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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1979)

Constitution: 27 October 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General David JACK (since 29 September 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July
1984); Deputy Prime Minister Parnel CAMPBELL (since NA February 1994);
note - governor general appoints leader of the majority party to
position of prime minister
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Assembly: elections last held 21 February 1994 (next to be
held NA July 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21
total, 15 elected representatives and 6 appointed senators) NDP 12,
ULP 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint
Lucia)

Political parties and leaders: New Democratic Party (NDP), James
MITCHELL (son of Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL); United People's
Movement (UPM), Adrian SAUNDERS; National Reform Party (NRP), Joel
MIGUEL; Unity Labor Party (ULP),Vincent BEACHE - formed by the
coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party (SVLP) and the Movement for
National Unity (MNU)

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kingsley C.A. LAYNE
chancery: 1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 102, Washington, DC
20036
telephone: [1] (202) 462-7806, 7846
FAX: [1] (202) 462-7807

US diplomatic representation: no official presence since the
Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados)

Flag: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width),
and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V
pattern

@Saint Vincent And The Grenadines:Economy

Overview: Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most
important sector of the economy. The services sector, based mostly on
a growing tourist industry, is also important. In 1993, economic
growth slowed to 1.4%, reflecting a sharp decline in agricultural
production caused by drought. The government has been relatively
unsuccessful at introducing new industries, and high unemployment
rates of 35%-40% continue.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $235 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,000 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 35%-40% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $66.2
expenditures: $77.3 million, including capital expenditures of $23
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $57.1 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: bananas, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch,
tennis racquets
partners: UK 54%, CARICOM 34%, US 10%

Imports: $134.6 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and
fertilizers, minerals and fuels
partners: US 36%, CARICOM 21%, UK 18%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%

External debt: $74.9 million (1993)

Industrial production: NA

Electricity:
capacity: 16,600 kW
production: 50 million kWh
consumption per capita: 436 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch

Agriculture: accounts for 14% of GDP and 60% of labor force; provides
bulk of exports; products - bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices;
small numbers of cattle, sheep, hogs, goats; small fish catch used
locally

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $11 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $81 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Vincent And The Grenadines:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,000 km
paved: 300 km
unpaved: improved earth 400 km; unimproved earth 300 km

Ports: Kingstown

Merchant marine:
total: 580 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,212,812 GRT/8,530,725
DWT
ships by type: bulk 106, cargo 289, chemical tanker 15, combination
bulk 10, combination ore/oil 3, container 36, liquefied gas tanker 5,
livestock carrier 2, oil tanker 53, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1,
refrigerated cargo 30, roll-on/roll-off cargo 25, short-sea passenger
1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 16 countries among
which are Croatia 49 ships, Russia 23, Slovenia 11, China 8, Germany
3, Serbia 2, Latvia 1, Montenegro 1, Georgia 1, UAR 1

Airports:
total: 6
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 4

@Saint Vincent And The Grenadines:Communications

Telephone system: 6,500 telephones; islandwide fully automatic
telephone system
local: NA
intercity: VHF/UHF interisland links from Saint Vincent to the other
islands of the Grenadines
international: VHF/UHF interisland links from Saint Vincent to
Barbados; new SHF links to Grenada and to Saint Lucia

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1 cable
televisions: NA

@Saint Vincent And The Grenadines:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force, Coast
Guard

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

SAN MARINO

@San Marino:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 60 sq km
land area: 60 sq km
comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total 39 km, Italy 39 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Natural resources: building stone

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 83%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
international agreements: NA
current issues: NA
natural hazards: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test
Ban; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution

Note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy
See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

@San Marino:People

Population: 24,313 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (female 1,944; male 1,962)
15-64 years: 68% (female 8,243; male 8,354)
65 years and over: 16% (female 2,198; male 1,612) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.88% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 10.98 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.27 years
male: 77.26 years
female: 85.29 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.52 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic divisions: Sammarinese, Italian

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1976)
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%

Labor force: 4,300 (est.)
by occupation: industry 42%, agriculture 3%

@San Marino:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Digraph: SM

Type: republic

Capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular -
castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano,
Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 AD (by tradition)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3
September

