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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Budget:
revenues: $227.4 million
expenditures: $263 million, including capital expenditures of $54
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $50 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products
(re-exports)
partners: France 43%, UK 22%, Reunion 11%, (1992)

Imports: $261 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, food, petroleum products, tobacco,
beverages, machinery and transportation equipment
partners: Singapore 16%, Bahrain 16%, South Africa, 14%, UK 13% (1992)

External debt: $181 million (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1992); accounts for 12% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 30,000 kW
production: 110 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,399 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing, coir
rope factory, boat building, printing, furniture, beverage

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming; cash
crops - coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla; other products - sweet potatoes,
cassava, bananas; broiler chickens; large share of food needs
imported; expansion of tuna fishing under way

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $26 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1978-89), $315 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $60 million

Currency: 1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1 - 4.9371 (January
1995), 5.0559 (1994), 5.1815 (1993), 5.1220 (1992), 5.2893 (1991),
5.3369 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Seychelles:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 260 km
paved: 160 km
unpaved: crushed stone, earth 100 km

Ports: Victoria

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 14
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 6
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Seychelles:Communications

Telephone system: 13,000 telephones; direct radio communications with
adjacent islands and African coastal countries
local: NA
intercity: radio communications
international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Seychelles:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Coast Guard, Marines, National Guard, Presidential
Protection Unit, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 19,829; males fit for military
service 10,099 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $12 million, 4% of
GDP (1990 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

SIERRA LEONE

@Sierra Leone:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea and Liberia

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 71,740 sq km
land area: 71,620 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total 958 km, Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December);
winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland
plateau, mountains in east

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold,
chromite

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 31%
forest and woodland: 29%
other: 13%

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: rapid population growth pressuring the environment;
overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and
slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil
exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing
natural hazards: dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara
(November to May); sandstorms, dust storms
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban; signed,
but not ratified - Climate Change, Environmental Modification

@Sierra Leone:People

Population: 4,753,120 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 1,054,826; male 1,020,943)
15-64 years: 53% (female 1,310,506; male 1,216,510)
65 years and over: 3% (female 72,982; male 77,353) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.63% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 44.65 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.38 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: thousands of refugees, fleeing the civil strife in Sierra Leone,
are taking refuge in Guinea

Infant mortality rate: 138.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.94 years
male: 44.07 years
female: 49.89 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic divisions: 13 native African tribes 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%,
other 39%), Creole, European, Lebanese, and Asian 1%

Religions: Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%

Languages: English (official; regular use limited to literate
minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal
vernacular in the north), Krio (the language of the re-settled
ex-slave population of the Freetown area and is lingua franca)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or
Arabic (1990 est.)
total population: 21%
male: 31%
female: 11%

Labor force: 1.369 million (1981 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 19%, services 16% (1981 est.)

note: only about 65,000 wage earners (1985)

@Sierra Leone:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Sierra Leone
conventional short form: Sierra Leone

Digraph: SL

Type: military government

Capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern,
Southern, Western*

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

Constitution: 1 October 1991; suspended following 19 April 1992 coup

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to
local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: Chairman of the Supreme Council
of State Capt. Valentine E. M. STRASSER (since 29 April 1992)
cabinet: Council of Secretaries; responsible to the Supreme Council of
State (SCS)

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (suspended
after coup of 29 April 1992); Chairman STRASSER promises multi-party
elections sometime in 1995

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (suspended after coup of 29 April 1992)

Political parties and leaders: status of existing political parties is
unknown following 29 April 1992 coup

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas Kahota KARGBO
chancery: 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-9261

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lauralee M. PETERS
embassy: Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [232] (22) 226481 trough 226485
FAX: [232] (22) 225471

