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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Island)

Land boundaries: total 4,750 km, Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km,
Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,798 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom;

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days,
cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow
coastal plain

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore,
manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum,
copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 65%
forest and woodland: 3%
other: 21%

Irrigated land: 11,280 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires
extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water
usage threatens to outpace supply; pollution of rivers from
agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in
acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: prolonged droughts
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Note: South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely
surrounds Swaziland

@South Africa:People

Population:
total: 45,095,459 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 8,842,764; male 9,091,722)
15-64 years: 56% (female 12,825,617; male 12,508,039)
65 years and over: 4% (female 1,047,285; male 780,032) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate:
total: 2.61% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 33.39 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.42 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.42 years
male: 62.68 years
female: 68.25 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.35 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: South African(s)
adjective: South African

Ethnic divisions: black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%

Religions: Christian (most whites and Coloreds and about 60% of
blacks), Hindu (60% of Indians), Muslim 2%

Languages: eleven official languages, including Afrikaans, English,
Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 76%
male: 78%
female: 75%

Labor force: 13.4 million economically active (1990)
by occupation: services 35%, agriculture 30%, industry 20%, mining 9%,
other 6%

@South Africa:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa

Abbreviation: RSA

Digraph: SF

Type: republic

Capital: Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative);
Bloemfontein (judicial)

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Eastern
Transvaal, KwaZulu/Natal, Northern Cape, Northern Transvaal,
Northwest, Orange Free State, Gauteng, Western Cape

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

National holiday: Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)

Constitution: 27 April 1994 (interim constitution, replacing the
constitution of 3 September 1984)

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: Executive President Nelson
MANDELA (since 10 May 1994); Deputy Executive President Thabo MBEKI
(since 10 May 1994); Deputy Executive President Frederik W. DE KLERK
(since 10 May 1994)
note: any political party that wins 20% or more of the National
Assembly votes in a general election is entitled to name a Deputy
Executive President
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the Executive President

Legislative branch: bicameral
National Assembly: elections last held 26-29 April 1994 (next to be
held NA); results - ANC 62.6%, NP 20.4%, IFP 10.5%, FF 2.2%, DP 1.7%,
PAC 1.2%, ACDP 0.5%, other 0.9%; seats - (400 total) ANC 252, NP 82,
IFP 43, FF 9, DP 7, PAC 5, ACDP 2
Senate: the Senate is composed of members who are nominated by the
nine provincial parliaments (which are elected in parallel with the
National Assembly) and has special powers to protect regional
interests, including the right to limited self-determination for
ethnic minorities; seats - (90 total) ANC 61, NP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3

note: when the National Assembly meets in joint session with the
Senate to consider the provisions of the constitution, the combined
group is referred to as the Constitutional Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: African National Congress (ANC), Nelson
MANDELA, president; National Party (NP), Frederik W. DE KLERK,
president; Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI,
president; Freedom Front (FF), Constand VILJOEN, president; Democratic
Party (DP); Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), Clarence MAKWETU,
president; African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP), leader NA
note: in addition to these seven parties which received seats in the
National Assembly, twelve other parties won votes in the national
elections in April 1994

Other political or pressure groups: NA;;

Member of: BIS, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM,
IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin SONN
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400
consulate(s) general: Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, and New
York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Princeton N. LYMAN
embassy: 877 Pretorius St., Arcadia 0083
mailing address: P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 342-1048
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2244
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg

Flag: two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated
by a central green band which splits into a horozontal Y, the arms of
which end at the corners of the hoist side, embracing a black isoceles
triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the
red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by
narrow white stripes
note: prior to 26 April 1994, the flag was actually four flags in one
- three miniature flags reproduced in the center of the white band of
the former flag of the Netherlands, which has three equal horizontal
bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags are a
vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal
flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of
the old Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

@South Africa:Economy

Overview: Many of the white one-seventh of the South African
population enjoy incomes, material comforts, and health and
educational standards equal to those of Western Europe. In contrast,
most of the remaining population suffers from the poverty patterns of
the Third World, including unemployment and lack of job skills. The
main strength of the economy lies in its rich mineral resources, which
provide two-thirds of exports. Economic developments for the remainder
of the 1990s will be driven largely by the new government's attempts
to improve black living conditions, to set the country on an
aggressive export-led growth path, and to cut back the enormous
numbers of unemployed. The economy in recent years has absorbed less
than 5% of the more than 300,000 workers entering the labor force
annually. Local economists estimate that the economy must grow between
5% and 6% in real terms annually to absorb all of the new entrants,
much less reduce the accumulated total.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $194.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,420 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 32.6% (1994 est.); an additional 11%
underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $26.3 billion
expenditures: $34 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.5
billion (FY93/94 est.)