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the
functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
co-chiefs of state: Captain Regent Marino BOLLINI and Captain Regent
Settimio LONFERNINI (for the period 1 April 1995-30 September 1995)
head of government: Secretary of State Gabriele GATTI (since July
1986)
cabinet: Congress of State
note: the popularly elected parliament (Great and General Council)
selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (Co-Chiefs
of State) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the
Great and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which
has ten other members, all selected by the Great and General Council;
assisting the Captains Regent are three Secretaries of State - Foreign
Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance - and several additional
secretaries; the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has come to
assume many of the prerogatives of a prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Great and General Council: (Consiglio Grande e Generale) elections
last held 30 May 1993 (next to be held by NA May 1998); results - PDCS
41.4%, PSS 23.7%, PDP 18.6%, ADP 7.7%, MD 5.3%, RC 3.3%; seats - (60
total) PDCS 26, PSS 14, PDP 11, ADP 4, MD 3, RC 2

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (PDCS),
Cesare GASPERONI, secretary general; Democratic Progressive Party (PDP
- formerly San Marino Communist Party (PSS)), Stefano MACINA,
secretary general; San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), Maurizio RATTINI,
secretary general; Democratic Movement (MD), Emilio Della BALDA;
Popular Democratic Alliance (ADP); Communist Refoundation (RC),
Guiseppe AMICHI, Renato FABBRI; Moderate Group, Alvaro SELVA; Social
Democratic Party

Member of: CE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
honorary consulate(s) general: Washington and New York
honorary consulate(s): Detroit

US diplomatic representation: no mission in San Marino, but the Consul
General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with
the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms
has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a
wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS
(Liberty)

@San Marino:Economy

Overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 1993 more
than 3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are
banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural
products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and
standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies
much of its food.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $380 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $15,800 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (December 1993)

Budget:
revenues: $275 million
expenditures: $275 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy;
commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked
goods, hides, and ceramics

Imports: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 42% of labor
force

Electricity: supplied by Italy

Industries: tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Agriculture: employs 3% of labor force; products - wheat, grapes,
maize, olives, meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs,
horses

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Italian lire (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note - also mints its
own coins

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,609.5 (January 1995),
1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991),
1,198.1 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@San Marino:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 104 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: none

Airports: none

@San Marino:Communications

Telephone system: 11,700 telephones; automatic telephone system
completely integrated into Italian system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: microwave and cable links into Italian networks; no
communication satellite facilities

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA; note - receives broadcasts from Italy
televisions: NA

@San Marino:Defense Forces

Branches: public security or police force

Defense expenditures: $3.7 million (1992 est.), 1% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

@Sao Tome And Principe:Geography

Location: Western Africa, island in the Atlantic Ocean, straddling the
equator, west of Gabon

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 960 sq km
land area: 960 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 20%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 75%
other: 3%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Environmental Modification, Law
of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Sao Tome And Principe:People

Population: 140,423 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 27,995; male 28,452)
15-64 years: 55% (female 38,846; male 38,619)
65 years and over: 5% (female 3,615; male 2,896) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.62% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 34.94 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.65 years
male: 61.76 years
female: 65.59 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.44 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean

Ethnic divisions: mestico, angolares (descendents of Angolan slaves),
forros (descendents of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers
from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of
servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religions: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day
Adventist

Languages: Portuguese (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991)
total population: 73%
male: 85%
female: 62%

Labor force: most of population mainly engaged in subsistence
agriculture and fishing; labor shortages on plantations and of skilled
workers

@Sao Tome And Principe:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe

Digraph: TP

Type: republic

Capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Principe, Sao Tome

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Constitution: approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991);
election last held 3 March 1991 (next to be held NA March 1996);
results - Miguel TROVOADA was elected without opposition in Sao Tome's
first multiparty presidential election
head of government: Prime Minister Carlos da GRACA (since 25 October
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the
proposal of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National People's Assembly: (Assembleia Popular Nacional) parliament
dissolved by President TROVOADA in July 1994; early elections held 2
October 1994; results - MLSTP 27%, PCD-GR 25.5%, ADI 25.5%; seats -
(55 total) MLSTP 27, PCD-GR 14, ADI 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Party for Democratic
Convergence-Reflection Group (PCD-GR), Daniel Lima Dos Santos DAIO,
secretary general; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and
Principe (MLSTP), Carlos da GRACA; Christian Democratic Front (FDC),
Alphonse Dos SANTOS; Democratic Opposition Coalition (CODO), leader
NA; Independent Democratic Action (ADI), Gabriel COSTA; other small
parties

