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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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@Poland:People

Population: 38,792,442 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (female 4,349,467; male 4,559,536)
15-64 years: 66% (female 12,849,300; male 12,698,179)
65 years and over: 11% (female 2,693,407; male 1,642,553) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.34 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.23 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.13 years
male: 69.15 years
female: 77.33 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish

Ethnic divisions: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%,
Byelorussian 0.5% (1990 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern
Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

Languages: Polish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98%

Labor force: 17.321 million (1993 annual average)
by occupation: industry and construction 32.0%, agriculture 27.6%,
trade, transport, and communications 14.7%, government and other 25.7%
(1992)

@Poland:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska

Digraph: PL

Type: democratic state

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular -
wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko Biala, Bydgoszcz,
Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow, Jelenia Gora,
Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica,
Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka,
Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce,
Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow,
Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)

Constitution: interim "small constitution" came into effect in
December 1992 replacing the Communist-imposed constitution of 22 July
1952; new democratic constitution being drafted

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and
holdover Communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as
part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lech WALESA (since 22 December 1990);
election first round held 25 November 1990, second round held 9
December 1990 (next to be held NA November 1995); results - second
round Lech WALESA 74.7%, Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%
head of government: Prime Minister Jozef OLEKSY (since 6 March 1995);
Deputy Prime Ministers Roman JAGIELINSKI, Grzegorz KOLODKO, and
Aleksander LUCZAK (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; responsible to the president and the
Sejm

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie
Narodowe)
Senate (Senat): elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held
no later than NA October 1997); seats - (100 total) Communist origin
or linked (PSL 34, SLD 37), post-Solidarity parties (UW 6, NSZZ 12,
BBWR 2), non-Communist, non-Solidarity (independents 7, unaffiliated
1, vacant 1)
Diet (Sejm): elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held no
later than NA October 1997); seats - (460 total) Communist origin or
linked (SLD 171, PSL 132), post-Solidarity parties (UW 74, UP 41, BBWR
16), non-Communist, non-Solidarity (KPN 22)
note: 4 seats are constitutionally assigned to ethnic German parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
post-Solidarity parties: Freedom Union (UW; Democratic Union and
Liberal Democratic Congress merged to form Freedom Union), Leszek
BALCEROWICZ; Christian-National Union (ZCHN), Ryszard CZARNECKI;
Centrum (PC), Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI; Peasant Alliance (PL), Gabriel
JANOWSKI; Solidarity Trade Union (NSZZ), Marian KRZAKLEWSKI; Union of
Labor (UP), Ryszard BUGAJ; Christian-Democratic Party (PCHD), Pawel
LACZKOWSKI; Conservative Party, Alexander HALL; Nonparty Bloc for the
Support of the Reforms (BBWR)
non-Communist, non-Solidarity: Confederation for an Independent Poland
(KPN), Leszek MOCZULSKI; Polish Economic Program (PPG), Janusz
REWINSKI; Christian Democrats (CHD), Andrzej OWSINSKI; German Minority
(MN), Henryk KROL; Union of Real Politics (UPR), Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE;
Democratic Party (SD), Antoni MACKIEWICZ
Communist origin: Polish Peasant Party (PSL), Waldemar PAWLAK;
Democratic Left Alliance (SLD), Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI

Other political or pressure groups: powerful Roman Catholic Church;
Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union Alliance (OPZZ),
populist program

Member of: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI,
CERN, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS
(observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerzy KOZMINSKI
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas Andrew REY
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, Box 5010, Unit 1340, APO AE
09213-1340
telephone: [48] (2) 628-30-41
FAX: [48] (2) 628-82-98
consulate(s) general: Krakow, Poznan

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to
the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