Exports: $25.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: gold 27%, other minerals and metals 20%-25%, food 5%,
chemicals 3%
partners: Italy, Japan, US, Germany, UK, other EU countries, Hong Kong

Imports: $21.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%,
oil, textiles, scientific instruments
partners: Germany, US, Japan, UK, Italy

External debt: $18 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 40% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 39,750,000 kW
production: 163 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,482 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold,
chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron
and steel, chemical, fertilizer, foodstuffs

Agriculture: accounts for about 5% of GDP and 30% of labor force;
diversified agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products -
cattle, poultry, sheep, wool, milk, beef, corn, wheat, sugarcane,
fruits, vegetables; self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: transshipment center for heroin and cocaine; cocaine
consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit
methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various
east African countries

Economic aid: many aid packages for the new government are still being
prepared; current aid pledges include US $600 million over 3 years; UK
$150 million over 3 years; Australia $21 million over 3 years; Japan
$1.3 billion over 2 years

Currency: 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: rand (R) per US$1 - 3.5389 (January 1995), 3.5490
(1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@South Africa:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 20,638 km
narrow gauge: 20,324 km 1.067-m gauge (substantial electrification);
314 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 188,309 km
paved: 54,013 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 134,296 km

Pipelines: crude oil 931 km; petroleum products 1,748 km; natural gas
322 km

Ports: Cape Town, Durban, East London, Mosselbaai, Port Elizabeth,
Richards Bay, Saldanha

Merchant marine:
total: 4 container ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 211,276
GRT/198,602 DWT

Airports:
total: 853
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 72
with paved runways under 914 m: 327
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 39
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 354

@South Africa:Communications

Telephone system: over 4,500,000 telephones; the system is the best
developed, most modern, and has the highest capacity in Africa
local: NA
intercity: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial
cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber optic cable, and
radiocommunication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town,
Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: 1 submarine cable; 3 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 2
Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 286, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 67
televisions: NA

@South Africa:Defense Forces

Branches: South African National Defence Force (SANDF; includes Army,
Navy, Air Force, and Medical Services), South African Police Service
(SAPS)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 10,830,079; males fit for
military service 6,601,323; males reach military age (18) annually
439,793 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.2 billion, 2.8% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands:Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
east of the tip of South America

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total area: 4,066 sq km
land area: 4,066 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island
note: includes Shag Rocks, Clerke Rocks, Bird Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: NA km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year,
interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as
snow

Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged
and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep,
glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic
origin with some active volcanoes

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some
sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: the South Sandwich Islands have prevailing weather
conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship;
they are also subject to active volcanism
international agreements: NA

Note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which
provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in this century,
live on South Georgia

@South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands:People

Population: no indigenous population; there is a small military
garrison on South Georgia, and the British Antarctic Survey has a
biological station on Bird Island; the South Sandwich Islands are
uninhabited

@South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
conventional short form: none

Digraph: SX

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: none; Grytviken on South Georgia is the garrison town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Commissioner David Everard TATHAM (since August 1992;
resident at Stanley, Falkland Islands)

Legislative branch: no elections

Judicial branch: none

@South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands:Economy

Overview: Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a
potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The
islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.

Budget:
revenues: $291,777
expenditures: $451,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988
est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 900 kW
production: 2 million kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1992)

@South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands:Transportation

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Grytviken

Airports: none

@South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; coastal radio station at Grytviken
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

SPAIN

@Spain:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay,
Mediterranean Sea, and North Atlantic Ocean, southwest of France

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 504,750 sq km
land area: 499,400 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
note: includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco -
Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de
Velez de la Gomera

Land boundaries: total 1,903.2 km, Andorra 65 km, France 623 km,
Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls
five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast
of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco
contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez
de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and
cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy
and cool along coast

Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills;
Pyrenees in north

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites,
fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 31%
permanent crops: 10%
meadows and pastures: 21%
forest and woodland: 31%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 33,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and
effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; air pollution;
deforestation; desertification
natural hazards: periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Spain:People

Population: 39,404,348 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (female 3,214,606; male 3,446,643)
15-64 years: 68% (female 13,377,839; male 13,457,683)
65 years and over: 15% (female 3,461,367; male 2,446,210) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.27% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.86 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.91 years
male: 74.67 years
female: 81.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish