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: Sao Tome and Principe has no embassy
in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by
First Secretary Domingos AUGUSTO Ferreira, located at 122 East 42nd
Street, Suite 1604, New York, NY 10168, telephone [1] (212) 697-4211

US diplomatic representation: ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao
Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to
the islands

Flag: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width),
and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the
center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the
hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Sao Tome And Principe:Economy

Overview: This small poor island economy has remained dependent on
cocoa since independence 20 years ago. Since then, however, cocoa
production has gradually declined because of drought and
mismanagement, so that by 1987 annual output had fallen from 10,000
tons to 3,900 tons. As a result, a shortage of cocoa for export has
created a serious balance-of-payments problem. Production of less
important crops, such as coffee, copra, and palm kernels, has also
declined. The value of imports generally exceeds that of exports by a
ratio of 4:1 or more. The emphasis on cocoa production at the expense
of other food crops has meant that Sao Tome has to import 90% of food
needs. It also has to import all fuels and most manufactured goods.
Over the years, Sao Tome has been unable to service its external debt
and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling.
Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry,
and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent
years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and
subsidies and to encourage market-based mechanisms, e. g., to
facilitate the distribution of imported food. Annual GDP growth is
estimated in the 3%-4% range for 1994-96.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $133 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $1,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $10.2 million
expenditures: $36.8 million, including capital expenditures of $22.5
million (1989 est.)

Exports: $5.5 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: cocoa 78%, copra, coffee, palm oil (1992)
partners: Netherlands, Germany, China, Portugal

Imports: $31.5 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 44%, food products
18%, petroleum 11% (1992)
partners: Portugal, Japan, Spain, France, Angola

External debt: $237 million (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 1% (1991); accounts for 7% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 5,000 kW
production: 17 million kWh
consumption per capita: 105 kWh (1993)

Industries: light construction, shirts, soap, beer, fisheries, shrimp
processing

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP; dominant sector of economy,
primary source of exports; cash crops - cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels,
coffee; food products - bananas, papaya, beans, poultry, fish; not
self-sufficient in food grain and meat

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $8 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $89 million

Currency: 1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: dobras (Db) per US$1 - 129.59 (1 July 1993), 230
(1992), 260.0 (November 1991), 122.48 (December 1988), 72.827 (1987)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Sao Tome And Principe:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 300 km
paved: 200 km
unpaved: 100 km
note: roads on Principe are mostly unpaved and in need of repair

Ports: Santo Antonio, Sao Tome

Merchant marine:
total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,096 GRT/1,105 DWT

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Sao Tome And Principe:Communications

Telephone system: NA; minimal system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Sao Tome And Principe:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 33,789; males fit for military
service 17,752 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

SAUDI ARABIA

@Saudi Arabia:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea,
north of Yemen

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 1,960,582 sq km
land area: 1,960,582 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US

Land boundaries: total 4,415 km, Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait
222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km

Coastline: 2,640 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: large section of boundary with Yemen not
defined; status of boundary with UAE not final; Kuwaiti ownership of
Qaruh and Umm al Maradim islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 39%
forest and woodland: 1%
other: 59%

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: desertification; depletion of underground water
resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has
prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination
facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills
natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes,
Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great
leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and
Suez Canal

@Saudi Arabia:People

Population: 18,729,576 (July 1995 est.)
note: a 1992 census gives the number of Saudi citizens as 12,304,835
and the number of residents who are not citizens as 4,624,459

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 3,952,573; male 4,065,224)
15-64 years: 55% (female 4,078,001; male 6,219,737)
65 years and over: 2% (female 203,372; male 210,669) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.68% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 38.78 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.54 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.5 years
male: 66.79 years
female: 70.3 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Saudi(s)
adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic divisions: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Arabic

