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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,421 GRT/2,990 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, container 1

Airports:
total: 46
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 38
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Suriname:Communications

Telephone system: 27,500 telephones; international facilities good
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay network
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 14, shortwave 1
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 6
televisions: NA

@Suriname:Defense Forces

Branches: National Army (includes small Navy and Air Force elements),
Civil Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 116,456; males fit for military
service 69,011 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

SVALBARD

(territory of Norway)

@Svalbard:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents
Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total area: 62,049 sq km
land area: 62,049 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia
note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not
recognized by Russia
territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute in the
Barents Sea between Norway and Russia

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool
summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and
north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of
the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west
coast clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north
coasts

Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife,
fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and
cloudberry)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a
transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make
parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
international agreements: NA

Note: northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine
main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area

@Svalbard:People

Population: 2,914 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -3.5% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Ethnic divisions: Russian 64%, Norwegian 35%, other 1% (1981)

Languages: Russian, Norwegian

Labor force: NA

@Svalbard:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Svalbard

Digraph: SV

Type: territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry,
Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen,
Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to
Norway

Capital: Longyearbyen

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

National holiday: NA

Legal system: NA

Executive branch:
Chief of State: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991)
Head of Government: Governor Odd BLOMDAL (since NA); Assistant
Governor Jan-Atle HANSEN (since NA September 1993)

Member of: none

Flag: the flag of Norway is used

@Svalbard:Economy

Overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By
treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have
equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian
regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have
mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and
Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns.
The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the
Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services,
and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some
trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.

Budget:
revenues: $13.3 million
expenditures: $13.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1990 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 21,000 kW
production: 45 million kWh
consumption per capita: 13,860 kWh (1992)

Currency: 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.7014 (January
1995), 7.0469 (1994), 7.0941 (1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991),
6.2597 (1990)

@Svalbard:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 3

@Svalbard:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; local telephone service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: satellite communication with Norwegian mainland

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (repeaters 2), shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

Note: there are 5 meteorological/radio stations

@Svalbard:Defense Forces

Note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)

________________________________________________________________________

SWAZILAND

@Swaziland:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 17,360 sq km
land area: 17,200 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: total 535 km, Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower,
forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc

Land use:
arable land: 10.9%
permanent crops: 0.2%
meadows and pastures: 62.2%
forest and woodland: 6.9%
other: 19.8%

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

Environment:
current issues: limited access to potable water; wildlife populations
being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil
degradation; soil erosion
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Law
of the Sea

Note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

@Swaziland:People

Population: 966,977 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (female 222,544; male 221,003)
15-64 years: 52% (female 261,973; male 238,726)
65 years and over: 2% (female 13,291; male 9,440) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.23% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.06 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.8 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 90.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.84 years
male: 52.83 years
female: 60.96 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.1 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi

Ethnic divisions: African 97%, European 3%

Religions: Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%

Languages: English (official; government business conducted in
English), siSwati (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 67%
male: 70%
female: 65%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: private sector about 65%, public sector 35%

@Swaziland:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland

Digraph: WZ

Type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini,
Shiselweni

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12
April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but
has not been formally presented to the people

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory
courts, Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Prince Jameson Mbilini DLAMINI
(since 12 November 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; designated by the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament is advisory
Senate: consists of 30 members (10 appointed by the House of Assembly
and 20 appointed by the king)
House of Assembly: elections last held NA October 1993 (next to be
held NA); results - NA; seats - (65 total, 55 directly elected, 10
appointed by the king) - balloting held on a non-party basis

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
note: political parties are banned by the Constitution promulgated on
13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large
public gatherings
illegal parties: Peoples' United Democratic Movement (PUDEMO), Kilson
SHONOWE; Swaziland Youth Congress (SWAYCO), Benedict TSABEDZE;
Swaziland Communist Party (SWACOPA), Mphandlana SHONGWE

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OAU, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Madzandza Mary KHANYA
chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6683, 6685
FAX: [1] (202) 244-8059

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John T. SPROTT
embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane
mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone: [268] 46441 through 46445
FAX: [268] 45959

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and
blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a
large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated
with feather tassels, all placed horizontally

@Swaziland:Economy

Overview: The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which
occupies more than 60% of the population and contributes nearly 25% to
GDP. Manufacturing, which includes a number of agroprocessing
factories, accounts for another quarter of GDP. Mining has declined in
importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted
by 1978, and health concerns cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of
sugar and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency.
Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique,
Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives
90% of its imports and to which it sends about half of its exports.
Remittances from Swazi workers in South African mines may supplement
domestically produced income by as much as 20%.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,490 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.3% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $342 million
expenditures: $410 million, including capital expenditures of $130
million (1994 est.)