Ethnic divisions: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other sects 1%

Languages: Castilian Spanish, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 96%
male: 98%
female: 94%

Labor force: 14.621 million
by occupation: services 53%, industry 24%, agriculture 14%,
construction 9% (1988)

@Spain:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local short form: Espana

Digraph: SP

Type: parliamentary monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades
autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon,
Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon,
Cataluna, Communidad Valencia, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares,
La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco
note: there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of
Morocco (Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and
Penon de Velez de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

National holiday: National Day, 12 October

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975)
head of government: Prime Minister Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez (since 2
December 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Narcis SERRA y Serra (since 13
March 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; designated by the prime minister
Council of State: is the supreme consultative organ of the government

Legislative branch: bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly
(Las Cortes Generales)
Senate (Senado): elections last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held by
June 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (255 total)
PSOE 117, PP 107, CiU 15, PNV 5, IU 2, other 9
Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados): elections last held
6 June 1993 (next to be held by June 1997); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (350 total) PSOE 159, PP 141, IU 18, CiU 17, PNV
5, CC 4, HB 2, other 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)

Political parties and leaders:
principal national parties, from right to left: Popular Party (PP),
Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez; Democratic Social Center (CDS), Rafael CALVO
Ortega; Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Felipe GONZALEZ
Marquez, secretary general; Socialist Democracy Party (DS), Ricardo
GARCIA Damborenea; Spanish Communist Party (PCE), Julio ANGUITA
Gonzalez; United Left (IU - a coalition of parties including the PCE,
a branch of the PSOE, and other small parties), Julio ANGUITA Gonzalez

chief regional parties: Convergence and Union (CiU), Miquel ROCA i
Junyent, secretary general; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), Xabier
ARZALLUS Antia and Jose Antonio ARDANZA; Basque United People (HB),
Jon IDIGORAS Guerricabeitia and Inaki ESNAOLA; Canarian Coalition
(CC), a coalition of five parties

Other political or pressure groups: on the extreme left, the Basque
Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the First of October Antifascist
Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to oppose the government; free
labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the
Communist-dominated Workers Commissions (CCOO); the Socialist General
Union of Workers (UGT), and the smaller independent Workers Syndical
Union (USO); business and landowning interests; the Catholic Church;
Opus Dei; university students

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE,
CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G- 8, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA
(observer), MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIH,
UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime De OJEDA Eiseley
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard N. GARDNER
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (1) 577-4000
FAX: [34] (1) 577-5735
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
consulate(s): Bilbao

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and
red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow
band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars
of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on
either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

@Spain:Economy

Overview: Spain, with a per capita output approximately two-thirds
that of the four leading economies of Western Europe, has shared with
these countries the recession of the early 1990s and the upturn of
their economic fortunes in 1994. But whereas unemployment in these
countries has hovered just above 10%, Spain has been forced to cope
with a 25% unemployment rate. Continued political turmoil has
complicated the establishment of stable government policies toward
budgetary restraint, interest rates, labor law reform, and Spain's
role in the evolving economic integration of Western Europe. Because
the recession has been so deep, the growth in industrial output,
tourism, and other sectors in 1994, while welcome, falls far short of
the growth required to bring unemployment down to, say, 10%. The
recovery in the economies of major trade partners, the comparatively
low inflation rate, lower interest rates, and prospects in the tourist
sector suggest that Spain can make substantial progress in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $515.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $13,120 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.9% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 24.5% (yearend 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $97.7 billion
expenditures: $128 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993 est.)

Exports: $72.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, machinery
partners: EC 71.2%, US 4.8%, other developed countries 7.9% (1992)

Imports: $92.5 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished
goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals
partners: EC 60.7%, US 7.4%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle
East 5.9% (1992)

External debt: $90 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 43,800,000 kW
production: 148 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,545 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and
beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding,
automobiles, machine tools, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for about 5% of GDP and 14% of labor force;
major products - grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets,
citrus fruit, beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in
food; fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons is among top 20 nations

Illicit drugs: key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine
and North African hashish entering the European market; transshipment
point for Southwest Asian heroin

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-79), $545 million
note: not currently a recipient

Currency: 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 132.61 (January 1995),
133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Spain:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 14,400 km
broad gauge: 12,111 km 1.668-m gauge (6,404 km electrified; 2,295 km
double track)
standard gauge: 515 km 1.435-m gauge (515 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,774 km (privately owned: 1,727 km 1.000-m gauge, 560
km electrified; 28 km 0.914-m gauge, 28 km electrified; government
owned: 19 km 1.000-m gauge, all electrified)

