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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold
or too dry) for agriculture

@Russia:People

Population: 149,909,089 (July 1995 est.)
note: official Russian statistics put the population at 148,200,000
for 1994

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 16,208,640; male 16,784,017)
15-64 years: 66% (female 50,711,209; male 48,247,101)
65 years and over: 12% (female 12,557,447; male 5,400,675) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.2% (1995 est.)
note: official Russian statistics put the population growth rate at
-6.0% for 1994

Birth rate: 12.64 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: official Russian statistics put the birth rate at 9.5 births per
l,000 population for 1994

Death rate: 11.36 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: official Russian statistics put the death rate at 15.5 deaths
per l,000 population in 1994

Net migration rate: 0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)
note: official Russian statistics put the infant mortality rate at
19.9 deaths per l,000 live births in 1994

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.1 years
male: 64.1 years
female: 74.35 years (1995 est.)
note: official Russian statistics put life expectancy at birth as 64
years for total population in 1994

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian

Ethnic divisions: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash
1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Byelorussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%

Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other

Languages: Russian, other

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 98%
male: 100%
female: 97%

Labor force: 85 million (1993)
by occupation: production and economic services 83.9%, government
16.1%

@Russia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form: Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Digraph: RS

Type: federation

Capital: Moscow

Administrative divisions: 21 autonomous republics (avtomnykh
respublik, singular - avtomnaya respublika); Adygea (Maykop),
Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatia (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy),
Chuvashia (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Gorno-Altay
(Gorno-Altaysk), Ingushetia (Nazran'), Kabardino-Balkaria (Nal'chik),
Kalmykia (Elista), Karachay-Cherkessia (Cherkessk), Karelia
(Petrozavodsk), Khakassia (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mari El
(Yoshkar-Ola), Mordovia (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz),
Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tuva (Kyzyl), Udmurtia (Izhevsk), Yakutia - also
known as Sakha (Yakutsk); 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast');
Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk,
Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka
(Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk,
Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk,
Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Orenburg, Penza,
Perm', Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara,
Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula,
Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh,
Yaroslavl'; 6 krays (krayev, singular - kray); Altay (Barnaul),
Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Primorskiy (Vladivostok),
Stavropol'; 10 autonomous okrugs; Aga (Aginskoye), Chukotka (Anadyr'),
Evenkia (Tura), Khantia-Mansia (Khanty-Mansiysk), Koryakia (Palana),
Nenetsia (Nar'yan-Mar), Permyakia (Kudymkar), Taymyria (Dudinka),
Ust'-Onda (Ust'-Ordynskiy), Yamalia (Salekhard); 1 autonomous oblast
(avtomnykh oblast'); Birobijan
note: the autonomous republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia were
formerly the autonomous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary
between Chechenia and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); the cities
of Moscow and St. Petersburg are federal cities; an administrative
division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions
have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, June 12 (1990)

Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN (since 12 June
1991); election last held 12 June 1991 (next to be held NA 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA; note - no vice president; if
the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of
ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the
premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election
is held, which must be within three months
head of government: Premier and Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Viktor Stepanovich CHERNOMYRDIN (since 14 December 1992); First Deputy
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers Oleg SOSKOVETS (since 30 April
1993) and Anatoliy CHUBAYS (since 5 November 1994)
Security Council: originally established as a presidential advisory
body in June 1991, but restructured in March 1992 with responsibility
for managing individual and state security
Presidential Administration: drafts presidential edicts and provides
staff and policy support to the entire executive branch
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Group of Assistants: schedules president's appointments, processes
presidential edicts and other official documents, and houses the
president's press service and primary speechwriters
Council of Heads of Republics: includes the leaders of the 21
ethnic-based Republics
Council of Heads of Administrations: includes the leaders of the 66
autonomous territories and regions, and the mayors of Moscow and St.
Petersburg
Presidential Council: prepares policy papers for the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly
Federation Council: elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be
held NA); results - two members elected from each of Russia's 89
territorial units for a total of 176 deputies; 2 seats unfilled as of
15 May 1994 (Chechnya did not participate in the election); Speaker
Vladimir SHUMEYKO (Russia's Democratic Choice)
State Duma: elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA
December 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (450
total) Russia's Democratic Choice 78, New Regional Policy 66, Liberal
Democrats 63, Agrarian Party 55, Communist Party of the Russian
Federation 45, Unity and Accord 30, Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc
(Yabloko) 27, Women of Russia 23, Democratic Party of Russia 15,
Russia's Path 12, other parties 23, affiliation unknown 12, unfilled
(as of 13 March 1994; Chechnya did not participate in the election) 1;
Speaker Ivan RYBKIN (Agrarian Party); note - as of 11 April 1995,
seats were as follows: Russia's Democratic Choice 54, New Regional
Policy 32, Liberal Democrats 54, Agrarian Party 51, Communist Party of
the Russian Federation 45, Unity and Accord 25,
Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc (Yabloko) 28, Liberal Democratic Union
of 12 December 9, Women of Russia 22, Democratic Party of Russia 10,
Russia's Path 12, Duma 96 23, Russia 35, Stability 36, affiliation
unknown 14