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and
light blue

@Sierra Leone:Economy

Overview: Sierra Leone has substantial mineral, agricultural, and
fishery resources, but the economic and social infrastructure is not
well developed. Agriculture generates about 40% of GDP and employs
about two-thirds of the working population, with subsistence
agriculture dominating the sector. Manufacturing, which accounts for
roughly 10% of GDP, consists mainly of the processing of raw materials
and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Diamond mining
provides an important source of hard currency. Since 1990, the
government has been able to meet its IMF- and World Bank-mandated
stabilization targets, holding down fiscal deficits, increasing
foreign exchange reserves, and retiring much of its domestic debt -
but at a steep cost in terms of capital investments and social
spending. Moreover, the economic infrastructure has nearly collapsed
due to neglect and war-related disruptions in the mining and
agricultural export sectors. The continuing civil war in Liberia has
led to a large influx of refugees, who place additional burdens on
Sierra Leon's fragile economy.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.5 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.7% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $1,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $68 million
expenditures: $118 million, including capital expenditures of $28
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $149 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: rutile 48%, bauxite 25%, diamonds 16%, coffee, cocoa,
fish
partners: US, UK, Belgium, Germany, other Western Europe

Imports: $149 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: foodstuffs 48%, machinery and equipment 32%, fuels 9%
partners: US, EC countries, Japan, China, Nigeria

External debt: $1.15 billion (yearend 1993)

Industrial production: growth rate -1.5% (FY91/92); accounts for 11%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 130,000 kW
production: 220 million kWh
consumption per capita: 44 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale
manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum
refinery

Agriculture: largely subsistence farming; cash crops - coffee, cocoa,
palm kernels; harvests of food staple rice meets 80% of domestic
needs; annual fish catch averages 53,000 metric tons

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $161 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $848 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $101 million

Currency: 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: leones (Le) per US$1 - 617.67 (January 1995), 586.74
(1994), 567.46 (1993), 499.44 (1992), 295.34 (1991), 144.9275 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Sierra Leone:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 84 km mineral line is used on a limited basis because the mine
at Marampa is closed
narrow gauge: 84 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 7,400 km
paved: 1,150 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 490 km; improved earth 5,760 km

Inland waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

Ports: Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 11
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Sierra Leone:Communications

Telephone system: 23,650 telephones; telephone density - 5
telephones/1,000 persons; marginal telephone and telegraph service
local: NA
intercity: national microwave radio relay system made unserviceable by
military activities
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Sierra Leone:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Police, Security Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,030,332; males fit for
military service 498,945 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $14 million, 2.6% of
GDP (FY92/93)

________________________________________________________________________

SINGAPORE

@Singapore:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 632.6 sq km
land area: 622.6 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined
in treaties and practice
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry
seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water
catchment area and nature preserve

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 7%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 5%
other: 84%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water
resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed,
but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

@Singapore:People

Population: 2,890,468 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (female 327,417; male 348,345)
15-64 years: 70% (female 991,015; male 1,030,668)
65 years and over: 7% (female 105,081; male 87,942) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.93 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.16 years
male: 73.28 years
female: 79.25 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.87 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other 2.3%

Religions: Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu,
Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist

Languages: Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil
(official), English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 89%
male: 95%
female: 83%

Labor force: 1.649 million (1994)
by occupation: financial, business, and other services 33.5%,
manufacturing 25.6%, commerce 22.9%, construction 6.6%, other 11.4%
(1994)

@Singapore:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore

Digraph: SN

Type: republic within Commonwealth

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence
State of Singapore Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ONG Teng Cheong (since 1 September 1993);
election last held 28 August 1993 (next to be held NA August 1997);
results - ONG Teng Cheong was elected with 59% of the vote in the
country's first popular election for president
head of government: Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November
1990); Deputy Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president, responsible to
parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 31 August 1991 (next to be held by 31
August 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (81
total) PAP 77, SDP 3, WP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
government: People's Action Party (PAP), GOH Chok Tong, secretary
general
opposition: Workers' Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM; Singapore
Democratic Party (SDP), CHEE Soon Juan; National Solidarity Party
(NSP), leader NA; Barisan Sosialis (BS, Socialist Front), leader NA;
Singapore People's Party (SPP), SIN Kek Tong

Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sellapan Rama NATHAN
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Timothy A. CHORBA
embassy: 30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617
mailing address: FPO AP 96534
telephone: [65] 3380251
FAX: [65] 3384550

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the
hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent
(closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five
white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