Highways:
total: 331,961 km
paved: 328,641 km (2,700 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,320 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Pipelines: crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas
1,666 km

Ports: Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon de la
Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Malaga,
Melilla, Pasajes, Puerto de Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary
Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo

Merchant marine:
total: 157 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 868,326 GRT/1,382,335
DWT
ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 41, chemical tanker 11, container 9,
liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 25, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo
12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 34, short-sea passenger 5, specialized
tanker 2

Airports:
total: 106
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 15
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 12
with paved runways under 914 m: 34
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 16

@Spain:Communications

Telephone system: 15,350,464 telephones; generally adequate, modern
facilities
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 22 coaxial submarine cables; 2 earth stations for
INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); earth stations for
working the EUTELSAT, INMARSAT, and MARECS satellite communications
systems; microwave tropospheric scatter links to adjacent countries

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 190, FM 406 (repeaters 134), shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 100 (repeaters 1,297)
televisions: NA

@Spain:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard, National
Police, Coastal Civil Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 10,435,970; males fit for
military service 8,434,460; males reach military age (20) annually
335,967 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $8 billion, 1.6% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

SPRATLY ISLANDS

@Spratly Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of reefs in the South China Sea,
about two-thirds of the way from southern Vietnam to the southern
Philippines

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: NA sq km but less than 5 km2
land area: less than 5 sq km
comparative area: NA
note: includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered
over the South China Sea

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 926 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and
the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive economic
zone, which encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the
island

Climate: tropical

Terrain: flat

Natural resources: fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas
potential

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: typhoons; serious maritime hazard because of numerous
reefs and shoals
international agreements: NA

Note: strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the
central South China Sea; includes numerous small islands, atolls,
shoals, and coral reefs

@Spratly Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered
garrisons

@Spratly Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Spratly Islands

Digraph: PG

@Spratly Islands:Economy

Overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing. The
proximity to nearby oil- and gas-producing sedimentary basins suggests
the potential for oil and gas deposits, but the region is largely
unexplored, and there are no reliable estimates of potential reserves;
commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

Industries: none

@Spratly Islands:Transportation

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 4
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Spratly Islands:Communications

Telephone system:
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Spratly Islands:Defense Forces

Note: about 50 small islands or reefs are occupied by China, Malaysia,
the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

________________________________________________________________________

SRI LANKA

@Sri Lanka:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 65,610 sq km
land area: 64,740 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,340 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March);
southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central
interior

Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems,
phosphates, clay

Land use:
arable land: 16%
permanent crops: 17%
meadows and pastures: 7%
forest and woodland: 37%
other: 23%

Irrigated land: 5,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations
threatened by poaching; coastal degradation from mining activities and
increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial
wastes and sewage runoff
natural hazards: occasional cyclones and tornadoes
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Marine Life Conservation

Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

@Sri Lanka:People

Population: 18,342,660 (July 1995 est.)
note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and
armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand
Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of late 1992, nearly 115,000
were housed in refugee camps in south India, another 95,000 lived
outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought
political asylum in the West

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (female 2,597,969; male 2,713,696)
15-64 years: 65% (female 6,042,228; male 5,902,343)
65 years and over: 6% (female 547,715; male 538,709) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.15% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 18.13 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.78 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.14 years
male: 69.58 years
female: 74.82 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic divisions: Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay,
and Vedda 1%

Religions: Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%

Languages: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil
(national language) 18%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken by about
10% of the population

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 88%
male: 93%
female: 84%

Labor force: 6.6 million
by occupation: agriculture 45.9%, mining and manufacturing 13.3%,
trade and transport 12.4%, services and other 28.4% (1985 est.)