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (highest court
for criminal, civil, and administrative cases), Superior Court of
Arbitration (highest court that resolves economic disputes)

Political parties and leaders:
pro-market democrats: Party of Russian Unity and Accord, Sergey
SHAKHRAY; Russia's Democratic Choice Party, Yegor GAYDAR; Russian
Movement for Democratic Reforms, Anatoliy SOBCHAK;
Yavlinskiy-Boldyrev-Lukin Bloc (Yabloko), Grigoriy YAVLINSKIY; Liberal
Democratic Union of 12 December, Boris FEDOROV
centrists/special interest parties: Civic Union for Stability,
Justice, and Progress, Arkadiy VOL'SKIY; Democratic Party of Russia,
Sergey GLAZ'YEV; Women of Russia, Alevtina FEDULOVA; Social Democratic
Peoples' Party, Vasiliy LIPITSKIY; New Regional Policy (NRP), Vladimir
MEDVEDEV
anti-market and/or ultranationalist parties: Agrarian Party, Mikhail
LAPSHIN; Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV;
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY; Derzhava,
Aleksandr RUTSKOY
note: more than 20 political parties and associations tried to gather
enough signatures to run slates of candidates in the 12 December 1993
legislative elections, but only 13 succeeded

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CE (guest), CERN (observer), CIS, EBRD,
ECE, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
NACC, NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council,
UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMOZ,
UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey LAVROV
chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700 through 5704
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco, and Seattle

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING
embassy: Novinskiy Bul'var 19/23, Moscow
mailing address: APO AE 09721
telephone: [7] (095) 252-24-51 through 59
FAX: [7] (095) 956-42-61
consulate(s) general: St. Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

@Russia:Economy

Overview: Russia, a vast country with a wealth of natural resources, a
well-educated population, and a diverse industrial base, continues to
experience formidable difficulties in moving from its old centrally
planned economy to a modern market economy. President YEL'TSIN's
government has made substantial strides in converting to a market
economy since launching its economic reform program in January 1992 by
freeing nearly all prices, slashing defense spending, eliminating the
old centralized distribution system, completing an ambitious voucher
privatization program, establishing private financial institutions,
and decentralizing foreign trade. Russia, however, has made little
progress in a number of key areas that are needed to provide a solid
foundation for the transition to a market economy. Financial
stabilization has remained elusive, with wide swings in monthly
inflation rates. Only limited restructuring of industry has occurred
so far because of a scarcity of investment funds and the failure of
enterprise managers to make hard cost-cutting decisions. In addition,
Moscow has yet to develop a social safety net that would allow faster
restructuring by relieving enterprises of the burden of providing
social benefits for their workers and has been slow to develop the
legal framework necessary to fully support a market economy and to
encourage foreign investment. As a result, output has continued to
fall. According to Russian official data, which probably overstate the
fall, GDP declined by 15% in 1994 compared with a 12% decline in 1993.
Industrial output in 1994 fell 21% with all major sectors taking a
hit. Agricultural production in 1994 was down 9%. The grain harvest
totaled 81 million tons, some 15 million tons less than in 1993.
Unemployment climbed to an estimated 6.6 million or about 7% of the
work force by yearend 1994. Floundering Russian firms have already had
to put another 4.8 million workers on involuntary, unpaid leave or
shortened workweeks. Government fears of large-scale unemployment
continued to hamper industrial restructuring efforts. According to
official Russian data, real per capita income was up nearly 18% in
1994 compared with 1993, in part because many Russians are working
second jobs. Most Russians perceive that they are worse off now
because of growing crime and health problems and mounting wage
arrears. Russia has made significant headway in privatizing state
assets, completing its voucher privatization program at midyear 1994.
At least a portion of about 110,000 state enterprises were transferred
to private hands by the end of 1994. Including partially privatized
firms, the private sector accounted for roughly half of GDP in 1994.
Financial stabilization continued to remain a challenge for the
government. Moscow tightened financial policies in late 1993 and early
1994, including postponing planned budget spending, and succeeded in
reducing monthly inflation from 18% in January to about 5% in July and
August. At midyear, however, the government relaxed austerity measures
in the face of mounting pressure from industry and agriculture,
sparking a new round of inflation; the monthly inflation rate jumped
to roughly 15% per month during the fourth quarter. In response,
Moscow announced a fairly tight government budget for 1995 designed to
bring monthly inflation down to around 1% by the end of 1995.
According to official statistics, Russia's 1994 trade with nations
outside the former Soviet Union produced a $12.3 billion surplus, up
from $11.3 billion in 1993. Foreign sales - comprised largely of oil,
natural gas, and other raw materials - grew more than 8%. Imports also
were up 8% as demand for food and other consumer goods surged. Russian
trade with other former Soviet republics continued to decline. At the
same time, Russia paid only a fraction of the roughly $20 billion in
debt that came due in 1994, and by the end of the year, Russia's hard
currency foreign debt had risen to nearly $100 billion. Moscow reached
agreement to restructure debts with Paris Club official creditors in
mid-1994 and concluded a preliminary deal with its commercial bank
creditors late in the year to reschedule debts owed them in early
1995. Capital flight continued to be a serious problem in 1994, with
billions of additional dollars in assets being moved abroad, primarily
to bank accounts in Europe. Russia's physical plant continues to
deteriorate because of insufficient maintenance and new construction.
Plant and equipment on average are twice the age of the West's. Many
years will pass before Russia can take full advantage of its natural
resources and its human assets.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $721.2 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -15% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,820 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% per month (average 1994)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (December 1994) with considerable additional
underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $48 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and
wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and
military manufactures
partners: Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries, Cuba