@Poland:Economy

Overview: Poland continues to make good progress in the difficult
transition to a market economy that began on 1 January 1990, when the
new democratic government instituted "shock therapy" by decontrolling
prices, slashing subsidies, and drastically reducing import barriers.
Real GDP fell sharply in 1990 and 1991, but in 1992 Poland became the
first country in the region to resume economic growth with a 2.6%
increase. Growth increased to 3.8% in 1993 and 5.5% in 1994 - the
highest rate in Europe except for Albania. All of the growth since
1991 has come from the booming private sector, which now accounts for
at least 55% of GDP, even though privatization of the state-owned
enterprises is proceeding slowly and most industry remains in state
hands. Industrial production increased 12% in 1994 - led by 50% jumps
in the output of motor vehicles, radios and televisions, and pulp and
paper - and is now well above the 1990 level. Inflation, which had
approached 1,200% annually in early 1990, was down to about 30% in
1994, as the government held the budget deficit to 1.5% of GDP. After
five years of steady increases, unemployment has leveled off at about
16% nationwide, although it approaches 30% in some regions. The trade
deficit was sharply reduced in 1994, due mainly to increased exports
to Western Europe, Poland's main customer. The leftist government
elected in September 1993 gets generally good marks from foreign
observers for its management of the budget but is often criticized for
not moving faster on privatization.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $191.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,920 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 16.1% (November 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $27.1 billion
expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994
est.)

Exports: $16.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: intermediate goods 26.5%, machinery and transport
equipment 18.1%, miscellaneous manufactures 16.7%, foodstuffs 9.4%,
fuels 8.4% (1993)
partners: Germany 33.4%, Russia 10.2%, Italy 5.3%, UK 4.3% (1993)

Imports: $18.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 29.6%, intermediate
goods 18.5%, chemicals 13.3%, fuels 12.5%, miscellaneous manufactures
10.1%
partners: Germany 35.8%, Italy 9.2%, Russia 8.5%, UK 6.6% (1993)

External debt: $47 billion (1993); note - Poland's Western government
creditors promised in 1991 to forgive 30% of Warsaw's $35 billion
official debt immediately and to forgive another 20% in 1994; foreign
banks agreed in early 1994 to forgive 45% of their $12 billion debt
claim

Industrial production: growth rate 12% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 31,120,000 kW
production: 124 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,908 kWh (1993)

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries,
chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP; 75% of output from private farms,
25% from state farms; productivity remains low by European standards;
leading European producer of rye, rapeseed, and potatoes; wide variety
of other crops and livestock; major exporter of pork products;
normally self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium for domestic consumption and
amphetamines for the international market; transshipment point for
Asian and Latin American illicit drugs to Western Europe; producer of
precursor chemicals

Economic aid:
donor: bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries
(1954-89), $2.2 billion
recipient: Western governments and institutions have pledged $8
billion in grants and loans since 1989, but most of the money has not
been disbursed

Currency: 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 2.45 (January 1995; a currency
reform on 1 January 1995 replaced 10,000 old zlotys with 1 new zloty),
22,723 (1994), 18,115 (1993), 13,626 (1992), 10,576 (1991), 9,500
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Poland:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 25,528 km
broad gauge: 659 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 23,014 km 1.435-m gauge (11,496 km electrified; 8,978
km double track)
narrow gauge: 1,855 km various gauges including 1.000-m, 0.785-m,
0.750-m, and 0.600-m (1994)

Highways:
total: 367,000 km (excluding farm, factory and forest roads)
paved: 235,247 km (257 km of which are limited access expressways)
unpaved: 131,753 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1991)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,986 km; petroleum products 360 km; natural gas
4,600 km (1992)

Ports: Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Kolobrzeg, Szczecin, Swinoujscie,
Ustka, Warsaw, Wrocaw

Merchant marine:
total: 152 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,186,405 GRT/3,270,914
DWT
ships by type: bulk 89, cargo 38, chemical tanker 4, container 7, oil
tanker 1, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8, short-sea passenger 4

note: in addition, Poland owns 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
76,501 DWT that operate under Bahamian, Liberian, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Vanuatu, Panamanian, and Cypriot registry