@Sri Lanka:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form: Sri Lanka
former: Ceylon

Digraph: CE

Type: republic

Capital: Colombo

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Central, North Central, North
Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western

Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)

Constitution: adopted 16 August 1978

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law,
Roman-Dutch, Muslim, Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Chandrika
Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Sirimavo
BANDARANAIKE is the Prime Minister; in Sri Lanka the president is
considered to be both the chief of state and the head of the
government, this is in contrast to the more common practice of
dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when
both offices exist; election last held 9 November 1994 (next to be
held NA November 2000); results - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA
(People's Alliance) 62%, Srima DISSANAYAKE (United National Party)
37%, other 1%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president in consultation with the
prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 16 August 1994 (next to be held by
August 2000); results - PA 49.0%, UNP 44.0%, SLMC 1.8%, TULF 1.7%,
SLPF 1.1%, EPDP 0.3%, UPF 0.3%, PLOTE 0.1%, other 1.7%; seats - (225
total) PA 105, UNP 94, EPDP 9, SLMC 7, TULF 5, PLOTE 3, SLPF 1, UPF 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), C. G.
Kumar PONNAMBALAM; Ceylon Workers Congress (CLDC), S. THONDAMAN;
Communist Party, K. P. SILVA; Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N.
SHANMUGATHASAN; Democratic People's Liberation Front (DPLF), leader
NA; Democratic United National Front (DUNF), G. M. PREMACHANDRA; Eelam
People's Democratic Party (EPDP), Douglas DEVANANDA; Eelam People's
Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRL), Suresh PREMACHANDRAN; Eelam
Revolutionary Organization of Students (EROS), Shankar RAJI; Lanka
Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP, or Lanka Sama Samaja Party), Colin
R. DE SILVA; Liberal Party (LP), Chanaka AMARATUNGA; New Socialist
Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama Samaja Party), Vasudeva NANAYAKKARA;
People's Alliance (PA), Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA; People's
Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE), Dharmalingam
SIDARTHAN; People's United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath Peramuna),
Dinesh GUNAWARDENE; Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo
BANDARANAIKE; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), M. H. M. ASHRAFF; Sri
Lanka People's Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka Mahajana Party), Ossie
ABEYGUNASEKERA; Sri Lanka Progressive Front (SLPF), leader NA; Tamil
Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), leader NA; Tamil United
Liberation Front (TULF), M. SIVASITHAMBARAM; United National Party
(UNP), Ranil WICKREMANSINGHE; Upcountry People's Front (UPF), leader
NA; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim parties, represented in either
parliament or provincial councils
note: the United Socialist Alliance (USA), which was formed in 1987
and included the NSSP, LSSP, SLMP, CP/M, and CP/B, was defunct as of
1993, following the formation of the People's Alliance Party (PA)

Other political or pressure groups: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(LTTE) and other smaller Tamil separatist groups; other radical
chauvinist Sinhalese groups; Buddhist clergy; Sinhalese Buddhist lay
groups; labor unions

Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jayantha DHANAPALA
chancery: 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 through 4028
FAX: [1] (202) 232-7181
consulate(s): New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Teresita C. SCHAFFER
embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone: [94] (1) 448007
FAX: [94] (1) 437345

Flag: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two
equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel
is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and
there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as
a border that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two
panels

@Sri Lanka:Economy

Overview: Industry - dominated by the fast-growing apparel industry -
has surpassed agriculture as the main source of export earnings and
accounts for over 16% of GDP. The economy has been plagued by high
rates of unemployment since the late 1970s. Economic growth, which has
been depressed by ethnic unrest, accelerated in 1991-94 as domestic
conditions began to improve and conditions for foreign investment
brightened. Currently, however, the new government's emphasis on
populist measures has clouded Sri Lanka's economic prospects.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $57.6 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,190 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.6% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.3 billion
expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.5
billion (1993)

Exports: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: garments and textiles, teas, diamonds, other gems,
petroleum products, rubber products, other agricultural products,
marine products, graphite
partners: US 35.2%, Germany, UK, Belgium-Luxembourg, Japan,
Netherlands, France (1993)

Imports: $4 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: textiles and textile materials, machinery and equipment,
transport equipment, petroleum, building materials
partners: Japan, India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore,
China (1993)

External debt: $7.2 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 9% (1993 est.); accounts for 16% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 1,410,000 kW
production: 3.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 168 kWh (1993)

Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other
agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining,
textiles, tobacco

Agriculture: accounts for one-fourth of GDP; field crops - rice,
sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops - tea,
rubber, coconuts; animal products - milk, eggs, hides, meat; not
self-sufficient in rice production

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $5.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $369 million

Currency: 1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (SLRes) per US$1 - 50.115 (January
1995), 49.415 (1994), 48.322 (1993), 43.830 (1992), 41.372 (1991),
40.063 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Sri Lanka:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,948 km
broad gauge: 1,948 km 1.868-m gauge (102 km double track) (1990)

Highways:
total: 75,263 km
paved: mostly bituminous treated 27,637 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 32,887 km; improved, unimproved earth
14,739 km

Inland waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)