@Singapore:Economy

Overview: Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong
service and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading
links derived from its entrepot history. The economy registered 10.1%
growth in 1994, with prospects for 7.5%-8.5% growth in 1995. In 1994,
the manufacturing and financial and business services sectors have led
economic growth. Exports boomed, led by the electronics sector,
particularly US demand for disk drives. Rising labor costs continue to
be a threat to Singapore's competitiveness, but there are indications
that productivity is keeping up. In applied technology, per capita
output, investment, and labor discipline, Singapore has key attributes
of a developed country.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $57 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 10.1% (1994)

National product per capita: $19,940 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $11.9 billion
expenditures: $10.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.9
billion (FY93/94 est.)

Exports: $96.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: computer equipment, rubber and rubber products, petroleum
products, telecommunications equipment
partners: Malaysia 20%, US 19%, Hong Kong 9%, Japan 7%, Thailand 6%
(1994)

Imports: $102.4 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: aircraft, petroleum, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: Japan 22%, Malaysia 16%, US 15%, Taiwan 4%, Saudi Arabia 4%
(1994)

External debt: $20 million (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 13% (1994 est.); accounts for 28%
of GDP (1993)

Electricity:
capacity: 4,510,000 kW
production: 17 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,590 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment,
rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages,
ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology

Agriculture: minor importance in the economy; self-sufficient in
poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major crops -
rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the
US, Western Europe, and the Third World; also a major money-laundering
center

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1 billion

Currency: 1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1 - 1.4524 (January
1995), 1.5275 (1994), 1.6158 (1993), 1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991),
1.8125 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Singapore:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 38.6 km
narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 2,883 km
paved: 2,796 km
unpaved: 87 km (1991 est.)

Ports: Singapore

Merchant marine:
total: 563 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,167,596
GRT/17,845,687 DWT
ships by type: bulk 96, cargo 121, chemical tanker 16, combination
bulk 2, combination ore/oil 7, container 78, liquefied gas tanker 6,
oil tanker 198, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12,
short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 22
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 20 countries among
which are Japan 35 ships, Denmark 21, Germany 21, Hong Kong 18,
Belgium 14, Thailand 11, Sweden 8, US 7, Indonesia 6, and Norway 5;
Singapore owns 1 ship under Malaysia registry

Airports:
total: 10
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Singapore:Communications

Telephone system: 1,110,000 telephones; good domestic facilities; good
international service; good radio and television broadcast coverage
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: submarine cables extend to Malaysia (Sabah and
Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; 2 INTELSAT (1
Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Singapore:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 860,437; males fit for military
service 629,973 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.7 billion, 6% of
GDP (1993 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

SLOVAKIA

@Slovakia:Geography

Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 48,845 sq km
land area: 48,800 sq km
comparative area: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries: total 1,355 km, Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km,
Hungary 515 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Hungary; unresolved
property issues with Czech Republic over redistribution of former
Czechoslovak federal property

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and
lowlands in the south

Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore,
copper and manganese ore; salt

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human
health risks; acid rain damaging forests
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked

@Slovakia:People

Population: 5,432,383 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (female 609,795; male 638,346)
15-64 years: 66% (female 1,807,312; male 1,778,712)
65 years and over: 11% (female 364,610; male 233,608) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.54% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.51 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.12 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.24 years
male: 69.15 years
female: 77.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.93 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak

Ethnic divisions: Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.7%, Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992
census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could
reach 500,000 or more), Czech 1%, Ruthenian 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%,
German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%,
Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%

Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 2.484 million
by occupation: industry 33.2%, agriculture 12.2%, construction 10.3%,
communication and other 44.3% (1990)

@Slovakia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko

Digraph: LO

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 4 departments (kraje, singular - kraj)
Bratislava, Zapadoslovensky, Stredoslovensky, Vychodoslovensky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, August 29
(1944)

Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January
1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to
comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal
theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Michal KOVAC (since 8 February 1993);
election last held 8 February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results
- Michal KOVAC elected by the National Council
head of government: Prime Minister Vladimir MECIAR (since 12 December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the
prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Council (Narodni Rada): elections last held 30 September-1
October 1994 (next to be held by October 1998); results - HZDS 35%,
SDL 10.4%, Hungarian coalition (Hungarian Christian Democrats,
Hungarian Civic Party, Coexistence) 10.2%, KDH 10.1%, DU 8.6%, ZRS
7.3%, SNS 5.4%; seats - (150 total) governing coalition 83 (HZDS 61,
ZRS 13, SNS 9), opposition 67 (SDL 18, Hungarian coalition 17, KDH 17,
DU 15)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Movement for a Democratic Slovakia
(HZDS), Vladimir MECIAR, chairman; Common Choice/Party of the
Democratic Left (SDL), Peter WEISS, chairman; Hungarian Christian
Democrats, Vojtech BUGAR; Hungarian Civic Party; Coexistence, Miklos
DURAY, chairman; Christian Democratic Movement (KDH), Jan CARNOGURSKY;
Democratic Union (DU), Jozef MORAVCIK, chairman; Association of Slovak
Workers (ZRS), Jan LUPTAK, chairman; Slovak National Party (SNS), Jan
SLOTA, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: Green Party; Social Democratic
Party of Slovakia; Slovak Christian Union

Member of: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM II,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIL, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU (associate
partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Branislav LICHARDUS
chancery: (temporary) Suite 380, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-5161
FAX: [1] (202) 965-5166

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Theodore E. RUSSELL
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [42] (7) 330-861, 333-338
FAX: [42] (7) 330-096

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist
side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue

@Slovakia:Economy

Overview: In 1994 macroeconomic performance improved steadily but
privatization progressed only in fits and starts. Most of Slovakia's
IMF-approved targets were met by an interim government that lasted 9
months. Annual inflation fell from 23% in 1993 to 12%; unemployment at
14.6% was still well below forecasts of 17%; and the budget deficit
was around half that in 1993. Slovakia's nearly $200 million trade
surplus also compares favorably with a more than $800 million deficit
in 1993. Furthermore, after contracting almost 25% in the three years
following 1990, GDP grew 4.3% in 1994, according to official
statistics. Bratislava in June qualified for a $254 million IMF
stand-by loan and the second $90 million tranche of its Systemic
Transformation Facility and, in December, received approval for a
European Union loan worth about $160 million. By the end of September
1994, the Central Bank's foreign currency reserves had tripled since
the end of 1993. Slovakia continued to have difficulty attracting
foreign investment, however, because of perceived political
instability and halting progress in privatization. The interim
government prepared property worth nearly $2 billion for the second
wave of coupon privatization and sold participation in the program to
over 80% of Slovakia's eligible citizens. Parties controlling the new
Parliament in November 1994, however, put the second wave of coupon
privatization on hold and suspended sales of 38 firms until the new
government could evaluate the interim government's decisions in early
1995. The new government's targets for 1995 include GDP growth of 3%,
inflation of 8%-10%, unemployment of 15%, and a budget deficit under
3% of GDP. Continuing economic recovery in western Europe should boost
Slovak exports and production, but Slovakia's image with foreign
creditors and investors could suffer setbacks in 1995 if progress on
privatization stalls or budget deficits mount beyond IMF-recommended
levels.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $32.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $6,070 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14.6% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $4.4 billion
expenditures: $4.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $350
million (1994 est.)

Exports: $6.3 billion (f.o.b., January-November 1994)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment; chemicals; fuels,
minerals, and metals; agricultural products
partners: Czech Republic 37.7%, Germany 17.1%, Hungary 5.3%, Austria
5.3%, Italy 4.6%, Russia 4.0%, Poland 2.6%, Ukraine 1.8%, US 1.6%
(January-September 1994)

Imports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., January-November 1994)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment; fuels and lubricants;
manufactured goods; raw materials; chemicals; agricultural products
partners: Czech Republic 29.9%, Russia 19.0%, Germany 13.2%, Austria
5.8%, Italy 4.3%, US 2.6%, Poland 2.4%, Ukraine 1.9%, Hungary 1.6%
(January-September 1994)