Exports: $632 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: sugar, edible concentrates, wood pulp, cotton yarn,
asbestos
partners: South Africa 50% (est.), EC countries, Canada

Imports: $734 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum
products, foodstuffs, chemicals
partners: South Africa 90% (est.), Switzerland, UK

External debt: $240 million (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.2% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 120,000 kW
production: 410 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,003 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar

Agriculture: accounts for over 60% of labor force; mostly subsistence
agriculture; cash crops - sugarcane, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice,
citrus fruit, pineapples; other crops and livestock - corn, sorghum,
peanuts, cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain

Economic aid:
recipient: bilateral aid (1991) $35 million of which US disbursements
$12 million, UK disbursements $6 million, and Denmark $2 million;
multilateral aid (1991) $24 million of which EC disbursements $8
million

Currency: 1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1 -3.5389 (January 1995), 3.5490
(1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990);
note - the Swazi emalangeni is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Swaziland:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 297 km; note - includes 71 km which are not in use
narrow gauge: 297 km 1.067-m gauge (single track)

Highways:
total: 2,853 km
paved: 510 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 1,230 km; improved
earth 1,113 km

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 18
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 9
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@Swaziland:Communications

Telephone system: 17,000 telephones; telephone density is only 17.6
telephones/1,000 persons
local: NA
intercity: system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and
low-capacity radio relay microwave links
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 6, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 10
televisions: NA

@Swaziland:Defense Forces

Branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal Swaziland
Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 212,239; males fit for military
service 122,782 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22 million, NA% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

SWEDEN

@Sweden:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 449,964 sq km
land area: 410,928 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: total 2,205 km, Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly
cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber,
uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 2%
forest and woodland: 64%
other: 27%

Irrigated land: 1,120 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: acid rain damaging soils and lakes; pollution of the
North Sea and the Baltic Sea
natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in
the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North
Seas

@Sweden:People

Population: 8,821,759 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 810,859; male 854,553)
15-64 years: 64% (female 2,761,060; male 2,856,012)
65 years and over: 17% (female 887,597; male 651,678) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.46% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.19 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.84 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.43 years
male: 75.64 years
female: 81.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.97 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish

Ethnic divisions: white, Lapp (Sami), foreign born or first-generation
immigrants 12% (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal
1%, other 3.5% (1987)

Languages: Swedish
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak
native languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 4.552 million (84% unionized,1992)
by occupation: community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining
and manufacturing 21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%,
banking, insurance 9.0%, communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%,
agriculture, fishing, and forestry 3.2% (1991)

@Sweden:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige

Digraph: SW

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural);
Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan,
Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan,
Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan,
Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan,
Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan,
Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Independence: 6 June 1809 (constitutional monarchy established)

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir
Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King
(born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Ingvar CARLSSON (since 6 October
1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mona SAHLIN (since 6 October 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament (Riksdag): elections last held 18 September 1994 (next to
be held NA September 1998); results - Social Democrats 45.4%, Moderate
Party (Conservatives) 22.3%, Center Party 7.7%, Liberals 7.2%, Left
Party 6.2%, Greens 5.8%, Christian Democrats 4.1%, New Democracy Party
1.2%; seats - (349 total) Social Democrats 162, Moderate Party
(Conservatives) 80, Center Party 27, Liberals 26, Left Party 22,
Greens 18, Christian Democrats 14; note - the New Democracy Party did
not receive a seat because parties require a minimum of 4.8% of votes
for a seat in parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Ingvar
CARLSSON; Moderate Party (conservative), Carl BILDT; Liberal People's
Party, Maria LEISSNER; Center Party, Olof JOHANSSON; Christian
Democratic Party, Alf SVENSSON; New Democracy Party, Vivianne FRANZEN;
Left Party (VP; Communist), Gudrun SCHYMAN; Communist Workers' Party,
Rolf HAGEL; Green Party, no formal leader but party spokesperson is
Birger SHLAUG

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC,
CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 8, G- 9, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR,
NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMOGIP,
UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carl Henrik Sihver LILJEGREN
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas L. SIEBERT
embassy: Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [46] (8) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (8) 661 19 64

Flag: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag;
the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Sweden:Economy