Ports: Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Trincomalee

Merchant marine:
total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 289,115 GRT/453,609 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 12, container 1, oil tanker 3,
refrigerated cargo 8

Airports:
total: 14
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1

@Sri Lanka:Communications

Telephone system: 114,000 telephones (1982); very inadequate domestic
service, good international service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: submarine cables extend to Indonesia and Djibouti; 2
INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 5
televisions: NA

@Sri Lanka:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,990,661; males fit for
military service 3,888,372; males reach military age (18) annually
178,926 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $412 million, 3.6% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

SUDAN

@Sudan:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and
Eritrea

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 2,505,810 sq km
land area: 2.376 million sq km
comparative area: slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US

Land boundaries: total 7,687 km, Central African Republic 1,165 km,
Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km,
Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km, Zaire 628 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administrative boundary with Kenya does not
coincide with international boundary; administrative boundary with
Egypt does not coincide with international boundary creating the
"Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km, tensions over this
disputed area began to escalate in 1992 and remain high

Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April
to October)

Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west

Natural resources: small reserves of petroleum, iron ore, copper,
chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 24%
forest and woodland: 20%
other: 51%

Irrigated land: 18,900 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife
populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion;
desertification
natural hazards: dust storms
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Desertification

Note: largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its
tributaries

@Sudan:People

Population: 30,120,420 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (female 6,801,001; male 7,124,892)
15-64 years: 52% (female 7,706,864; male 7,830,980)
65 years and over: 2% (female 280,297; male 376,386) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.35% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 41.29 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.74 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: the flow of refugees from the civil war in Sudan into
neighboring countries continues, often at the rate of tens of
thousands annually; Uganda was the main recipient of Sudanese refugees
in the past year; repatriation of Eritrean and Ethiopean refugees in
Sudan continues

Infant mortality rate: 77.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.71 years
male: 53.81 years
female: 55.65 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese

Ethnic divisions: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other
1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%,
Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)

Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of
Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note: program of Arabization in process

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1983)
total population: 32%
male: 44%
female: 21%

Labor force: 6.5 million
by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government
6%
note: labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment
(1983 est.)

@Sudan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Digraph: SU

Type: ruling military junta - Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) -
dissolved on 16 October 1993 and government civilianized

Capital: Khartoum

Administrative divisions: 9 states (wilayat, singular - wilayat or
wilayah*); A'ali an Nil, Al Wusta*, Al Istiwa'iyah*, Al Khartum, Ash
Shamaliyah*, Ash Sharqiyah*, Bahr al Ghazal, Darfur, Kurdufan
note: on 14 February 1994, the 9 states comprising Sudan were divided
into 26 new states; the new state boundary alignments are undetermined

Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985;
interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30
June 1989

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20
January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed
Islamic law in the northern states; the council is still studying
criminal provisions under Islamic law; Islamic law applies to all
residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some
separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
Chief of State and Head of Government: President Lt. General Umar
Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); prior to 16 October
1993, BASHIR served concurrently as Chief of State, Chairman of the
RCC, Prime Minister, and Minister of Defence (since 30 June 1989);
First Vice President Major General al-Zubayr Muhammad SALIH (since 19
October 1993); Second Vice President (Police) Maj. General George
KONGOR (since NA February 1994); note - upon its dissolution on 16
October 1993, the RCC's executive and legislative powers were devolved
to the President and the Transitional National Assembly (TNA), Sudan's
appointed legislative body
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president; note - on 30 October
1993, President BASHIR announced a new, predominantly civilian
cabinet, consisting of 20 federal ministers, most of whom retained
their previous cabinet positions; on 9 February 1995, he abolished
three ministries and redivided their portfolios to create several new
ministries; these changes increased National Islamic Front presence at
the ministerial level and consolidated its control over the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs; President BASHIR's government is dominated by
members of Sudan's National Islamic Front, a fundamentalist political
organization formed from the Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; front leader
Hasan al-TURABI controls Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign
policies

Legislative branch: appointed 300-member Transitional National
Assembly; officially assumes all legislative authority for Sudan until
the proposed 1995 resumption of national elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts

Political parties and leaders: none; banned following 30 June 1989
coup

Other political or pressure groups: National Islamic Front, Hasan
al-TURABI

Member of: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmad SULAYMAN
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565 through 8570
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. PETTERSON
embassy: Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif, Khartoum
mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: 74700, 74611 (operator assistance required)
FAX: Telex 22619 AMEMSD