Imports: $35.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat,
grain, sugar, semifinished metal products
partners: Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries, Cuba

External debt: $95 billion-$100 billion (yearend 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate -21% (1994)

Electricity:
capacity: 213,100,000 KW
production: 876 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,800 kWh (1994)

Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries
producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine
building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space
vehicles; ship- building; road and rail transportation equipment;
communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and
construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting
equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables

Agriculture: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, meat, milk,
vegetables, fruits; because of its northern location does not grow
citrus, cotton, tea, and other warm climate products

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly
for domestic consumption; government has active eradication program;
used as transshipment point for Asian and Latin American illicit drugs
to Western Europe and Latin America

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1990-94), $15 billion;
other countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1990-93), $120
billion

Currency: 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks

Exchange rates: rubles per US$1 - 3,550 (29 December 1994), 1,247 (27
December 1993); nominal exchange rate still deteriorating but real
exchange rate holding steady

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Russia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 154,000 km; note - 87,000 km in common carrier service (49,000
km diesel; and 38,000 km electrified); 67,000 km serve specific
industries and are not available for common carrier use
broad gauge: 154,000 km 1.520-m gauge (1 January 1994)

Highways:
total: 934,000 km (445,000 km serve specific industries or farms and
are not available for common carrier use)
paved and graveled: 725,000 km
unpaved: 209,000 km (1 January 1994)

Inland waterways: total navigable routes in general use 101,000 km;
routes with navigation guides serving the Russian River Fleet 95,900
km; of which routes with night navigational aids 60,400 km; man-made
navigable routes 16,900 km (1 January 1994)

Pipelines: crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum products 15,000 km; natural
gas 140,000 km (30 June 1993)

Ports: Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Kaliningrad, Kazan', Khabarovsk,
Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka, Nevel'sk,
Novorossiysk, Petropavlovsk, St. Petersburg, Rostov, Sochi, Tuapse,
Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochnyy, Vyborg

Merchant marine:
total: 800 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,295,109 GRT/10,128,579
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk cargo 26, cargo 424, chemical
tanker 7, combination bulk 22, combination ore/oil 16, container 81,
multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker 111, passenger 4,
passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 19, roll-on/roll-off cargo 62,
short-sea passenger 16, specialized tanker 2
note: in addition, Russia owns 235 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
5,084,439 DWT that operate under Maltese, Cypriot, Liberian,
Panamanian, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Honduran, Marshall
Islands, Bahamian, and Vanuatu registry

Airports:
total: 2,517
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 54
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 202
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 108
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 115
with paved runways under 914 m: 151
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 25
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 45
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 134
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 291
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 1,392