Airports:
total: 134
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 27
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 7
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 10
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 32
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 18

@Poland:Communications

Telephone system: 4.9 million telephones; 12.7 phones/100 residents
(1994); severely underdeveloped and outmoded system; exchanges are 86%
automatic (1991)
local: NA
intercity: cable, open wire, and microwave
international: INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, INMARSAT, and Intersputnik earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 27, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 40 (Russian repeaters 5)
televisions: 9.6 million

@Poland:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 10,181,069; males fit for
military service 7,940,634; males reach military age (19) annually
323,133 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 50.7 billion zlotych, NA% of GNP (1994 est.);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

PORTUGAL

@Portugal:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Spain

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 92,080 sq km
land area: 91,640 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Land boundaries: total 1,214 km, Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor
Province) disputed with Indonesia

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier
in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium
ore, marble

Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 6%
meadows and pastures: 6%
forest and woodland: 40%
other: 16%

Irrigated land: 6,340 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and
vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along
western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Portugal:People

Population: 10,562,388 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 943,412; male 1,000,971)
15-64 years: 68% (female 3,625,086; male 3,499,176)
65 years and over: 14% (female 889,142; male 604,601) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.72 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.65 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.53 years
male: 72.11 years
female: 79.16 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores,
Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to
mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%

Languages: Portuguese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 85%
male: 89%
female: 82%

Labor force: 4.24 million (1994 est.)
by occupation: services 54.5%, manufacturing 24.4%, agriculture,
forestry, fisheries 11.2%, construction 8.3%, utilites 1.0%, mining
0.5% (1992)

@Portugal:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal

Digraph: PO

Type: republic

Capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular -
distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular -
regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca,
Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa,
Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila
Real, Viseu

Dependent areas: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China on 20 December 1999)

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and 1 June 1989

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews
the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES (since
9 March 1986); election last held 13 February 1991 (next to be held NA
February 1996); results - Dr. Mario Lopes SOARES 70%, Basilio HORTA
14%, Carlos CARVALHAS 13%, Carlos MARQUES 3%; note - SOARES is
finishing his second term and by law cannot run for a third
consecutive term
head of government: Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6
November 1985); note - will be replaced in the October 1995 elections
Council of State: acts as a consultative body to the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on
recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica): elections last
held 6 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - PSD
50.4%, PS 29.3%, CDU 8.8%, CDS 4.4%, PSN 1.7%, PRD 0.6%, other 4.8%;
seats - (230 total) PSD 136, PS 71, CDU 17, CDS 5, PSN 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de
Justica)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (PSD), Fernando
NOGUEIRA; Portuguese Socialist Party (PS), Antonio GUTERRES; Party of
Democratic Renewal (PRD), Pedro CANAVARRO; Portuguese Communist Party
(PCP), Carlos CARVALHAS; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Manuel
MONTEIRO; National Solidarity Party (PSN), Manuel SERGIO; Center
Democratic Party (CDS); United Democratic Coalition (CDU; Communists)

Member of: AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO,
NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Jose Laco Treichler KNOPFLI
chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San
Francisco
consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence
(Rhode Island), and Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley BAGLEY
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
mailing address: PSC 83, Lisbon; APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (1) 7266600, 7266659, 7268670, 7268880
FAX: [351] (1) 7269109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red
(three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the
dividing line

@Portugal:Economy

Overview: Portugal's economy contracted 0.4% in 1993 but registered a
1.4% growth in 1994, with 3% growth expected in 1995 and 1996. This
comeback rests on high levels of public investment, continuing strong
export growth, and a gradual recovery in consumer spending. The
government's long-run economic goal is the modernization of Portuguese
markets, industry, infrastructure, and work force in order to catch up
with productivity and income levels of the more advanced EU countries.
Per capita income now equals only 55% of the EU average. Economic
policy in 1994 focused on reducing inflationary pressures by lowering
the fiscal deficit, maintaining a stable escudo, moderating wage
increases, and encouraging increased competition. The government's
medium-term objective is to be in the first tier of the EU countries
eligible to join the economic and monetary union (EMU) as early as
1997. To this end, the 1995 budget posits a cut in total deficit to
5.8% of GDP.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $107.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $10,190 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.1% (May 1994)