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 62%
male: 73%
female: 48%

Labor force: 5 million-6 million
by occupation: government 34%, industry and oil 28%, services 22%,
agriculture 16%

@Saudi Arabia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

Digraph: SA

Type: monarchy

Capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 13 provinces (mintaqah, singular -
mintaqat); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al
Qasim, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah, Asir, Hail, Jizan, Makkah, Najran,
Tabuk

Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Constitution: none; governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law)

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been
introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD
bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First
Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother
to the King, appointed heir to the throne 13 June 1982)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; dominated by royal family members
appointed by the king

Legislative branch: a consultative council comprised of 60 members and
a chairman who are appointed by the King for a term of four years

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Political parties and leaders: none allowed

Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77,
GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
(observer), OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond E. MABUS, Jr.
embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 61307, Riyadh; International
Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693; APO AE 09803-1307
telephone: [966] (1) 488-3800
FAX: [966] (1) 482-4364
consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as
There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a
white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is
the traditional color of Islam

@Saudi Arabia:Economy

Overview: This is a well-to-do oil-based economy with strong
government controls over major economic activities. About 46% of GDP
comes from the private sector. Economic (as well as political) ties
with the US are especially strong. The petroleum sector accounts for
roughly 75% of budget revenues, 35% of GDP, and almost all export
earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the
world (26% of the proved total), ranks as the largest exporter of
petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. For the 1990s the
government intends to bring its budget, which has been in deficit
since 1983, back into balance, and to encourage private economic
activity. Roughly four million foreign workers play an important role
in the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and banking sectors. For
about a decade, Saudi Arabia's domestic and international outlays have
outstripped its income, and the government has cut its foreign
assistance and is beginning to rein in domestic programs. For 1995,
the country looks for improvement in oil prices and will continue its
policies of restraining public spending and encouraging non-oil
exports.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $173.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $9,510 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $39 billion
expenditures: $50 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.5
billion (1993 est.)

Exports: $39.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 92%
partners: US 20%, Japan 18%, Singapore 5%, France 5%, South Korea 5%
(1992)

Imports: $28.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, motor
vehicles, textiles
partners: US 21%, Japan 14%, UK 11%, Germany 8%, Italy 6%, France 5%
(1992)

External debt: $18.9 billion (December 1989 est., includes short-term
trade credits)

Industrial production: growth rate 20% (1991 est.); accounts for 35%
of GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 17,550,000 kW
production: 46 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,430 kWh (1993)

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic
petrochemicals, cement, two small steel-rolling mills, construction,
fertilizer, plastics

Agriculture: accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force;
subsidized by government; products - wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons,
dates, citrus fruit, mutton, chickens, eggs, milk; approaching
self-sufficiency in food

Illicit drugs: death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption
of heroin and cocaine

Economic aid:
donor: pledged bilateral aid (1979-89), $64.7 billion; pledged $100
million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon

Currency: 1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalah

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1 - 3.7450 (fixed rate since
late 1986), 3.7033 (1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saudi Arabia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,390 km
standard gauge: 1,390 km 1.435-m gauge (448 km double track)

Highways:
total: 151,530 km
paved: 60,610 km
unpaved: 90,920 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas
2,200 km (includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km)

Ports: Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Duba, Jiddah, Jizan, Rabigh, Ras al
Khafji, Ras al Mishab, Ras Tanura, Yanbu' al Bahr, Yanbu' al Sinaiyah

Merchant marine:
total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 855,452 GRT/1,233,477 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 12, chemical tanker 5, container 3,
liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 4, oil tanker 22, passenger
1, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11, short-sea
passenger 7

Airports:
total: 211
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 30
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4
with paved runways under 914 m: 21
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 73
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 43

@Saudi Arabia:Communications

Telephone system: 1,624,000 telephones; modern system
local: NA
intercity: extensive microwave and coaxial and fiber optic cable
systems
international: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait,
Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan;
submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; earth stations - 5
INTELSAT (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 ARABSAT, and 1
INMARSAT

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 43, FM 13, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 80
televisions: NA