Overview: Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World
War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard
of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive
welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent
internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force.
Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an
economy that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned
firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the
engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. In 1990,
agriculture accounted for only 1.2% of GDP and 1.9% of the jobs,
Sweden being about 50% sufficient in most products. In the last few
years, however, this extraordinarily favorable picture has been
clouded by inflation, growing unemployment, and a gradual loss of
competitiveness in international markets. Although Prime Minister
BILDT's center-right minority coalition had hoped to charge ahead with
free-market-oriented reforms, a skyrocketing budget deficit - about
14% of GDP in FY93/94 projections - and record unemployment have
forestalled many of the plans. Unemployment in 1994 is estimated at
around 9% with another 5% in job training. Continued heavy foreign
exchange speculation forced the government to cooperate in late 1992
with the opposition Social Democrats on two crisis packages - one a
severe austerity pact and the other a program to spur industrial
competitiveness - which basically set economic policy through 1997. In
November 1992, Sweden broke its tie to the EC's ECU, and the krona has
since depreciated about 25% against the dollar. The boost in export
competitiveness from the depreciation helped lift Sweden out of its
3-year recession. To curb the budget deficit and bolster confidence in
the economy, the new Social Democratic government is proposing cuts in
welfare benefits, subsidies, defense, and foreign aid. Sweden has
harmonized its economic policies with those of the EU, which it joined
at the start of 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $163.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $18,580 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $47.9 billion
expenditures: $70.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY93/94)

Exports: $59.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood,
iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
partners: EC 55.8% (Germany 15%, UK 9.7%, Denmark 7.2%, France 5.8%),
EFTA 17.4% (Norway 8.4%, Finland 5.1%), US 8.2%, Central and Eastern
Europe 2.5% (1992)

Imports: $49.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
partners: EC 53.6% (Germany 17.9%, UK 6.3%, Denmark 7.5%, France
4.9%), EFTA (Norway 6.6%, Finland 6%), US 8.4%, Central and Eastern
Europe 3% (1992)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 9% (1994)

Electricity:
capacity: 34,560,000 kW
production: 141 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 14,891 kWh (1993)

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and
telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed
foods, motor vehicles

Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy
products accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops - grains, sugar
beets, potatoes; 100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes; Sweden
is about 50% self-sufficient in most products

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics shipped via the CIS
and Baltic states for the European market

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.3 billion

Currency: 1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 7.4675 (January 1995),
7.7160 (1994), 7.7834 (1993), 5.8238 (1992), 6.0475 (1991) 5.9188
(1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Sweden:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 12,000 km (includes 953 km of privately owned railways)
standard gauge: 10,742 km 1.435-m gauge (7,502 km electrified and
1,152 km double track); 8 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified; privately
owned)
narrow gauge: 61 km 0.891-m gauge (electrified; privately owned)
other: 1,189 km NA-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 135,859 km
paved: 97,818 km (including 936 km of expressways)
unpaved: gravel 38,041 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: natural gas 84 km

Ports: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall, Kalmar,
Karlshamn, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall

Merchant marine:
total: 157 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,872,350 GRT/2,075,722
DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 24, chemical tanker 25, combination
ore/oil 1, container 2, oil tanker 31, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 37, short-sea passenger 8, specialized
tanker 4, vehicle carrier 12

Airports:
total: 253
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 84
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 26
with paved runways under 914 m: 129
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Sweden:Communications

Telephone system: 8,200,000 telephones; excellent domestic and
international facilities; automatic system
local: NA
intercity: coaxial and multiconductor cable carry most voice traffic;
parallel microwave network carries TV, radio, and some additional
telephone channels
international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 360 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0
radios: 7 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 880 (mostly repeaters)
televisions: 3.5 million

@Sweden:Defense Forces

Branches: Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,133,420; males fit for
military service 1,864,258; males reach military age (19) annually
52,937 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $5.4 billion, 2.4% of
GDP (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

SWITZERLAND

@Switzerland:Geography

Location: Central Europe, east of France

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 41,290 sq km
land area: 39,770 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: total 1,852 km, Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy
740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy,
rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with
occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a
central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 40%
forest and woodland: 26%
other: 23%

Irrigated land: 250 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions and open air
burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural
fertilizers; loss of biodiversity
natural hazards: avalanches, landslides, flash floods
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along
with southeastern France and northern Italy, contains the highest
elevations in Europe

@Switzerland:People

Population: 7,084,984 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (female 594,565; male 622,436)
15-64 years: 68% (female 2,375,792; male 2,448,213)
65 years and over: 15% (female 623,136; male 420,842) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.57% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.04 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.16 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.36 years
male: 74.99 years
female: 81.88 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swiss (singular and plural)
adjective: Swiss