Unemployment rate: 6.7% (May 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $31 billion
expenditures: $41 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Exports: $15.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, cork and paper
products, hides and skins
partners: EU 75.5%, other developed countries 12.4%, US 4.3% (1994)

Imports: $24.3 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products,
chemicals, petroleum, textiles
partners: EC 72%, other developed countries 10.9%, less developed
countries 12.9%, US 3.4%

External debt: $20 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% (1994 est.); accounts for
30.6% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 8,220,000 kW
production: 29.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,642 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP; small, inefficient farms; imports
more than half of food needs; major crops - grain, potatoes, olives,
grapes; livestock sector - sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat, dairy
products

Illicit drugs: increasingly important gateway country for Latin
American cocaine entering the European market; transshipment point for
hashish from North Africa to Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.8 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.2 billion

Currency: 1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 158.02 (January
1995), 165.99 (1994), 160.80 (1993), 135.00 (1992), 144.48 (1991),
142.55 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Portugal:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,068 km
broad gauge: 2,761 km 1.668-m gauge (439 km electrified; 426 km double
track)
narrow gauge: 307 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 70,176 km
paved and graveled: 60,351 km (519 km of expressways)
unpaved: earth 9,825 km

Inland waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national
economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton cargo
capacity

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km

Ports: Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores), Leixoes,
Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores),
Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine:
total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 852,785 GRT/1,545,804 DWT

ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 28, chemical tanker 5, container 4,
liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1
note: Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira for
Portuguese-owned ships; ships on the Madeira Register (MAR) will have
taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience; in addition,
Portugal owns 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 155,776 DWT that
operate under Panamanian and Maltese registry

Airports:
total: 65
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 18
with paved runways under 914 m: 29
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Portugal:Communications

Telephone system: 2,690,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables,
open wire and microwave radio relay, domestic satellite earth stations

international: 6 submarine cables; 3 INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT earth stations; tropospheric link to Azores

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 57, FM 66 (repeaters 22), shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 66 (repeaters 23)
televisions: NA

@Portugal:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National
Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,747,357; males fit for
military service 2,223,299; males reach military age (20) annually
90,402 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, 2.9% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

PUERTO RICO

(commonwealth associated with the US)

@Puerto Rico:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 9,104 sq km
land area: 8,959 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode
Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 501 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains
precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal
areas

Natural resources: some copper and nickel, potential for onshore and
offshore crude oil

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 9%
meadows and pastures: 41%
forest and woodland: 20%
other: 22%

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: the recent drought has caused water levels in
reservoirs to drop and prompted water rationing for more than one-half
of the population
natural hazards: periodic droughts
international agreements: NA

Note: important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane
to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural
harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains
ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile
coastal plain belt in north

@Puerto Rico:People

Population: 3,812,569 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (female 466,596; male 489,127)
15-64 years: 65% (female 1,274,765; male 1,195,785)
65 years and over: 10% (female 213,716; male 172,580) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.16% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.92 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.47 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.1 years
male: 70.78 years
female: 79.66 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Puerto Rican

Ethnic divisions: Hispanic

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other 15%

Languages: Spanish, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88%

Labor force: 1.2 million (1993)
by occupation: government 22%, manufacturing 17%, trade 20%,
construction 6%, communications and transportation 5%, other 30%
(1993)

@Puerto Rico:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form: Puerto Rico

Digraph: RQ

Type: commonwealth associated with the US

Capital: San Juan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US);
note - there are 78 municipalities

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July
1952; effective 25 July 1952