@Saudi Arabia:Defense Forces

Branches: Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force,
National Guard, Coast Guard, Frontier Forces, Special Security Force,
Public Security Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,303,679; males fit for
military service 2,949,842; males reach military age (17) annually
164,220 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $17.2 billion, 13.8%
of GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

SENEGAL

@Senegal:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 196,190 sq km
land area: 192,000 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: total 2,640 km, The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km,
Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the boundary with The Gambia
is indefinite; boundary with Mauritania in dispute;

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has
strong southeast winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot,
dry harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in
southeast

Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 30%
forest and woodland: 31%
other: 12%

Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: wildlife populations threatened by poaching;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing

natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Marine Dumping

Note: The Gambia is almost an enclave of Senegal

@Senegal:People

Population: 9,007,080 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (female 2,004,514; male 2,021,251)
15-64 years: 52% (female 2,398,609; male 2,301,236)
65 years and over: 3% (female 140,128; male 141,342) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.12% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 42.87 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 11.64 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.16 years
male: 55.65 years
female: 58.71 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.03 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese

Ethnic divisions: Wolof 36%, Fulani 17%, Serer 17%, Toucouleur 9%,
Diola 9%, Mandingo 9%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 2%

Religions: Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly
Roman Catholic)

Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1988)
total population: 27%
male: 37%
female: 18%

Labor force: 2.509 million (77% are engaged in subsistence farming;
175,000 wage earners)
by occupation: private sector 40%, government and parapublic 60%

@Senegal:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal

Digraph: SG

Type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

Capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region);
Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis,
Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence: 20 August 1960 (from France; The Gambia and Senegal
signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 that called for the creation
of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement
was dissolved on 30 September 1989)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Constitution: 3 March 1963, revised 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in Supreme Court, which also audits the government's
accounting office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981); election
last held 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 2000); results
- Abdou DIOUF (PS) 58.4%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 32.03%, other 9.57%
head of government: Prime Minister Habib THIAM (since 7 April 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister in
consultation with the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 9 May
1993 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - PS 70%, PDS 23%, other
7%; seats - (120 total) PS 84, PDS 27, LD-MPT 3, Let Us Unite Senegal
3, PIT 2, UDS-R 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS), President Abdou
DIOUF; Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS), Abdoulaye WADE; Democratic
League-Labor Party Movement (LD-MPT), Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY;
Independent Labor Party (PIT), Amath DANSOKHO; Senegalese Democratic
Union-Renewal (UDS-R), Mamadou Puritain FALL; Let Us Unite Senegal
(coalition of African Party for Democracy and Socialism and National
Democratic Rally); other small uninfluential parties

Other political or pressure groups: students; teachers; labor; Muslim
Brotherhoods

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNOMUR, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou Mansour SECK
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540, 0541

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mark JOHNSON
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 23 42 96, 23 34 24
FAX: [221] 22 29 91

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and
red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band;
uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Senegal:Economy

Overview: In 1994 Senegal embarked on its most concerted structural
adjustment effort yet to exploit the 50% devaluation of the currencies
of the 14 Francophone African nations on 12 January. After years of
foot-dragging, the government finally passed a liberalized labor code
which should significantly help lower the cost of labor and improve
the manufacturing sector's competitiveness. Inroads also have been
made in closing tax loopholes and eliminating monopoly power in
several sectors. At the same time the government is holding the line
on current fiscal expenditure under the watchful eyes of international
organizations on which it depends for substantial support. A bumper
peanut crop - Senegal's main source of foreign exchange - coincided
with an improvement of international prices and probably resulted in a
doubling of earnings in 1994 over 1993. The country's narrow resource
base, environmental degradation, and untamed population growth will
continue to hold back growth in living standards over the medium term.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: -2% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $1,450 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.8% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1.2 billion
expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $269
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $904 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: fish, ground nuts (peanuts), petroleum products,
phosphates, cotton
partners: France, other EC countries, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: foods and beverages, consumer goods, capital goods,
petroleum
partners: France, other EC countries, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Algeria,
China, Japan

External debt: $2.9 billion (1990)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.9% (1991); accounts for 15% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 230,000 kW
production: 720 million kWh
consumption per capita: 79 kWh (1993)

Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining,
petroleum refining, building materials

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP; major products - peanuts (cash
crop), millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green
vegetables; estimated two-thirds self-sufficient in food; fish catch
of 354,000 metric tons in 1990

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian
heroin moving to Europe and North America

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $551 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $5.23 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $295 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning
12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French
franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Senegal:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 905 km
narrow gauge: 905 km 1.000-meter gauge (70 km double track)

Highways:
total: 14,007 km
paved: 3,777 km
unpaved: crushed stone, improved earth 10,230 km

Inland waterways: 897 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 112 km on the
Saloum

Ports: Dakar, Kaolack, Matam, Podor, Richard-Toll, Saint-Louis,
Ziguinchor

Merchant marine:
total: 1 bulk ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,995 GRT/3,775 DWT

Airports:
total: 24
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Senegal:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; above-average urban system
local: NA
intercity: microwave and cable
international: 3 submarine cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Senegal:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police
(Surete Nationale)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,021,019; males fit for
military service 1,054,855; males reach military age (18) annually
96,589 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $134 million, 2.1% of
GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Note--Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint
independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as
a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor
republics represents its continuation

@Serbia And Montenegro:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 102,350 sq km
land area: 102,136 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Kentucky
note: Serbia has a total area and a land area of 88,412 sq km making
it slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro has a total area of 13,938
sq km and a land area of 13,724 sq km making it slightly larger than
Connecticut

Land boundaries: total 2,246 km, Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia;
173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with
Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241
km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: Sandzak region bordering northern Montenegro
and southeastern Serbia - Muslims seeking autonomy; disputes with
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia over Serbian populated areas;
Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid
summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental
and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the
coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with
heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the
east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain
and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands
off the coast

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc,
nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome

Land use:
arable land: 30%
permanent crops: 5%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 25%
other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets,
especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution
around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from
industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
international agreements: NA

Note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to
Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

@Serbia And Montenegro:People

Population:
total population: 11,101,833 (July 1995 est.)
Montenegro: 708,248 (July 1995 est.)
Serbia: 10,393,585 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
Montenegro: *** No data for this item ***
0-14 years: 22% (female 77,498; male 82,005)
15-64 years: 68% (female 236,987; male 241,397)
65 years and over: 10% (female 41,625; male 28,736) (July 1995 est.)
Serbia: *** No data for this item ***
0-14 years: 22% (female 1,095,121; male 1,173,224)
15-64 years: 66% (female 3,431,823; male 3,483,066)
65 years and over: 12% (female 699,488; male 510,863) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate:
Montenegro: 0.79% (1995 est.)
Serbia: 0.51% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
Montenegro: 14.39 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: 14.15 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
Montenegro: 5.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: 8.72 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
Montenegro: -0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Serbia: -0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
Montenegro: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)
Serbia: 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
Montenegro: *** No data for this item ***
total population: 79.56 years
male: 76.69 years
female: 82.61 years (1995 est.)
Serbia: *** No data for this item ***
total population: 73.94 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 76.68 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
Montenegro: 1.79 children born/woman (1995 est.)
Serbia: 2 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic divisions: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%,
Hungarians 4%, other 13%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%,
other 11%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 2,640,909
by occupation: industry, mining 40% (1990)

@Serbia And Montenegro:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora

Digraph:
Serbia: SR
Montenegro: MW

Type: republic

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (pokajine, singular - pokajina);
and 2 nominally autonomous provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia,
Vojvodina*

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as
self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia - SFRY)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Zoran LILIC (since 25 June 1993); note -
Slobodan MILOSEVIC is president of Serbia (since 9 December 1990);
Momir BULATOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 23 December 1990);
Federal Assembly elected Zoran LILIC on 25 June 1993
head of government: Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December
1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Uros
KLIKOVAC (since 15 September 1994), Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15
September 1995)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly
Chamber of Republics: elections last held 20 December 1992 (next to be
held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40
total, 20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin) seats by party NA
Chamber of Citizens: elections last held 20 December 1992 (next to be
held NA 1996); results - percent of votes by party NA; seats - (138
total, 108 Serbian, 30 Montenegrin) SPS 47, SRS 34, Depos 20, DPSCG
17, DS 5, SP 5, NS 4, DZVM 3, other 3