Ethnic divisions:
total population: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%,
other 6%
Swiss nationals: German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%,
other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1% (1980)

Languages: German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%, Romansch 1%, other 4%
note: figures for Swiss nationals only - German 74%, French 20%,
Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 3.48 million (900,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian)
by occupation: services 50%, industry and crafts 34%, government 10%,
agriculture and forestry 6% (1992)

@Switzerland:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Swiss Confederation
conventional short form: Switzerland
local long form: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German)
Confederation Suisse (French) Confederazione Svizzera (Italian)
local short form: Schweiz (German) Suisse (French) Svizzera (Italian)

Digraph: SZ

Type: federal republic

Capital: Bern

Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in
French; cantoni, singular - cantone in Italian; kantone, singular -
kanton in German); Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft,
Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden,
Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen,
Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud,
Zug, Zurich

Independence: 1 August 1291

National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss
Confederation, 1 August (1291)

Constitution: 29 May 1874

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of
general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Kaspar VILLIGER (1995
calendar year; presidency rotates annually); Vice President
Jean-Pascal DELAMURAZ (term runs concurrently with that of president)
cabinet: Federal Council (German - Bundesrat, French - Censeil
Federal, Italian - Consiglio Federale); elected by the Federal
Assembly from own members

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (German -
Bundesversammlung, French - Assemblee Federale, Italian - Assemblea
Federale)
Council of States: German - Standerat, French - Conseil des Etats,
Italian - Consiglio degli Stati; elections last held throughout 1991
(next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (46 total) FDP 18, CVP 16, SVP 4, SPS 3, LPS 3, LdU 1, Ticino
League 1
National Council: German - Nationalrat, French - Conseil National,
Italian - Consiglio Nazionale; elections last held 20 October 1991
(next to be held NA October 1995); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (200 total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP 25, GPS 14, LPS
10, AP 8, LdU 6, SD 5, EVP 3, PdA 2, Ticino League 2, other 2

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Free Democratic Party (FDP), Franz
STEINEGGER, president; Social Democratic Party (SPS), Peter BODENMANN,
president; Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP), Anton COTTIER,
president; Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans UHLMANN, president; Green
Party (GPS), Verena DIENER, president; Freedom Party (FPS), Roland
BORER, president; Liberal Party (LPS), Christoph EYMANN, president;
Alliance of Independents' Party (LdU), Monica WEBER, president; Ticino
League, Giuliano BIGNASCA, president; and other minor parties
including the Automobile Party (AP), Swiss Democratic Party (SD),
Workers' Party (PdA), and the Evangelical People's Party (EVP); note -
see elections

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE,
CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G- 8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM
(guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN (observer),
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UNTSO,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlo JAGMETTI
chancery: 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-7900
FAX: [1] (202) 387-2564
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New
York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador M. Larry LAWRENCE
embassy: Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [41] (31) 357 70 11
FAX: [41] (31) 357 73 44
branch office: Geneva
consulate(s) general: Zurich

Flag: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center
that does not extend to the edges of the flag

@Switzerland:Economy

Overview: Switzerland's economy - one of the most prosperous and
stable in the world - is nonetheless undergoing a stressful adjustment
after both the inflationary boom of the late 1980s and the
electorate's rejection of membership in the European Economic Area
(EEA) in 1992. So far the decision to remain outside the European
single market structure does not appear to have harmed Swiss
interests. In December 1994, the Swiss began bilateral negotiations
with the EU aimed at establishing closer ties in areas of mutual
interest and progressing toward the free circulation of persons,
goods, capital, and services between the two parties. The Swiss
emerged from a three-year recession in mid-1993 and posted 1.8% GDP
growth in 1994. The Swiss central bank's tight monetary policies
brought inflation down from about 4% in 1992 to just under 1% in 1994.
Unemployment has fallen slightly from 5.1% in 1993 to 4.7% in 1994.
Swiss per capita output, living standards, education, and health care
remain unsurpassed in Europe. The country has few mineral resources,
but its spectacular natural beauty sustains a substantial tourism
industry.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $148.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $22,080 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.7% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $26.7 billion
expenditures: $32 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994
est.)