Legal system: based on Spanish civil code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January
1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
head of government: Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since 2 January 1993);
election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 5 November 1996);
results - Pedro ROSSELLO (PNP) 50%, Victoria MUNOZ (PPD) 46%, Fernando
MARTIN (PIP) 4%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly
Senate: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held 5
November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (29
total) PNP 20, PPD 8, PIP 1
House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to
be held NA November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (53 total) PNP 36, PPD 16, PIP 1
US House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next
to be held 5 November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (1 total) PNP 1 (Carlos Romero BARCELO); note - Puerto Rico
elects one representative to the US House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Superior Courts, Municipal Courts

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Party of Puerto
Rico, Luis FERRE; Popular Democratic Party (PPD), Hector ACEVEDO; New
Progressive Party (PNP), Pedro ROSSELLO; Puerto Rican Socialist Party
(PSP) has been disbanded (1994); Puerto Rican Independence Party
(PIP), Ruben BERRIOS Martinez; Puerto Rican Communist Party (PCP),
leader(s) unknown

Other political or pressure groups: Armed Forces for National
Liberation (FALN); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution; Boricua
Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Armed Forces of Popular
Resistance

Member of: CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate),
ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, WCL, WFTU, WHO (associate), WTO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (commonwealth associated with
the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (commonwealth associated with the
US)

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating
with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a
large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US
flag

@Puerto Rico:Economy

Overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the
Caribbean region. Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary
sector of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty free access
to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in
Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Important
industries include pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles,
petrochemicals, and processed foods. Sugar production has lost out to
dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of
income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an
important source of income for the island, with estimated arrivals of
nearly 3.9 million tourists in 1993.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $26.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $7,050 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $5.1 billion
expenditures: $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95)

Exports: $21.8 billion (1994)
commodities: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum,
beverage concentrates, medical equipment, instruments
partners: US 86.2% (1993)

Imports: $16.7 billion (1994)
commodities: chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
partners: US 69.2% (1993)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 4.230,000 kW
production: 15.6 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,819 kWh (1993)

Industries: manufacturing accounts for 39.4% of GDP; manufacturing of
pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, instruments;
tourism

Agriculture: accounts for only 3% of labor force and just over 1% of
GDP; crops - sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas;
livestock - cattle, chickens; imports a large share of food needs
(1993)

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Puerto Rico:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 96 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; note -
no passenger railroads

Highways:
total: 13,762 km
paved: 13,762 km (1982)

Ports: Guanica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Playa de Ponce, San Juan

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 31
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 9
with paved runways under 914 m: 14
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Puerto Rico:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; modern system, integrated with that
of the US by high capacity submarine cable and INTELSAT with
high-speed data capability; digital telephone system with about 1
million lines; cellular telephone service (1990)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT earth station and submarine cable

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 50, FM 63, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 9; note - cable television available with US
programs (1990)
televisions: NA

@Puerto Rico:Defense Forces

Branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

QATAR

@Qatar:Geography

Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi
Arabia

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 11,000 sq km
land area: 11,000 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: total 60 km, Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial dispute with Bahrain over the
Hawar Islands; maritime boundary with Bahrain

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and
gravel

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 5%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 95%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: limited natural fresh water resources are increasing
dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law
of the Sea

Note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum
deposits

@Qatar:People

Population: 533,916 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (female 81,443; male 80,591)
15-64 years: 68% (female 104,921; male 258,135)
65 years and over: 2% (female 2,941; male 5,885) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.74% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.72 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 3.59 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.03 years
male: 70.45 years
female: 75.5 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari

Ethnic divisions: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%,
other 14%

Religions: Muslim 95%

Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second
language

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986)
total population: 76%
male: 77%
female: 72%

Labor force: NA

@Qatar:Government

Names:
conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar

Digraph: QA

Type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular -
baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al
Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Salal

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir,
although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant
in personal matters