External debt: $4.2 billion hard currency indebtedness (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 6,300,000 kW
production: 20.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,609 kWh (1993)

Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity,
gas, and water; coking, oil production, and nuclear fuel production;
chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing;
earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and
optical apparatus; rubber products

Agriculture: largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified
crop and livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar
beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest
products

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound
for Western Europe

Economic aid:
donor: the former Czechoslovakia was a donor - $4.2 billion in
bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-89)

Currency: 1 koruna (Sk) = 100 halierov

Exchange rates: koruny (Sk) per US$1 - 31.14 (September 1994), 32.9
(December 1993), 28.59 (December 1992), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991),
17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989); note - values before 1993 reflect
Czechoslovak exchange rate

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Slovakia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,660 km (electrified 635 km)
broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,511 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 47 km (35 km 1,000-m gauge; 12 km 0.750-m gauge) (1994)

Highways:
total: 17,650 km (1990)
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Inland waterways: NA km

Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Ports: Bratislava, Komarno

Merchant marine:
total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,160 GRT/6,163 DWT

Airports:
total: 37
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 4
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 11

@Slovakia:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Slovakia:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense, Railroad
Units

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,443,719; males fit for
military service 1,107,453; males reach military age (18) annually
49,045 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 9.59 billion koruny, 3.1% of GDP (1994 est.);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

SLOVENIA

@Slovenia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Croatia and Italy

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 20,296 sq km
land area: 20,296 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey

Land boundaries: total 1,045 km, Austria 262 km, Croatia 501 km, Italy
199 km, Hungary 83 km

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: dispute with Croatia over fishing rights in
the Adriatic and over some border areas; the border issue is currently
under negotiation

Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with
mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to
the east

Terrain: a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain
region adjacent to Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous
rivers to the east

Natural resources: lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 45%
other: 23%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial
waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic
chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at
metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
natural hazards: flooding and earthquakes
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
94, Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Slovenia:People

Population: 2,051,522 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 191,318; male 200,957)
15-64 years: 69% (female 701,082; male 708,482)
65 years and over: 12% (female 160,662; male 89,021) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.24% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.85 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.73 years
male: 70.91 years
female: 78.76 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic divisions: Slovene 91%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 96% (including 2% Uniate), Muslim 1%, other
3%

Languages: Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 7%, other 2%

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 786,036
by occupation: agriculture 2%, manufacturing and mining 46%

@Slovenia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenije
local short form: Slovenija

Digraph: SI

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Ljubljana

Administrative divisions: 60 provinces (pokajine, singular - pokajina)
Ajdovscina, Brezice, Celje, Cerknica, Crnomelj, Dravograd, Gornja
Radgona, Grosuplje, Hrastnik Lasko, Idrija, Ilirska Bistrica, Izola,
Jesenice, Kamnik, Kocevje, Koper, Kranj, Krsko, Lenart, Lendava,
Litija, Ljubljana-Bezigrad, Ljubljana-Center, Ljubljana-Moste-Polje,
Ljubljana-Siska, Ljubljana-Vic-Rudnik, Ljutomer, Logatec, Maribor,
Metlika, Mozirje, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ormoz,
Pesnica, Piran, Postojna, Ptuj, Radlje Ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne Na
Koroskem, Ribnica, Ruse, Sentjur Pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skofja
Loka, Slovenj Gradec, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje
Pri Jelsah, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Velenje, Vrhnika,
Zagorje Ob Savi, Zalec

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution: adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990); election
last held 6 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Milan
KUCAN reelected by direct popular vote
head of government: Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
State Assembly: elections last held 6 December 1992 (next to be held
NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (90 total)
LDS 22, SKD 15, United List (former Communists and allies) 14, Slovene
National Party 12, SLS 10, Democratic Party 6, ZS 5, SDSS 4, Hungarian
minority 1, Italian minority 1
State Council: will become operational after next election in 1996; in
the election of 6 December 1992, 40 members were elected to represent
local and socioeconomic interests