Exports: $69.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal
products, foodstuffs, textiles and clothing
partners: Western Europe 63.1% (EU countries 56%, other 7.1%), US
8.8%, Japan 3.4%

Imports: $68.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: agricultural products, machinery and transportation
equipment, chemicals, textiles, construction materials
partners: Western Europe 79.2% (EU countries 72.3%, other 6.9%), US
6.4%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 15,430,000 kW
production: 58 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 6,699 kWh (1993)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision
instruments

Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient
in food; must import fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than
butter), grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $3.5 billion

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 -
1.2880 (January 1995), 1.3677 (1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992),
1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Switzerland:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 5,763 km (1,432 km double track)
standard gauge: 3,533 km 1.435-m gauge (99% electrified; 560 km
nongovernment owned)
narrow gauge: 1,094 km 1.000-m gauge (99% electrified; 1,020 km
nongovernment owned)
other: 1,136 km NA-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 71,118 km
paved: 71,118 km (including 1,514 km of expressways)

Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to
Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes

Pipelines: crude oil 314 km; natural gas 1,506 km

Ports: Basel

Merchant marine:
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 374,935 GRT/669,353 DWT
ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, specialized tanker 1

Airports:
total: 69
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 42
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Switzerland:Communications

Telephone system: 5,890,000 telephones; excellent domestic,
international, and broadcast services
local: NA
intercity: extensive cable and microwave networks
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 265, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 18 (repeaters 1,322)
televisions: NA

@Switzerland:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force and Antiaircraft Command

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,847,639; males fit for
military service 1,582,335; males reach military age (20) annually
41,831 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $4.1 billion, 1.4% of
GDP (1995)

________________________________________________________________________

SYRIA

@Syria:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Lebanon and Turkey

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 185,180 sq km
land area: 184,050 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than North Dakota
note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory

Land boundaries: total 2,253 km, Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375
km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 41 nm
territorial sea: 35 nm

International disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice
Line; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Hatay question with Turkey;
ongoing dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris
and Euphrates Rivers; Syrian troops in northern Lebanon since October
1976

Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and
mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather
with snow or sleet periodically hits Damascus

Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain;
mountains in west

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores,
asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 28%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 46%
forest and woodland: 3%
other: 20%

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1992)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution from dumping of raw sewage and wastes
from petroleum refining; inadequate supplies of potable water
natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms
international agreements: party to - Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified
- Biodiversity, Desertification, Environmental Modification

Note: there are 42 Jewish settlements and civilian land use sites in
the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 1994 est.)

@Syria:People

Population: 15,451,917 (July 1995 est.)
note: in addition, there are 31,000 people living in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights - 16,500 Arabs (15,000 Druze and 1,500
Alawites) and 14,500 Jewish settlers (August 1994 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 3,639,776; male 3,826,154)
15-64 years: 49% (female 3,691,862; male 3,854,989)
65 years and over: 3% (female 219,251; male 219,885) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.71% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.07 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.81 years
male: 65.67 years
female: 68.01 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.55 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Syrian(s)
adjective: Syrian

Ethnic divisions: Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects
16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in
Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)

Languages: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian,
French widely understood

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 64%
male: 78%
female: 51%

Labor force: 4.3 million (1994 est.)
by occupation: miscellaneous and government services 36%, agriculture
32%, industry and construction 32%; note - shortage of skilled labor
(1984)

@Syria:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republic
conventional short form: Syria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah
local short form: Suriyah
former: United Arab Republic (with Egypt)

Digraph: SY

Type: republic under leftwing military regime since March 1963

Capital: Damascus

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As
Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif
Dimashq, Tartus

Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration)

National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

Constitution: 13 March 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special
religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971 see
note); Vice Presidents 'Abd al-Halim ibn Said KHADDAM, Rif'at al-ASAD,
and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984); election last
held 2 December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1998); results -
President Hafiz al-ASAD was reelected for a fourth seven-year term
with 99.98% of the vote; note - President ASAD seized power in the
November 1970 coup, assumed presidential powers 22 February 1971, and
was confirmed as president in the 12 March 1971 national elections
head of government: Prime Minister Mahmud ZU'BI (since 1 November
1987); Deputy Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March
1984); Deputy Prime Minister Salim YASIN (since NA December 1981);
Deputy Prime Minister Rashid AKHTARINI (since 4 July 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
People's Council (Majlis al-Chaab): elections last held 24-25 August
1994 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (250 total) National Progressive Front 167, independents 83

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial Council,
Court of Cassation, State Security Courts

Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Front includes: the ruling Arab Socialist
Resurrectionist (Ba'th) Party, Hafiz al-ASAD, President of the
Republic, Secretary General of the party, and Chairman of the National
Progressive Front; Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP), 'Abd al-Ghani
KANNUT; Arab Socialist Union (ASU), Jamal ATASSI; Syrian Communist
Party (SCP), Khalid BAKDASH; Arab Socialist Unionist Movement, Sami
SOUFAN; and Democratic Socialist Union Party, leader NA