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: Amir and Prime Minister KHALIFA
bin Hamad Al Thani (since 22 February 1972); Crown Prince HAMAD bin
Khalifa Al Thani (appointed 31 May 1977; son of Amir and Minister of
Defense)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the amir

Legislative branch: unicameral
Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): constitution calls for elections
for part of this consultative body, but no elections have been held;
seats - (30 total)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC,
OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador ABD AL-RAHMAN bin Saud bin Fahd Al Thani
chancery: Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20037
telephone: [1] (202) 338-0111

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenton W. KEITH
embassy: 149 Ali Bin Ahmed St., Farig Bin Omran (opposite the
television station), Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: [974] 864701 through 864703
FAX: [974] 861669

Flag: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on
the hoist side

@Qatar:Economy

Overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for more
than 30% of GDP, roughly 75% of export earnings, and 70% of government
revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.3 billion barrels should ensure
continued output at current levels for about 25 years. Oil has given
Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to the leading West European
industrial countries. Production and export of natural gas are
becoming increasingly important. Long-term goals feature the
development of off-shore oil and the diversification of the economy.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $10.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -1% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $20,820 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures: $3 billion, including capital expenditures of $440
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $3.13 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 75%, steel, fertilizers
partners: Japan 57%, South Korea 9%, Brazil 4%, UAE 4%, Singapore 3%
(1992)

Imports: $1.75 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemicals
partners: Japan 16%, UK 11%, US 11%, Germany 7%, France 5% (1992)

External debt: $1.5 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: accounts for 50% of GDP, including oil

Electricity:
capacity: 1,520,000 kW
production: 4.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 8,415 kWh (1993)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers,
petrochemicals, steel (rolls reinforcing bars for concrete
construction), cement

Agriculture: farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of GDP;
agricultural area is small and government-owned; commercial fishing
increasing in importance; most food imported

Economic aid:
donor: pledged in ODA to less developed countries (1979-88), $2.7
billion

Currency: 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams

Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed
rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Qatar:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,190 km
paved: 1,030 km
unpaved: 160 km (1988 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km

Ports: Doha, Halul Island, Umm Sa'id

Merchant marine:
total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 463,227 GRT/763,507 DWT
ships by type: combination ore/oil 1, container 3, cargo 11, oil
tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1

Airports:
total: 6
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Qatar:Communications

Telephone system: 110,000 telephones; modern system centered in Doha
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay
to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; 2
INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 ARABSAT earth
station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 3
televisions: NA

@Qatar:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 219,442; males fit for military
service 115,103; males reach military age (18) annually 3,915 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA%, of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

REUNION

(overseas department of France)

@Reunion:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Map references: World

Area:
total area: 2,510 sq km
land area: 2,500 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 201 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from May
to November, hot and rainy from November to April

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 35%
other: 39%

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: periodic, devastating cyclones (December to April);
Piton de la Fournaise on the southeastern coast is an active volcano
international agreements: NA

@Reunion:People

Population: 666,067 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (female 104,924; male 109,972)
15-64 years: 62% (female 210,762; male 203,774)
65 years and over: 6% (female 21,606; male 15,029) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.98% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.59 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.79 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.46 years
male: 71.39 years
female: 77.67 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.75 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Reunionese (singular and plural)
adjective: Reunionese

Ethnic divisions: French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani,
Indian

Religions: Roman Catholic 94%

Languages: French (official), Creole widely used

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 79%
male: 76%
female: 80%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49% (1981)

@Reunion:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Department of Reunion
conventional short form: Reunion
local long form: none
local short form: Ile de la Reunion