@Russia:Communications

Telephone system: 24,400,000 telephones; 20,900,000 telephones in
urban areas and 3,500,000 telephones in rural areas; of these, total
installed in homes 15,400,000; total pay phones for long distant calls
34,100; about 164 telephones/1,000 persons; Russia is enlisting
foreign help, by means of joint ventures, to speed up the
modernization of its telecommunications system; in 1992, only 661,000
new telephones were installed compared with 855,000 in 1991, and in
1992 the number of unsatisfied applications for telephones reached
11,000,000; expanded access to international E-mail service available
via Sprint network; the inadequacy of Russian telecommunications is a
severe handicap to the economy, especially with respect to
international connections
local: NMT-450 analog cellular telephone networks are operational and
growing in Moscow and St. Petersburg
intercity: intercity fiberoptic cable installation remains limited
international: international traffic is handled by an inadequate
system of satellites, land lines, microwave radio relay and outdated
submarine cables; this traffic passes through the international
gateway switch in Moscow which carries most of the international
traffic for the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent
States; a new Russian Raduga satellite will link Moscow and St.
Petersburg with Rome from whence calls will be relayed to destinations
in Europe and overseas; satellite earth stations - INTELSAT,
Intersputnik, Eutelsat (Moscow), INMARSAT, Orbita

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1,050, FM 1,050, shortwave 1,050
radios: 48.8 million (radio receivers with multiple speaker systems
for program diffusion 74,300,000)

Television:
broadcast stations: 7,183
televisions: 54.2 million

@Russia:Defense Forces

Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces,
Strategic Rocket Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 38,264,699; males fit for
military service 29,951,977; males reach military age (18) annually
1,106,176 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
note: the Intelligence Community estimates that defense spending in
Russia fell about 15% in real terms in 1994, reducing Russian defense
outlays to about one-fourth of peak Soviet levels in the late 1980s;
although Russia may still spend as much as 10% of its GDP on defense,
this is significantly below the 15% to 17% burden the former USSR
carried during much of the 1980s; conversion of military expenditures
into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

RWANDA

@Rwanda:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Zaire

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 26,340 sq km
land area: 24,950 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 893 km, Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda
169 km, Zaire 217 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to
January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with
altitude declining from west to east

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten
ore), natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 29%
permanent crops: 11%
meadows and pastures: 18%
forest and woodland: 10%
other: 32%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of
trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion
natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are
in the northwest along the border with Zaire
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test
Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of
the Sea

Note: landlocked; predominantly rural population

@Rwanda:People

Population: 8,605,307 (July 1995 est.)
note: the demographic estimates were prepared before civil strife,
starting in April 1994, set in motion substantial and continuing
population changes

Age structure:
0-14 years: 51% (female 2,184,549; male 2,201,049)
15-64 years: 47% (female 2,034,278; male 1,968,298)
65 years and over: 2% (female 126,255; male 90,878) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.67% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 48.52 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 21.82 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: since April 1994, more than one million refugees have fled the
civil strife between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Rwanda and crossed
into Zaire, Burundi, and Tanzania; close to 350,000 Rwandan Tutsis who
fled civil strife in earlier years are returning to Rwanda and a few
of the recent Hutu refugees are going home despite the danger of doing
so; the ethnic violence continues and in 1995 could produce further
refugee flows as well as deter returns

Infant mortality rate: 118.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.33 years
male: 38.5 years
female: 40.19 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 8.12 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan

Ethnic divisions: Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous
beliefs and other 25%

Languages: Kinyarwanda (official), French (official), Kiswahili used
in commercial centers

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 50%
male: 64%
female: 37%

Labor force: 3.6 million
by occupation: agriculture 93%, government and services 5%, industry
and commerce 2%

@Rwanda:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda

Digraph: RW

Type: republic; presidential system
note: after genocide and civil war in April 1994, the Tutsi Rwandan
Patriotic Front, in July 1994, took power and formed a new government

Capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 10 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture in French; plural - NA, singular - prefegitura in
Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama,
Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Ruhengeri

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 18 June 1991

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and
customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pasteur BIZIMUNGU (since 19 July 1994); took
office following the siezure of the government by the Tutsi Rwandan
Patriotic Front and the exiling of interim President Dr. Theodore
SINDIKUBWABO; no future election dates have been set
head of government: Prime Minister Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU (since the
siezure of power by the Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front in July 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Development Council: (Conseil National de Developpement)
elections last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held NA 1995);
results - MRND was the only party; seats - (70 total) MRND 70

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court consists of the Court of
Cassation and the Council of State in joint session

Political parties and leaders: Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), Alexis
KANYARENGWE, Chairman; National Revolutionary Movement for Democracy
and Development (MRND); significant independent parties include:
Democratic Republican Movement (MDR); Liberal Party (PL); Democratic
and Socialist Party (PSD); Coalition for the Defense of the Republic
(CDR); Party for Democracy in Rwanda (PADER); Christian Democratic
Party (PDL)
note: formerly a one-party state, Rwanda legalized independent parties
in mid-1991