Other political or pressure groups: non-Ba'th parties have little
effective political influence; Communist party ineffective;
conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Walid MUALEM
chancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6313
FAX: [1] (202) 234-9548

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS
embassy: Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansur Street No. 2, Damascus
mailing address: P. O. Box 29, Damascus
telephone: [963] (11) 333-2814, 714-108, 333-3788
FAX: [963] (11) 224-7938

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in
the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white
band and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic
inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also
similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a symbolic eagle centered in
the white band

@Syria:Economy

Overview: In 1990-93 Syria's state-dominated Ba'thist economy
benefited from the Gulf war, increased oil production, good weather,
and economic deregulation. Economic growth averaged roughly 10%. The
Gulf war provided Syria an aid windfall of nearly $5 billion dollars
from Arab, European, and Japanese donors. However, the benefits of the
1990-93 boom were not evenly distributed and the gap between rich and
poor is widening. A nationwide financial scandal and increasing
inflation were accompanied by a decline in GDP growth to 4% in 1994.
For the long run, Syria's economy is still saddled with a large number
of poorly performing public sector firms, and industrial productivity
remains to be improved. Oil production is likely to fall off
dramatically by the end of the decade. Unemployment will become a
problem for the government when the more than 60% of the population
under the age of 20 enter the labor force.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $74.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $5,000 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.3% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1993 est.)

Budget: NA

Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: petroleum 53%, textiles 22%, cotton, fruits and
vegetables, wheat, barley, chickens
partners: EC 48%, former CEMA countries 24%, Arab countries 18% (1991)

Imports: $4 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs 21%, metal products 17%, machinery 15%
partners: EC 37%, former CEMA countries 15%, US and Canada 10% (1991)

External debt: $19.4 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 4,160,000 kW
production: 13.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 865 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate
rock mining, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all
major crops (wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown mainly
on rain-watered land causing wide swings in production; animal
products - beef, lamb, eggs, poultry, milk; not self-sufficient in
grain or livestock products

Illicit drugs: a transit country for Lebanese and Turkish refined
cocaine going to Europe and heroin and hashish bound for regional and
Western markets

Economic aid:
recipient: no US aid; about $4.2 billion in loans and grants from Arab
and Western donors 1990-92 as a result of Gulf war stance

Currency: 1 Syrian pound (#S) = 100 piastres

Exchange rates: Syrian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 11.2 (official fixed
rate), 26.6 (blended rate used by the UN and diplomatic missions),
42.0 (neighboring country rate - applies to most state enterprise
imports), 46.0 - 53.0 (offshore rate) (yearend 1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Syria:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,998 km
broad gauge: 1,766 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 232 km 1.050-m gauge

Highways:
total: 31,569 km
paved: 24,308 km (including 670 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,261 km

Inland waterways: 870 km; minimal economic importance

Pipelines: crude oil 1,304 km; petroleum products 515 km

Ports: Baniyas, Jablah, Latakia, Tartus

Merchant marine:
total: 80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 233,701 GRT/364,714 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 68, vehicle carrier 2

Airports:
total: 107
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 67
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 15

@Syria:Communications

Telephone system: 512,600 telephones; 37 telephones/1,000 persons;
fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital
upgrades, including fiber optic technology
local: NA
intercity: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network
international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik earth
station; 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to
Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 17
televisions: NA

@Syria:Defense Forces

Branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force,
Syrian Arab Air Defense Forces, Police and Security Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,440,030; males fit for
military service 1,927,930; males reach military age (19) annually
159,942 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, 6% of
GDP (1992)

________________________________________________________________________

TAIWAN

@Taiwan:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea,
Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the
Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 35,980 sq km
land area: 32,260 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland and Delaware combined
note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and
Taiwan; Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai) claimed by China and Taiwan

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June
to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently
rolling plains in west

Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone,
marble, and asbestos

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 5%
forest and woodland: 55%
other: 15%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage;
air pollution; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in
endangered species
natural hazards: earthquakes and typhoons
international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Marine Life
Conservation

@Taiwan:People

Population: 21,500,583 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (female 2,543,134; male 2,665,878)
15-64 years: 68% (female 7,191,964; male 7,482,814)
65 years and over: 8% (female 734,535; male 882,258) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.33 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.71 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.47 years
male: 72.17 years
female: 78.93 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic divisions: Taiwanese 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%

Religions: mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian
4.5%, other 2.5%

Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka
dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 86%
male: 93%
female: 79%