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic (LDS), Janez
DRNOVSEK, chairman; Slovene Christian Democrats (SKD), Lozje PETERLE,
chairman; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia (SDSS), Janez JANSA,
chairman; Slovene People's National Party, Marjan PODOBNIK, chairman;
United List (former Communists and allies), Janez KOCJANCIC, chairman;
Slovene People's Party (SLS), Ivan OMAN, chairman; Democratic Party,
Igor BAVCAR, chairman; Greens of Slovenia (ZS), Dusan PLUT, chairman
note: parties have changed as of the December 1992 elections

Other political or pressure groups: none

Member of: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ernest PETRIC
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador E. Allan WENDT
embassy: P.O. Box 254, Prazakova 4, 61000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy, Ljubljana, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (61) 301-427, 472, 485
FAX: [386] (61) 301-401

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red with
the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav in white
against a blue background at the center, beneath it are two wavy blue
lines depicting seas and rivers, and around it, there are three
six-sided stars arranged in an inverted triangle); the seal is located
in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue
bands

@Slovenia:Economy

Overview: Slovenia appears to be making a solid economic recovery,
fulfilling the promise it showed at the time of Yugoslavia's breakup.
It was by far the most prosperous of the former Yugoslav republics,
with a per capita income more than twice the national average. It also
benefited from strong ties to Western Europe and suffered
comparatively small physical damage in the dismemberment process. The
beginning was difficult, however. Real GDP fell 15% during 1991-92,
while inflation jumped to 247% in 1991 and unemployment topped 8% -
nearly three times the 1989 level. The turning point came in 1993 when
real GDP grew 1%, unemployment leveled off at about 9%, and inflation
slowed dramatically to 23%. In 1994, the rate of growth of GDP rose to
4%, unemployment remained stable, and inflation dropped to 20%. This
was accomplished, moreover, without balance-of-payments problems. The
government gets generally good economic marks from foreign observers,
particularly with regard to fiscal policy - the budget deficit in 1994
was only about 1% of GDP, following several years of small surpluses.
Prospects for 1995 appear good, with economic growth expected to
remain strong while unemployment and inflation may decline slightly.
Privatization, sluggish to date, is expected to pick up in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $16 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $8,110 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $9.9 billion
expenditures: $9.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993)

Exports: $6.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 27%, intermediate
manufactured goods 26%, chemicals 9%, food 4.8%, raw materials 3%,
consumer goods 26% (1993)
partners: Germany 29.5%, former Yugoslavia 15.8%, Italy 12.4%, France
8.7%, Austria 5.0% (1993)

Imports: $6.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 30%, intermediate
manufactured goods 17.6%, chemicals 11.5%, raw materials 5.3%, fuels
and lubricants 10.8%, food 8.4% (1993)
partners: Germany 25.0%, Italy 16.1%, former Yugoslavia 10.7%, France
8.0%, Austria 8.5% (1993)

External debt: $2.1 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 6% (1994 est.); accounts for 37% of
GDP (1993)

Electricity:
capacity: 2,700,000 kW
production: 8.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 4,470 kWh (1993)

Industries: ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum
reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics
(including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment,
wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Agriculture: accounts for 4.8% of GDP (1993); dominated by stock
breeding (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming; main crops - potatoes,
hops, hemp, flax; an export surplus in these commodities; Slovenia
must import many other agricultural products and has a negative
overall trade balance in this sector

Illicit drugs: NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 tolar (SlT) = 100 stotins

Exchange rates: tolars (SIT) per US$1 - 127 (January 1995), 112 (June
1993), 28 (January 1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Slovenia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 499 km) (1994)

Highways:
total: 14,726 km
paved: 11,046 km (187 km expressways)
unpaved: gravel 3,680 km (1992)

Inland waterways: NA

Pipelines: crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km

Ports: Izola, Koper, Piran

Merchant marine:
total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 265,937 GRT/449,205 DWT
(controlled by Slovenian owners)
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 6
note: ships under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Singapore, Liberia; no ships remain under the Slovenian flag

Airports:
total: 14
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Slovenia:Communications

Telephone system: 130,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 0
radios: 370,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 7
televisions: 330,000