Other political or pressure groups: Rwanda Patriotic Army (RPA), the
RPF military wing, Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME, commander;

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Joseph W.
MUTABOBA
chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544

US diplomatic representation:
note: US Embassy closed indefinitely
chief of mission: Ambassador David P. RAWSON
embassy: Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone: [250] 756 01 through 03
FAX: [250] 721 28

Flag: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and
green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses
the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
Guinea, which has a plain yellow band

@Rwanda:Economy

Overview: Rwanda is a poor African nation suffering bitterly from
ethnic-based civil war. Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural
sector; coffee and tea make up 80%-90% of total exports. The amount of
fertile land is limited, however, and deforestation and soil erosion
continue to create problems. The industrial sector in Rwanda is small,
contributing only 17% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses mainly on the
processing of agricultural products. The Rwandan economy remains
dependent on coffee/tea exports and foreign aid. Weak international
prices since 1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita
GDP to decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank
began in October 1990. Ethnic-based insurgency since 1990 has
devastated wide areas, especially in the north, and displaced hundreds
of thousands of people. A peace accord in mid-1993 temporarily ended
most of the fighting, but massive resumption of civil warfare in April
1994 in the capital city Kigali and elsewhere has been taking
thousands of lives and severely affecting short-term economic
prospects. The economy suffers massively from failure to maintain the
infrastructure, looting, neglect of important cash crops, and lack of
health care facilities.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.9 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: -8% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $950 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $350 million
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Exports: $44 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: coffee 63%, tea, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum
partners: Germany, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US

Imports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital
goods, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
partners: US, Belgium, Germany, Kenya, Japan

External debt: $873 million (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -2.2% (1991); accounts for 17% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 60,000 kW
production: 190 million kWh
consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten
ore), tin, cement, agricultural processing, small-scale beverage
production, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles,
cigarettes

Agriculture: cash crops - coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made
from chrysanthemums); main food crops - bananas, beans, sorghum,
potatoes; stock raising

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $128 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $58 million
note: in October 1990 Rwanda launched a Structural Adjustment Program
with the IMF; since September 1991, the EC has given $46 million and
the US $25 million in support of this program (1993)

Currency: 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 144.3 (3rd quarter
1994), 144.25 (1993), 133.35 (1992), 125.14 (1991), 82.60 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Rwanda:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 4,885 km
paved: 880 km
unpaved: gravel, sand and gravel 1,305 km; unimproved earth 2,700 km

Inland waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and
native craft

Ports: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye

Airports:
total: 7
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Rwanda:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; telephone system does not provide
service to the general public but is intended for business and
government use
local: NA
intercity: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the
prefectures by microwave radio relay; the remainder of the network
depends on wire and high frequency radio
international: international connections employ microwave radio relay
to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant
countries; 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) and 1 SYMPHONIE earth station in
Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Rwanda:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,792,326; males fit for
military service 913,711 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $112.5 million, 7% of
GDP (1992)

________________________________________________________________________

SAINT HELENA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Saint Helena:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean, west of
Angola, about two-thirds of the way from South America to Africa

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 410 sq km
land area: 410 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 2.3 times the size of Washington,
DC
note: includes Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island,
Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 60 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds

Terrain: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains

Natural resources: fish; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea
turtles and sooty terns, no minerals

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 7%
forest and woodland: 3%
other: 83%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha
international agreements: NA

Note: Napoleon Bonaparte's place of exile and burial (the remains were
taken to Paris in 1840); harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown
anywhere else in the world

@Saint Helena:People

Population: 6,762 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.31% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 9.5 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.43 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 36.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.07 years
male: 73.01 years
female: 76.89 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Saint Helenian(s)
adjective: Saint Helenian

Ethnic divisions: NA

Religions: Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman
Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy: age 20 and over can read and write (1987)
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 98%

Labor force: 2,516
by occupation: professional, technical, and related workers 8.7%,
managerial, administrative, and clerical 12.8%, sales people 8.1%,
farmer, fishermen, etc. 5.4%, craftspersons, production process
workers 14.7%, others 50.3% (1987)

@Saint Helena:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Saint Helena

Digraph: SH

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Jamestown

Administrative divisions: 1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*;
Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha*

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen, 10 June
1989 (second Saturday in June)

Constitution: 1 January 1989

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor A. N. HOOLE (since NA 1991)
cabinet: Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Council: elections last held July 1993 (next to be held
NA); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected)
independents 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Member of: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag;
the shield features a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship

@Saint Helena:Economy

Overview: The economy depends primarily on financial assistance from
the UK. The local population earns some income from fishing, the
raising of livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few
jobs, a large proportion of the work force has left to seek employment
overseas.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.1% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $11.2 million
expenditures: $11 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY92/93)

Exports: $27,400 (f.o.b., FY92/93)
commodities: fish (frozen and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), handicrafts
partners: South Africa, UK

Imports: $9.8 million (c.i.f., FY92/93)
commodities: food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed,
building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
partners: UK, South Africa

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 9,800 kW
production: 10 million kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Industries: crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing

Agriculture: maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production being
developed; crawfishing on Tristan da Cunha

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1992-93), $13.5 million

Currency: 1 Saint Helenian pound (#S) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Saint Helenian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 0.6350 (January
1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6033 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991),
0.5603 (1990); note - the Saint Helenian pound is at par with the
British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Saint Helena:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA (mainland 107 km, Ascension NA, Tristan da Cunha NA)
paved: 169.7 km (mainland 87 km, Ascension 80 km, Tristan da Cunha
2.70 km)
unpaved: NA (mainland 20 km earth roads, Ascension NA, Tristan da
Cunha NA)

Ports: Georgetown, Jamestown

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1

@Saint Helena:Communications

Telephone system: 550 telephones; automatic network
local: NA
intercity: HF radio links to Ascension, then into worldwide submarine
cable and satellite networks
international: major coaxial submarine cable relay point between South
Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension; 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 1,500

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Saint Helena:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS

@Saint Kitts And Nevis:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of
the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 269 sq km
land area: 269 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 135 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental
margin
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal
temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 22%
permanent crops: 17%
meadows and pastures: 3%
forest and woodland: 17%
other: 41%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: hurricanes (July to October)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Whaling

@Saint Kitts And Nevis:People

Population: 40,992 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 7,072; male 7,430)
15-64 years: 57% (female 11,784; male 11,756)
65 years and over: 8% (female 1,729; male 1,221) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.85% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 23.49 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.56 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.51 years
male: 63.51 years
female: 69.69 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.56 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s)
adjective: Kittsian, Nevisian

Ethnic divisions: black African

Religions: Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1980)
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 98%

Labor force: 20,000 (1981)

@Saint Kitts And Nevis:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
conventional short form: Saint Kitts and Nevis
former: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis

Digraph: SC

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Basseterre

Administrative divisions: 14 parishs; Christ Church Nichola Town,
Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George
Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John Capisterre, Saint John
Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre, Saint Paul
Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint
Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point

Independence: 19 September 1983 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

Constitution: 19 September 1983

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Clement Athelston ARRINDELL (since
19 September 1983, previously Governor General of theWest Indies
Associated States since NA November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Kennedy Alphonse SIMMONDS
(since 19 September 1983, previously Premier of the West Indies
Associated States since NA February 1980); Deputy Prime Minister Hugh
HEYLIGER (since November 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general in consultation
with the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Assembly: elections last held 29 November 1993 (next to be
held by 15 November 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (14 total, 11 elected) PAM 4, SKNLP 4, NRP 1, CCM 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint
Lucia)

Political parties and leaders: People's Action Movement (PAM), Dr.
Kennedy SIMMONDS; Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party (SKNLP), Dr.
Denzil DOUGLAS; Nevis Reformation Party (NRP), Simeon DANIEL;
Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), Vance AMORY

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS (associate), IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, OAS, OECS, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Erstein Mallet EDWARDS
chancery: Suite 608, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 833-3550
FAX: [1] (202) 833-3553

US diplomatic representation: no official presence; covered by embassy
in Bridgetown, Barbados

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black
band bearing two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in
yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

@Saint Kitts And Nevis:Economy

Overview: The economy has traditionally depended on the growing and
processing of sugarcane; decreasing world prices have hurt the
industry in recent years. Tourism and export-oriented manufacturing
have begun to assume larger roles, although they still only account
for 7% and 4% of GDP respectively. Growth in the construction and
tourism sectors spurred the economic expansion in 1994. Most food is
imported.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $210 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $5,300 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 12.2% (1990)

Budget:
revenues: $103.2 million
expenditures: $102.6 million, including capital expenditures of $50.1
million (1995 est.)