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

@Sudan:Economy

Overview: Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic political
instability, adverse weather, high inflation, a drop in remittances
from abroad, and counterproductive economic policies. Governmental
entities account for more than 70% of new investment. The private
sector's main areas of activity are agriculture and trading, with most
private industrial investment predating 1980. Agriculture employs 80%
of the work force. Industry mainly processes agricultural items.
Sluggish economic performance over the past decade, attributable
largely to declining annual rainfall, has reduced levels of per capita
income and consumption. A large foreign debt and huge arrearages
continue to cause difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary
Fund took the unusual step of declaring Sudan noncooperative because
of its nonpayment of arrearages to the Fund. After Sudan backtracked
on promised reforms in 1992-93, the IMF threatened to expel Sudan from
the Fund. To avoid expulsion, Khartoum agreed to make payments on its
arrears to the Fund, liberalize exchange rates, and reduce subsidies.
These measures have been partially implemented. The government's
continued prosecution of the civil war and its growing international
isolation led to a further deterioration of the nonagricultural
sectors of the economy during 1994. Agriculture, on the other hand,
after several disappointing years, enjoyed a bumper fall harvest in
1994; its strong performance produced an overall growth rate in GDP of
perhaps 7%.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $23.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 7% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $870 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 112% (FY93/94 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (FY92/93 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $493 million
expenditures: $1.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $225
million (1994 est.)

Exports: $419 million (f.o.b., FY93/94)
commodities: gum arabic 29%, livestock/meat 24%, cotton 13%, sesame,
peanuts
partners: Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%,
Japan 9%, US 3% (FY87/88)

Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., FY93/94)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods,
machinery and equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles
partners: Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%, Eastern
Europe 3% (FY87/88)

External debt: $17 billion (June 1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.8% (FY92/93 est.); accounts for
11% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 500,000 kW
production: 1.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 42 kWh (1993)

Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap
distilling, shoes, petroleum refining

Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GDP; major products - cotton,
oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sheep; marginally
self-sufficient in most foods

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.5 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $5.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $588 million

Currency: 1 Sudanese pound (#Sd) = 100 piastres

Exchange rates: official rate - Sudanese pounds (#Sd) per US$1 - 434.8
(January 1995), 277.8 (1994), 153.8 (1993), 69.4 (1992), 5.4288
(1991), 4.5004 (1990); note - the commercial rate is 300 Sudanese
pounds per US$1

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Sudan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 5,516 km
narrow gauge: 4,800 km 1.067-m gauge; 716 km 1.6096-m gauge plantation
line

Highways:
total: 20,703 km
paved: bituminous treated 2,000 km
unpaved: gravel 4,000 km; improved earth 2,304 km; unimproved earth
12,399 km

Inland waterways: 5,310 km navigable

Pipelines: refined products 815 km

Ports: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan, Sawakin

Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 43,024 GRT/122,379 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2

Airports:
total: 70
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 13
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 33

@Sudan:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; large, well-equipped system by
African standards, but barely adequate and poorly maintained by modern
standards
local: NA
intercity: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radio
communications, troposcatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14
stations
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 ARABSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 3
televisions: NA

@Sudan:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force Militia

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,806,588; males fit for
military service 4,185,206; males reach military age (18) annually
313,958 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $600 million, 7.3% of
GDP (FY93/94 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

SURINAME

@Suriname:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between French Guiana and Guyana

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 163,270 sq km
land area: 161,470 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries: total 1,707 km, Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km,
Guyana 600 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims area in French Guiana between Litani
Rivier and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa Rivier);
claims area in Guyana between New (Upper Courantyne) and
Courantyne/Koetari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Natural resources: timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp,
bauxite, iron ore, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold

Land use:
arable land: NEGL%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 97%
other: 3%

Irrigated land: 590 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation as foreign producers obtain timber
concessions
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Note: mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna
which for the most part is not threatened because of the lack of
development; relatively small population most of which lives along the
coast

@Suriname:People

Population: 429,544 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (female 70,845; male 74,330)
15-64 years: 61% (female 130,153; male 133,693)
65 years and over: 5% (female 10,897; male 9,626) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.72 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.91 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.76 years
male: 67.24 years
female: 72.41 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.73 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Surinamer(s)
adjective: Surinamese

Ethnic divisions: Hindustani (also known locally as "East" Indians;
their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of
the 19th century) 37%, Creole (mixed European and African ancestry)
31%, Javanese 15.3%, "Bush Black" (also known as "Bush Creole" whose
ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries
as slaves) 10.3%, Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese 1.7%, Europeans 1%, other
1.1%