@Slovenia:Defense Forces

Branches: Slovene Defense Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 542,815; males fit for military
service 434,302; males reach military age (19) annually 15,350 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: 13.5 billion tolars, 4.5% of GDP (1993 est.);
note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

SOLOMON ISLANDS

@Solomon Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east
of Papua New Guinea

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 28,450 sq km
land area: 27,540 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 5,313 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead,
zinc, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 93%
other: 4%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; much of the surrounding
coral reefs are dead or dying
natural hazards: typhoons, but they are rarely destructive;
geologically active region with frequent earth tremors; volcanic
activity
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
Protection, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of
the Sea

@Solomon Islands:People

Population: 399,206 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (female 90,293; male 93,695)
15-64 years: 51% (female 100,183; male 103,374)
65 years and over: 3% (female 5,738; male 5,923) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.4% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 38.48 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.51 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.84 years
male: 68.38 years
female: 73.41 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.59 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Solomon Islander(s)
adjective: Solomon Islander

Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%,
European 0.8%, Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%

Religions: Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United
(Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other
Protestant 5%, traditional beliefs 4%

Languages: Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca,
English spoken by 1%-2% of population
note: 120 indigenous languages

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture, forestry, and fishing 32.4%, services 25%,
construction, manufacturing, and mining 7.0%, commerce, transport, and
finance 4.7% (1984)

@Solomon Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Solomon Islands
former: British Solomon Islands

Digraph: BP

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Honiara

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central,
Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western

Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Constitution: 7 July 1978

Legal system: common law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Moses PITAKAKA (since 10 June 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 7 November
1994); Deputy Prime Minister Dennis LULEI (since 10 November 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the
prime minister from members of parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Parliament: elections last held NA November 1994 (next to be
held NA 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47
total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: People's Alliance Party (PAP); United
Party (UP), leader NA; Solomon Islands Liberal Party (SILP),
Bartholemew ULUFA'ALU; Nationalist Front for Progress (NFP), Andrew
NORI; Labor Party (LP), Joses TUHANUKU; National Action Party, leader
NA; Christian Fellowship, leader NA; National Unity Group, Solomon
MAMALONI

Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), IOC,
ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: ambassador traditionally resides in
Honiara (Solomon Islands)

US diplomatic representation: embassy closed July 1993; the ambassador
to Papua New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands

Flag: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five
white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle
is green

@Solomon Islands:Economy

Overview: The bulk of the population depend on subsistence
agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their
livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be
imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such
as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. The economy suffered from a severe
cyclone in mid-1986 that caused widespread damage to the
infrastructure. In 1993, the government was working with the IMF to
develop a structural adjustment program to address the country's
fiscal deficit.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1992
est.)

National product real growth rate: 8% (1992)

National product per capita: $2,590 (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $48 million
expenditures: $107 million, including capital expenditures of $45
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $84 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities: fish 46%, timber 31%, palm oil 5%, cocoa, copra
partners: Japan 39%, UK 23%, Thailand 9%, Australia 5%, US 2% (1991)

Imports: $110 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities: plant and machinery, manufactured goods, food and live
animals, fuel
partners: Australia 34%, Japan 16%, Singapore 14%, NZ 9%

External debt: $128 million (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -3.8% (1991 est.); accounts for 5%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 21,000 kW
production: 30 million kWh
consumption per capita: 80 kWh (1993)

Industries: copra, fish (tuna)

Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 31% of GDP;
mostly subsistence farming; cash crops - cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm
kernels, timber; other products - rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit,
cattle, pigs; not self-sufficient in food grains; 90% of the total
fish catch of 44,500 metric tons was exported (1988)

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-89), $250 million

Currency: 1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1 - 3.3113
(September 1994), 3.1877 (1993), 2.9281 (1992), 2.7148 (1991), 2.5288
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Solomon Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,300 km
paved: 30 km
unpaved: gravel 290 km; earth 980 km
note: in addition, there are 800 km of private logging and plantation
roads of varied construction (1982)

Ports: Aola Bay, Honiara, Lofung, Noro, Viru Harbor, Yandina

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 31
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 19
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9

@Solomon Islands:Communications

Telephone system: 3,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Solomon Islands:Defense Forces