Exports: $32.4 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: machinery, food, electronics, beverages and tobacco
partners: US 50%, UK 30%, CARICOM nations 11% (1992)

Imports: $100 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: machinery, manufactures, food, fuels
partners: US 43%, CARICOM nations 18%, UK 12%, Canada 4%, Japan 4%,
OECS 4% (1992)

External debt: $43.3 million (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.9% (1992 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 15,800 kW
production: 45 million kWh
consumption per capita: 990 kWh (1993)

Industries: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing,
footwear, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 17% of GDP; cash crop - sugarcane;
subsistence crops - rice, yams, vegetables, bananas; fishing potential
not fully exploited

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-88), $10.7 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $67 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Kitts And Nevis:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 58 km on Saint Kitts for sugarcane
narrow gauge: 58 km 0.760-m gauge

Highways:
total: 300 km
paved: 125 km
unpaved: otherwise improved 125 km; unimproved earth 50 km

Ports: Basseterre, Charlestown

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Saint Kitts And Nevis:Communications

Telephone system: 2,400 telephones; good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radio
connections and international link via Antigua and Barbuda and Saint
Martin
local: NA
intercity: interisland links are handled by VHF/UHF/SHF radio; within
the islands all calls are local
international: international calls are carried by radio to Antigua and
Barbuda and there switched to submarine cable or to INTELSAT, or
carried to Saint Martin by radio and switched to INTELSAT

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 4
televisions: NA

@Saint Kitts And Nevis:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast Guard

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

SAINT LUCIA

@Saint Lucia:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad
and Tobago

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 620 sq km
land area: 610 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 158 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental
margin
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from
January to April, rainy season from May to August

Terrain: volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral
springs, geothermal potential

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 20%
meadows and pastures: 5%
forest and woodland: 13%
other: 54%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion, particularly in the
northern region
natural hazards: hurricanes and volcanic activity
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

@Saint Lucia:People

Population: 156,050 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 26,710; male 27,255)
15-64 years: 60% (female 47,584; male 46,326)
65 years and over: 5% (female 5,040; male 3,135) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.17% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.48 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.88 years
male: 66.33 years
female: 73.67 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Saint Lucian(s)
adjective: Saint Lucian

Ethnic divisions: African descent 90.3%, mixed 5.5%, East Indian 3.2%,
Caucasian 0.8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1980)
total population: 67%
male: 65%
female: 69%

Labor force: 43,800
by occupation: agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry and
commerce 17.7% (1983 est.)

@Saint Lucia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Saint Lucia

Digraph: ST

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Castries

Administrative divisions: 11 quarters; Anse La Raye, Castries,
Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin,
Soufriere, Vieux Fort

Independence: 22 February 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 February (1979)

Constitution: 22 February 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Stanislaus Anthony JAMES (since 10
October 1988)
head of government: Prime Minister John George Melvin COMPTON (since 3
May 1982)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the governor general on advice of the
prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: consists of an 11-member body, 6 appointed on the advice of
the prime minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition,
and 2 after consultation with religious, economic, and social groups
House of Assembly: elections last held 27 April 1992 (next to be held
by April 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17
total) UWP 11, SLP 6

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Workers' Party (UWP), John
COMPTON; Saint Lucia Labor Party (SLP), Julian HUNTE; Progressive
Labor Party (PLP), Jon ODLUM

Member of: ACCT (associate), ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (subscriber), NAM,
OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 364-6792 through 6795
FAX: [1] (202) 364-6728
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: no official presence since the
Ambassador resides in Bridgetown (Barbados)

Flag: blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the
upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border

@Saint Lucia:Economy

Overview: Though foreign investment in manufacturing and information
processing in recent years has increased Saint Lucia's industrial
base, the economy remains vulnerable due to its heavy dependence on
banana production, which is subject to periodic droughts and tropical
storms. Indeed, the destructive effect of Tropical Storm Debbie in
mid-1994 caused the loss of 60% of the year's banana crop. Increased
competition from Latin American bananas will probably further reduce
market prices, exacerbating Saint Lucia's need to diversify its
economy in coming years, e.g., by expanding tourism, manufacturing,
and construction

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $610 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,200 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $121 million
expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $104
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $122.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: bananas 60%, clothing, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut
oil
partners: UK 56%, US 22%, CARICOM 19% (1991)

Imports: $276 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: manufactured goods 21%, machinery and transportation
equipment 21%, food and live animals, chemicals, fuels
partners: US 34%, CARICOM 17%, UK 14%, Japan 7%, Canada 4% (1991)

External debt: $96.4 million (1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1990 est.); accounts for 12%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 20,000 kW
production: 112 million kWh
consumption per capita: 693 kWh (1993)

Industries: clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages,
corrugated cardboard boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut
processing