Labor force: 7.9 million
by occupation: industry and commerce 53%, services 22%, agriculture
15.6%, civil administration 7% (1989)

@Taiwan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Taiwan
local long form: none
local short form: T'ai-wan

Digraph: TW

Type: multiparty democratic regime; opposition political parties
legalized in March, 1989

Capital: Taipei

Administrative divisions: some of the ruling party in Taipei claim to
be the government of all China; in keeping with that claim, the
central administrative divisions include 2 provinces (sheng, singular
and plural) and 2 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural) -
Fu-chien (some 20 offshore islands of Fujian Province including Quemoy
and Matsu), Kao-hsiung*, T'ai-pei*, and Taiwan (the island of Taiwan
and the Pescadores islands); the more commonly referenced
administrative divisions are those of Taiwan Province - 16 counties
(hsien, singular and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and
plural), and 2 special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and
plural); Chang-hua, Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*,
Hua-lien, I-lan, Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou,
P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung, T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*,
T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin; the
provincial capital is at Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un
note: Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for romanization

National holiday: National Day, 10 October (1911) (Anniversary of the
Revolution)

Constitution: 1 January 1947, amended in 1992, presently undergoing
revision

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988); Vice
President LI Yuan-zu (since 20 May 1990)
head of government: Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) LIEN
Chan (since 23 February 1993); Vice Premier (Vice President of the
Executive Yuan) HSU Li-teh (since 23 February 1993); presidential
election last held 21 March 1990 (next election will probably be a
direct popular election and will be held NA March 1996); results -
President LI Teng-hui was reelected by the National Assembly; vice
presidential election last held 21 March 1990; results - LI Yuan-zu
was elected by the National Assembly
cabinet: Executive Yuan; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Yuan and unicameral
National Assembly
Legislative Yuan: elections last held 19 December 1992 (next to be
held NA December 1995); results - KMT 60%, DPP 31%, independents 9%;
seats - (304 total, 161 elected) KMT 96, DPP 50, independents 15
National Assembly: first National Assembly elected in November 1946
with a supplementary election in December 1986; second and present
National Assembly elected in December 1991; seats - (403 total) KMT
318, DPP 75, other 10; (next election to be held probably in 1996 and
will be a direct popular election)

Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan

Political parties and leaders: Kuomintang (KMT, Nationalist Party), LI
Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), SHIH Ming-teh,
chairman; Chinese New Party (CNP); Labor Party (LP)

Other political or pressure groups: Taiwan independence movement,
various environmental groups
note: debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the
mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; political liberalization
and the increased representation of the opposition Democratic
Progressive Party in Taiwan's legislature have opened public debate on
the island's national identity; advocates of Taiwan independence, both
within the DPP and the ruling Kuomintang, oppose the ruling party's
traditional stand that the island will eventually unify with mainland
China; the aims of the Taiwan independence movement include
establishing a sovereign nation on Taiwan and entering the UN; other
organizations supporting Taiwan independence include the World United
Formosans for Independence and the Organization for Taiwan Nation
Building

Member of: expelled from UN General Assembly and Security Council on
25 October 1971 and withdrew on same date from other
charter-designated subsidiary organs; expelled from IMF/World Bank
group April/May 1980; seeking to join GATT; attempting to retain
membership in INTELSAT; suspended from IAEA in 1972, but still allows
IAEA controls over extensive atomic development, APEC, AsDB, BCIE,
ICC, IOC, WCL

Diplomatic representation in US: none; unofficial commercial and
cultural relations with the people of the US are maintained through a
private instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural
Representative Office (TECRO) with headquarters in Taipei and field
offices in Washington and 10 other US cities

US diplomatic representation: unofficial commercial and cultural
relations with the people of Taiwan are maintained through a private
institution, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), which has offices
in Taipei at #7, Lane 134, Hsin Yi Road, Section 3, telephone [886]
(2) 709-2000, and in Kao-hsiung at #2 Chung Cheng 3d Road, telephone
[886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157, and the American Trade Center at Room
3207 International Trade Building, Taipei World Trade Center, 333
Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei 10548, telephone [886] (2) 720-1550

Flag: red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays

@Taiwan:Economy

Overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with considerable
government guidance of investment and foreign trade and partial
government ownership of some large banks and industrial firms. Real
growth in GNP has averaged about 9% a year during the past three
decades. Export growth has been even faster and has provided the
impetus for industrialization. Inflation and unemployment are
remarkably low. Agriculture contributes about 4% to GDP, down from 35%
in 1952. Taiwan currently ranks as number 13 among major trading
countries. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being
replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries.
Taiwan has become a major investor in China, Thailand, Indonesia, the
Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. The tightening of labor markets
has led to an influx of foreign workers, both legal and illegal.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $257 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $12,070 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $30.3 billion
expenditures: $30.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1991 est.)