Religions: Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant
25.2% (predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5%

Languages: Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo
(Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles
and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others),
Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 95%
male: 95%
female: 95%

Labor force: NA

@Suriname:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Suriname
conventional short form: Suriname
local long form: Republiek Suriname
local short form: Suriname
former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana

Digraph: NS

Type: republic

Capital: Paramaribo

Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten, singular -
distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para,
Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica

Independence: 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)

Constitution: ratified 30 September 1987

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Ronald R. VENETIAAN
(since 16 September 1991); Prime Minister Jules R. AJODHIA (since 16
September 1991); election last held 6 September 1991 (next to be held
NA May 1996); results - elected by the National Assembly - Ronald
VENETIAAN (NF) 80% (645 votes), Jules WIJDENBOSCH (NDP) 14% (115
votes), Hans PRADE (DA '91) 6% (49 votes)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president from members
of the National Assembly
note: Commander in Chief of the National Army maintains significant
power

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 25 May
1991 (next to be held NA May 1996); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (51 total) NF 30, NDP 10, DA '91 9, independents 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: The New Front (NF), a coalition of four
parties (NPS, VHP, KTPI, SPA), leader Ronald R. VENETIAAN; Progressive
Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath LACHMON; National Party of Suriname
(NPS), Ronald VENETIAAN; Party of National Unity and Solidarity
(KTPI), Willy SOEMITA; Suriname Labor Party (SPA), Fred DERBY;
Democratic Alternative '91 (DA '91), Winston JESSURUN, a coalition of
four parties (AF, HPP, Pendawa Lima, BEP) formed in January 1991;
Alternative Forum (AF), Gerard BRUNINGS, Winston JESSURUN; Reformed
Progressive Party (HPP), Panalal PARMESSAR; Party for Brotherhood and
Unity in Politics (BEP), Caprino ALLENDY; Pendawa Lima, Marsha JAMIN;
National Democratic Party (NDP), Desire BOUTERSE; Progressive Workers'
and Farm Laborers' Union (PALU), Ir Iwan KROLIS, chairman;

Other political or pressure groups: Surinamese Liberation Army (SLA),
Ronnie BRUNSWIJK, Johan "Castro" WALLY; Union for Liberation and
Democracy, Kofi AFONGPONG; Mandela Bushnegro Liberation Movement,
Leendert ADAMS; Tucayana Amazonica, Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Willem A. UDENHOUT
chancery: Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488, 7490 through 7492
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5878
consulate(s) general: Miami

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roger R. GAMBLE
embassy: Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, Paramaribo
mailing address: P. O. Box 1821, Paramaribo
telephone: [597] 472900, 477881, 476459
FAX: [597] 410025

Flag: five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red
(quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there is a large
yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band

@Suriname:Economy

Overview: The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which
accounts for 15% of GDP and about 70% of export earnings. Paramaribo
has failed to initiate the economic reforms necessary to stabilize the
economy or win renewed Dutch aid disbursements. The government
continues to finance deficit spending with monetary emissions. As a
result, high inflation, high unemployment, widespread black market
activity, and hard currency shortfalls continue to mark the economy.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -0.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,800 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 225% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA

Budget:
revenues: $300 million
expenditures: $700 million, including capital expenditures of $70
million (1994 est.)

Exports: $443.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: alumina, aluminum, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
partners: Norway 33%, Netherlands 26%, US 13%, Japan 6%, Brazil 6%, UK
3% (1992)

Imports: $520.5 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton,
consumer goods
partners: US 42%, Netherlands 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 10%, Brazil 5%
(1992)

External debt: $180 million (March 1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1992 est.); accounts for 18%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 420,000 kW
production: 1.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,123 kWh (1993)

Industries: bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production,
lumbering, food processing, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 25% of export earnings; paddy
rice planted on 85% of arable land and represents 60% of total farm
output; other products - bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains,
peanuts, beef, chicken; shrimp and forestry products of increasing
importance; self-sufficient in most foods

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $2.5 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.5 billion

Currency: 1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.) per US$1
- 1.7850 (fixed rate); parallel rate 510 (December 1994), 109 (January
1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Suriname:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 166 km (single track)
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 86 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 8,800 km
paved: 500 km
unpaved: bauxite, gravel, crushed stone 5,400 km; improved and
unimproved earth 2,900 km

Inland waterways: 1,200 km; most important means of transport;
oceangoing vessels with drafts ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of
the principal waterways

Ports: Albina, Moengo, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, Paranam, Wageningen

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