Agriculture: accounts for 14% of GDP and 43% of labor force; crops -
bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus fruit, root crops, cocoa;
imports food for the tourist industry

Illicit drugs: transit country for South American drugs destined for
the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $120 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Saint Lucia:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 760 km
paved: 500 km
unpaved: otherwise improved 260 km

Ports: Castries, Vieux Fort

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Saint Lucia:Communications

Telephone system: 9,500 telephones
local: low density (6 telephones/100 persons) but the system is
automatically switched
intercity: no intercity traffic
international: direct microwave link with Martinique and Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines; interisland troposcatter link to Barbados

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1 cable
televisions: NA

@Saint Lucia:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Saint Lucia Police Force, Coast Guard

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON

(territorial collectivity of France)

@Saint Pierre And Miquelon:Geography

Location: Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Map references: North America

Area:
total area: 242 sq km
land area: 242 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington,
DC
note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the
Miquelon groups

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between
Canada and France

Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are
windy

Terrain: mostly barren rock

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 4%
other: 83%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime
hazard
international agreements: NA

Note: vegetation scanty

@Saint Pierre And Miquelon:People

Population: 6,757 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.83 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.77 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76 years
male: 74.4 years
female: 77.92 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic divisions: Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%

Languages: French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99%

Labor force: 2,850 (1988)
by occupation: NA

@Saint Pierre And Miquelon:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and
Miquelon
conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Digraph: SB

Type: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: Saint-Pierre

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under
French control since 1763)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government: Commissioner of the Republic Yves HENRY (since NA
December 1993); President of the General Council Gerard GRIGNON (since
NA April 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
General Council: elections last held NA April 1994 (next to be held NA
April 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total)
seats by party NA
French Senate: elections last held NA September 1986 (next to be held
NA September 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1
total) PS 1
French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
(next to be held NA June 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (1 total) UDF 1

Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur
d'Appel)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS), Albert PEN; Union
for French Democracy (UDF/CDS), Gerard GRIGNON

Member of: FZ, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territorial collectivity of
France)

US diplomatic representation: none (territorial collectivity of
France)

Flag: the flag of France is used

@Saint Pierre And Miquelon:Economy

Overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood
by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of
Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because the
number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre has dropped steadily over the
years. In March 1989, an agreement between France and Canada set fish
quotas for Saint Pierre's trawlers fishing in Canadian and
Canadian-claimed waters for three years. The agreement settles a
longstanding dispute that had virtually brought fish exports to a
halt. The islands are heavily subsidized by France. Imports come
primarily from Canada and France.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $66 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $10,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 9.6% (1990)

Budget:
revenues: $18.3 million
expenditures: $18.3 million, including capital expenditures of $5.5
million (1989 est.)

Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts
partners: US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal (1990)

Imports: $82 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery,
building materials
partners: Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 10,000 kW
production: 50 million kWh
consumption per capita: 6,013 kWh (1993)

Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets;
tourism

Agriculture: vegetables, cattle, sheep, pigs for local consumption;
fish catch of 20,500 metric tons (1989)

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $500 million

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.2943 (January 1995),
5.520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Pierre And Miquelon:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 120 km
paved: 60 km
unpaved: earth 60 km (1985)

Ports: Saint Pierre

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Saint Pierre And Miquelon:Communications

Telephone system: 3,601 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: radio communication with most countries in the world; 1
satellite link in French domestic satellite system

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Saint Pierre And Miquelon:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

@Saint Vincent And The Grenadines:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad
and Tobago

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 340 sq km
land area: 340 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 84 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season
(May to November)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous; Soufriere volcano on the island of
Saint Vincent

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 38%
permanent crops: 12%
meadows and pastures: 6%
forest and woodland: 41%
other: 3%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: pollution of coastal waters and shorelines from
discharges by pleasure yachts and other effluents; in some areas
pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive
natural hazards: hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant threat
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Desertification

Note: the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is
divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

@Saint Vincent And The Grenadines:People

Population: 117,344 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (female 19,551; male 20,185)
15-64 years: 61% (female 35,565; male 35,573)
65 years and over: 5% (female 3,793; male 2,677) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 19.62 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.46 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.66 years
male: 71.15 years
female: 74.21 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s)
adjective: Saint Vincentian or Vincentian

Ethnic divisions: African descent, Caucasian, East Indian, Carib
Indian

Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: English, French patois

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
total population: 96%
male: 96%
female: 96%

Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.)
by occupation: NA

@Saint Vincent And The Grenadines:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Digraph: VC

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Kingstown

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint
Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick

Independence: 27 October 1979 (from UK)

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