Judicial branch: Savezni Sud (Federal Court), Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Serbian Socialist Party (SPS, former
Communist Party), Slobodan MILOSEVIC; Serbian Radical Party (SRS),
Vojislav SESELJ; Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Vuk DRASKOVIC,
president; Democratic Party (DS), Zoran DJINDJIC; Democratic Party of
Serbia (Depos), Vojlslav KOSTUNICA; Democratic Party of Socialists of
Montenegro (DPSCG), Momir BULATOVIC, president; People's Party of
Montenegro (NS), Milan PAROSKI; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, Slavko
PEROVIC; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians (DZVM), Andras
AGOSTON; League of Communists-Movement for Yugoslavia (SK-PJ), Dragan
ATANASOVSKI; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo (LDK), Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA,
president; Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Sulejman UGLJANIN; Civic
Alliance of Serbia (GSS), Vesna PESIC, chairman; Socialist Party of
Montenegro (SP), leader NA

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Diplomatic representation in US: US and Serbia and Montenegro do not
maintain full diplomatic relations; the Embassy of the former
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to function in the
US

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rudolf V. PERINA
embassy: address NA, Belgrade
mailing address: Box 5070, Unit 1310, APO AE 09213-1310
telephone: [381] (11) 645655
FAX: [381] (11) 645221

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red

@Serbia And Montenegro:Economy

Overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has
been followed by bloody ethnic warfare, the destabilization of
republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade
flows. Serbia and Montenegro faces major economic problems; output has
dropped sharply, particularly in 1993. First, like the other former
Yugoslav republics, it depended on its sister republics for large
amounts of foodstuffs, energy supplies, and manufactures. Wide
differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology
among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the
communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small
number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the
sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets,
and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have
contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One
singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia and Montenegro is
the continuation in office of a communist government that is primarily
interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. A
further complication is the imposition of economic sanctions by the UN
in 1992. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency
unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable in 1994. Reliable
statistics are hard to come by; the GDP estimate of $1,000 per capita
in 1994 is extremely rough. Output in 1994 seems to have leveled off
after the plunge in 1993.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $10 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $1,000 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (January-November 1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: more than 40% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: prior to the breakup of the federation, Yugoslavia
exported machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: prior to the imposition of UN sanctions trade partners were
the other former Yugoslav republics, Italy, Germany, other EC, the FSU
countries, East European countries, US

Imports: $NA
commodities: prior to the breakup of the federation, Yugoslavia
imported machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants,
manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
including coking coal for the steel industry
partners: prior to the imposition of UN sanctions trade partners were
the other former Yugoslav republics, the FSU countries, EC countries
(mainly Italy and Germany), East European countries, US

External debt: $4.2 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 10,400,000 kW
production: 34 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,400 kWh (1994 est.)

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles;
armored vehicles and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural
machinery), metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium,
antimony, bismuth, cadmium), mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore,
iron ore, limestone), consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs,
appliances), electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and
pharmaceuticals

Agriculture: the fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal
production of the former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds,
and chicory; Vojvodina also produces fodder crops to support intensive
beef and dairy production; Serbia proper, although hilly, has a
well-distributed rainfall and a long growing season; produces fruit,
grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock production (sheep and
cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo produces fruits, vegetables,
tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the mountainous pastures of
Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat husbandry; Montenegro has
only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast where a
Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus, grapes,
and rice

Illicit drugs: NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - 102.6 (February
1995 black market rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Serbia And Montenegro:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,960 km
standard gauge: 3,960 km 1.435-m gauge (partially electrified) (1992)

Highways:
total: 46,019 km
paved: 26,949 km
unpaved: gravel 10,373 km; earth 8,697 km (1990)

Inland waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas
2,110 km

Ports: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat

Merchant marine:
Montenegro: total 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 543,511
GRT/891,664 DWT (controlled by Montenegrin beneficial owners)
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 14, container 5, short-sea passenger
ferry 1
note: under Maltese and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines flags; no
ships remain under Yugoslav flag
Serbia: total 2 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 113,471 GRT/212,742 DWT
(controlled by Serbian beneficial owners)
ships by type: bulk 2
note: all under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; no ships
remain under Yugoslav flag

