate(s) general: San Francisco

US diplomatic representation: the US has no offices in Tonga; the
ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga

Flag: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner

@Tonga:Economy

Overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70%
of the labor force and contributes 40% to GDP. Squash, coconuts,
bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops, and agricultural
exports make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a
high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The
manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism is the
primary source of hard currency earnings, but the country also remains
dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to offset its trade
deficit. The economy continued to grow in 1993-94 largely because of a
rise in squash exports, increased aid flows, and several large
construction projects. The government is now turning its attention to
further development of the private sector and the reduction of the
budget deficit.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $214 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,050 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1993)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $36.4 million
expenditures: $68.1 million, including capital expenditures of $33.2
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $11.3 million (f.o.b., FY92/93)
commodities: squash, vanilla, fish, root crops, coconut oil
partners: Japan 34%, US 17%, Australia 13%, NZ 13% (FY90/91)

Imports: $56 million (c.i.f., FY92/93)
commodities: food products, machinery and transport equipment,
manufactures, fuels, chemicals
partners: NZ 33%, Australia 22%, US 8%, Japan 8% (FY90/91)

External debt: $47.5 million (FY90/91)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% (FY91/92); accounts for 11% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 6,000 kW
production: 30 million kWh
consumption per capita: 231 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; dominated by coconut, copra, and
banana production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $16 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $258 million

Currency: 1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.2653 (January 1995), 1.3202
(1994), 1.3841 (1993), 1.3471 (1992), 1.2961 (1991), 1.2800 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Tonga:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 366 km
paved: 272 km (198 km on Tongatapu; 74 km on Vava'u)
unpaved: 94 km (usable only in dry weather)

Ports: Neiafu, Nuku'alofa, Pangai

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,440 GRT/8,984 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 6
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Tonga:Communications

Telephone system: 3,529 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 66,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Tonga:Defense Forces

Branches: Tonga Defense Services, Maritime Division, Royal Tongan
Marines, Tongan Royal Guards, Police

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

@Trinidad And Tobago:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 5,130 sq km
land area: 5,130 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental
margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 17%
meadows and pastures: 2%
forest and woodland: 44%
other: 23%

Irrigated land: 220 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution from agricultural chemicals,
industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches;
deforestation; soil erosion
natural hazards: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical
storms
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83,
Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity

@Trinidad And Tobago:People

Population: 1,271,159 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (female 191,627; male 198,225)
15-64 years: 64% (female 399,726; male 407,495)
65 years and over: 5% (female 40,577; male 33,509) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.12% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 16.62 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.88 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.14 years
male: 67.75 years
female: 72.6 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Ethnic divisions: black 43%, East Indian (a local term - primarily
immigrants from northern India) 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%,
other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other
Protestant 14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%

Languages: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 96%

Labor force: 463,900
by occupation: construction and utilities 18.1%, manufacturing,
mining, and quarrying 14.8%, agriculture 10.9%, other 56.2% (1985
est.)

@Trinidad And Tobago:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago

Digraph: TD

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port-of-Spain

Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**;
Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint
David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria

Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Constitution: 1 August 1976

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March
1987)
head of government: Prime Minister Patrick Augustus Mervyn MANNING
(since 17 December 1991)
cabinet: Cabinet; responsible to parliament

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