Exports: $93 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: electrical machinery 19.7%, electronic products 19.6%,
textiles 10.9%, footwear 3.3%, foodstuffs 1.0%, plywood and wood
products 0.9% (1993 est.)
partners: US 27.6%, Hong Kong 21.7%, EC countries 15.2%, Japan 10.5%
(1994 est.)

Imports: $85.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: machinery and equipment 15.7%, electronic products 15.6%,
chemicals 9.8%, iron and steel 8.5%, crude oil 3.9%, foodstuffs 2.1%
(1993 est.)
partners: Japan 30.1%, US 21.7%, EC countries 17.6% (1993 est.)

External debt: $620 million (1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.5% (1994 est.); accounts for more
than 40% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 21,460,000 kW
production: 108 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 4,789 kWh (1993)

Industries: electronics, textiles, chemicals, clothing, food
processing, plywood, sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum
refining

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP and 16% of labor force (includes
part-time farmers); heavily subsidized sector; major crops -
vegetables, rice, fruit, tea; livestock - hogs, poultry, beef, milk;
not self-sufficient in wheat, soybeans, corn; fish catch increasing,
reached 1.4 million metric tons in 1988

Illicit drugs: an important heroin transit point; also a major drug
money laundering center

Economic aid:
recipient: US, including Ex-Im (FY46-82), $4.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $500
million

Currency: 1 New Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Taiwan dollars per US$1 - 26.2 (1994), 26.6
(1993), 25.4 (1992), 25.748 (1991), 27.108 (1990), 26.407 (1989)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Taiwan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 4,600 km; note - 1,075 km in common carrier service and about
3,525 km is dedicated to industrial use
narrow gauge: 4,600 km 1.067-m

Highways:
total: 20,041 km
paved: bituminous, concrete pavement 17,095 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 2,371 km; graded earth 575 km

Pipelines: petroleum products 615 km; natural gas 97 km

Ports: Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Kao-hsiung, Su-ao, T'ai-chung

Merchant marine:
total: 198 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,635,682 GRT/8,652,111
DWT
ships by type: bulk 55, cargo 30, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
2, combination ore/oil 1, container 78, oil tanker 17, passenger-cargo
1, refrigerated cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 41
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 8
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6
with paved runways under 914 m: 8
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2

@Taiwan:Communications

Telephone system: 7,800,000 telephones; best developed system in Asia
outside of Japan
local: NA
intercity: extensive microwave radio relay links on east and west
coasts
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
stations; submarine cable links to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines, Guam,
Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and Western
Europe

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 23, shortwave 0
radios: 8.62 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 15 (repeaters 13)
televisions: 6.386 million (color 5,680,000, monochrome 706,000)

@Taiwan:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, Coastal Patrol and
Defense Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Military Police Command

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,293,884; males fit for
military service 4,863,014; males reach military age (19) annually
201,191 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $9.8 billion, 3.4% of
GDP (FY94/95); $9.77 billion proposed for FY95/96 budget

________________________________________________________________________

TAJIKISTAN

Note--Tajikistan has experienced three changes of government since it
gained independence in September 1991. The current president, Emomali
RAKHMONOV, was elected to the presidency in November 1994, yet has
been in power since 1992. The country is suffering through its third
year of a civil war, with no clear end in sight. Underlying the
conflict are deeply-rooted regional and clan-based animosities that
pit a government consisting of people primarily from the Kulob
(Kulyab), Khujand (Leninabad), and Hisor (Hissar) regions against a
secular and Islamic-led opposition from the Gharm, Gorno-Badakhshan,
and Qurghonteppa (Kurgan-Tyube) regions. Government and opposition
representatives have held periodic rounds of UN-mediated peace talks
and agreed in September 1994 to a cease-fire. Russian-led peacekeeping
troops are deployed throughout the country, and Russian border guards
are stationed along the Tajik-Afghan border.

@Tajikistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, west of China

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian
States

Area:
total area: 143,100 sq km
land area: 142,700 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: total 3,651 km, Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km,
Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: boundary with China in dispute; territorial
dispute with Kyrgyzstan on northern boundary in Isfara Valley area;
Afghanistan's and other foreign support to Tajik rebels based in
northern Afghanistan

Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid
to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain: Pamir and Altay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana
Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Natural resources: significant hydropower potential, some petroleum,

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