Airports:
total: 54
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 24
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14

@Serbia And Montenegro:Communications

Telephone system: 700,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 9, shortwave 0
radios: 2.015 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 18
televisions: 1 million

@Serbia And Montenegro:Defense Forces

Branches: People's Army (includes Ground Forces with internal and
border troops, Naval Forces, and Air and Air Defense Forces), Civil
Defense

Manpower availability:
Montenegro: males age 15-49 194,154; males fit for military service
157,611; males reach military age (19) annually 5,498 (1995 est.)
Serbia: males age 15-49 2,652,224; males fit for military service
2,131,894 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 245 billion dinars, 4% to 6% of GDP (1992 est.);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

SEYCHELLES

@Seychelles:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
northeast of Madagascar

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 455 sq km
land area: 455 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims Tromelin Island

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast
monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest
monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly;
others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 18%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 18%
other: 60%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: no natural fresh water resources, catchments collect
rain water
natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are
rare; short droughts possible
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Note: 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

@Seychelles:People

Population: 72,709 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (female 11,630; male 11,811)
15-64 years: 62% (female 23,229; male 21,679)
65 years and over: 6% (female 2,875; male 1,485) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.81% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 21.35 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.08 years
male: 66.54 years
female: 73.73 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective: Seychelles

Ethnic divisions: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%

Languages: English (official), French (official), Creole

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population: 58%
male: 56%
female: 60%

Labor force: 27,700 (1985)
by occupation: industry and commerce 31%, services 21%, government
20%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 12%, other 16% (1985)

@Seychelles:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form: Seychelles

Digraph: SE

Type: republic

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins,
Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie
Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand'
Anse (on Mahe Island), Grand' Anse (on Praslin Island), La Digue, La
Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue,
Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 18 June (1993) (adoption of new
constitution)

Constitution: 18 June 1993

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and
customary law

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President France Albert RENE
(since 5 June 1977); election last held 20-23 July 1993 (next to be
held NA); results - President France Albert RENE (SPPF) reelected with
59.5% of the vote, Sir James MANCHAM (DP) 36.72%
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
People's Assembly (Assemblee du Peuple): elections last held 20-23
July 1993 (next to be held NA); results - SPPF 82%, DP 15%, UO 3%;
seats - (33 total, 22 elected, 11 awarded) seats elected - SPPF 21, DP
1; seats awarded - SPPF 6, DP 4, UO 1; total seats by party - SPPF 27,
DP 5, UO 1
note: the 11 awarded seats are apportioned according to the share of
each party in the total vote

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: ruling party - Seychelles People's
Progressive Front (SPPF), France Albert RENE; Democratic Party (DP),
Sir James MANCHAM; United Opposition (UO), Annette GEORGES - a
coalition of the following parties: Seychelles Party (PS), Wavel
RAMKALAWAN; Seychelles Democratic Movement (MSPD), Jacques HONDOUL;
Seychelles Liberal Party (SLP), Ogilvie BERLOUIS;;

Other political or pressure groups: trade unions; Roman Catholic
Church

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marc R. MARENGO
chancery: (temporary) 820 Second Avenue, Suite 900F, New York, NY
10017
telephone: [1] (212) 687-9766, 9767
FAX: [1] (212) 922-9177

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carl Burton STOKES
embassy: 4th Floor, Victoria House, Box 251, Victoria, Mahe
mailing address: Box 148, Unit 62501, Victoria, Seychelles; APO AE
09815-2501
telephone: [248] 225256
FAX: [248] 225189

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green;
the white band is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

@Seychelles:Economy

Overview: Since independence in 1976, per capita output has grown to
roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level, led by the tourist
sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more
than 70% of hard currency earnings. In recent years the government has
encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other
services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the
high dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming,
fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of the
tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due
largely to the Gulf war. Although the industry has rebounded, the
government recognizes the continuing need for upgrading the sector in
the face of stiff international competition.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $430 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: -2% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $6,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1987)

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