Branches: no military forces; Royal Solomon Islands Police (RSIP)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

SOMALIA

@Somalia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian
Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 637,660 sq km
land area: 627,340 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 2,366 km, Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km,
Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a
Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia
over the Ogaden

Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon,
moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October -
southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular
rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron
ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 46%
forest and woodland: 14%
other: 38%

Irrigated land: 1,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human
health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification
natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern
plains in summer
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea; signed, but not ratified - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches
to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

@Somalia:People

Population: 7,347,554 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (female 1,653,175; male 1,650,377)
15-64 years: 51% (female 1,845,886; male 1,932,012)
65 years and over: 4% (female 138,264; male 127,840) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 15.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.53 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 13.3 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 123.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 119.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.74 years
male: 55.48 years
female: 56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.13 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali

Ethnic divisions: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 24%
male: 36%
female: 14%

Labor force: 2.2 million (very few are skilled laborers)
by occupation: pastoral nomad 70%, agriculture, government, trading,
fishing, handicrafts, and other 30%

@Somalia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Somalia
former: Somali Republic

Digraph: SO

Type: none

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular -
gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo,
Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag,
Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which
became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian
Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN
trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Somalia has no functioning government; the United
Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD
Barre on 27 January 1991; the present political situation is one of
anarchy, marked by inter-clan fighting and random banditry

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly
People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga): not functioning

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (not functioning)

Political parties and leaders: the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted
the former regime on 27 January 1991; formerly the only party was the
Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), headed by former
President and Commander in Chief of the Army Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD
Barre

Other political or pressure groups: numerous clan and subclan factions
are currently vying for power

Member of: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD,
ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: Somalian Embassy ceased operations on
8 May 1991

US diplomatic representation:
note: the US Embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed
indefinitely in January 1991; Ambassador Daniel SIMPSON, ambassador to
Kenya, represents US interests in Somalia
liaison office: US Embassy, Nairobi, Kenya
address: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
mailing address: P.O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi or APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (2) 334141
FAX: [254] (2) 340838

Flag: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center;
design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust
territory)

@Somalia:Economy

Overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries,
Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been
devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector,
with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export
earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for
their livelihood make up about 70% of the population. Crop production
generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The
main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for
the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based on the
processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10% of
GDP; most facilities have been shut down because of the civil strife.
The greatly increased political turmoil of 1991-93 has resulted in a
substantial drop in agricultural output, with widespread famine. In
1994 economic conditions stabilized in the countryside but may turn
worse in 1995 if civil strife intensifies after the UN withdrawal.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $500 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% (1994)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $58 million (1990 est.)
commodities: bananas, live animals, fish, hides
partners: Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

Imports: $249 million (1990 est.)
commodities: petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
partners: US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

External debt: $1.9 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: prior to the civil war, 75,000 kW, but now almost completely
shut down due to war damage; note - UN and relief organizations use
their own portable power systems
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining,
textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down) (1994)

Agriculture: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep,
goats); crops - bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not
self-sufficient in food; distribution of food disrupted by civil
strife; fishing potential largely unexploited

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $639 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $3.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $336 million

Currency: 1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - approximately
5,000 (1 January 1995), 2,616 (1 July 1993), 4,200 (December 1992),
3,800.00 (December 1990), 490.7 (1989),

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Somalia:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 22,500 km
paved: 2,700 km
unpaved: gravel 3,000 km; improved, stabilized earth 16,800 km (1992)

Pipelines: crude oil 15 km

Ports: Bender Cassim (Boosaaso), Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Merca,
Mogadishu

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,529 GRT/6,892 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1

Airports:
total: 76
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 14
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 16
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 33

@Somalia:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; the public telecommunications system
was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all
relief organizations depend on their own private systems (1993)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Somalia:Defense Forces

Branches: no functioning central government military forces; clan
militias continue to battle for control of key economic or political
prizes

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,736,673; males fit for
military service 972,203 (1995 est.

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

SOUTH AFRICA

@South Africa:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of
Africa

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1,219,912 sq km
land area: 1,219,912 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward

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