Digraph: RE

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Saint-Denis

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government: Prefect of Reunion Island Hubert FOURNIER (since
NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional
Council
General Council: elections last held March 1994 (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (47 total) PCR 12, PS
12, UDF 11, RPR 5, others 7
Regional Council: elections last held 25 June 1993 (next to be held
NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (45 total) UPF 17,
Free-Dom Movement 13, PCR 9, PS 6
French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1992 (next to be held
NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (3 total) RPR 1,
FRA 1, independent 1
French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
(next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (5 total) PS 1, PCR 1, UPF 1, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (Cour d'Appel)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Alain
DEFAUD; Union for French Democracy (UDF), Gilbert GERARD; Communist
Party of Reunion (PCR), Elie HOARAU;; France-Reunion Future (FRA),
Andre THIEN AH KOON; Socialist Party (PS), Jean-Claude FRUTEAU; Social
Democrats (CDS), leader NA; Union for France (UPF - including RPR and
UDF); Free-Dom Movement, Marguerite SUDRE

Member of: FZ, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used

@Reunion:Economy

Overview: The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture.
Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, and in
some years it accounts for 85% of exports. The government has been
pushing the development of a tourist industry to relieve high
unemployment, which recently amounted to one-third of the labor force.
The gap in Reunion between the well-off and the poor is extraordinary
and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The white and Indian
communities are substantially better off than other segments of the
population, often approaching European standards, whereas indigenous
groups suffer the poverty and unemployment typical of the poorer
nations of the African continent. The outbreak of severe rioting in
February 1991 illustrates the seriousness of socioeconomic tensions.
The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on continued
financial assistance from France.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $3,900 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 35% (February 1991)

Budget:
revenues: $358 million
expenditures: $914 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1986 est.)

Exports: $166 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities: sugar 75%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%,
lobster 3%, vanilla and tea 1%
partners: France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy

Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery
and transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products
partners: France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; about 25% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 180,000 kW
production: 1 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,454 kWh (1993)

Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing
handicraft items

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of
economy; cash crops - sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops -
tropical fruits, vegetables, corn; imports large share of food needs

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $14.8 billion

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.2943 (January 1995),
5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Reunion:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,800 km
paved: 2,200 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 600 km

Ports: Le Port, Pointe des Galets

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Reunion:Communications

Telephone system: 85,900 telephones; adequate system; principal center
Saint-Denis
local: NA
intercity: modern open-wire and microwave network
international: radiocommunication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new
microwave route to Mauritius; 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 13, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 18)
televisions: NA

@Reunion:Defense Forces

Branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Gendarmerie)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 173,693; males fit for military
service 89,438; males reach military age (18) annually 5,781 (1995
est.)

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

ROMANIA

@Romania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Bulgaria and Ukraine

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 237,500 sq km
land area: 230,340 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km,
Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia),
Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine -
including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by
Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was
incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog;
sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from
the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural
gas, coal, iron ore, salt

Land use:
arable land: 43%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 19%
forest and woodland: 28%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 34,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air
pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube
delta wetlands
natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest;
geologic structure and climate promote landslides
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans,
Moldova, and Ukraine

@Romania:People

Population: 23,198,330 (July 1995 est.)
note: the Romanian census of January 1992 gives the population for
that date as 22.749 million; the government estimates that population
declined in 1993 by 0.3%

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (female 2,413,933; male 2,534,019)
15-64 years: 67% (female 7,737,531; male 7,732,038)
65 years and over: 12% (female 1,604,210; male 1,176,599) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.71 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.24 years
male: 69.31 years
female: 75.35 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian

Ethnic divisions: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%,
Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are
Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992)
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 95%

Labor force: 11.3 million (1992)
by occupation: industry 38%, agriculture 28%, other 34% (1989)

@Romania:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania

Digraph: RO

Type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1
municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau,
Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj,
Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures,
Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu,
Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist legal
theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990, previously
President of Provisional Council of National Unity since 23 December
1989); election last held 27 September 1992, with runoff between top
two candidates on 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results -
Ion ILIESCU 61.4%, Emil CONSTANTINESCU 38.6%
head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae VACAROIU (since November
1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate (Senat): elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held
NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.3%, CDR 18.2%, DP-FSN 12.6%, others 34.9%;
seats - (143 total) PSDR 49, CDR 26, DP-FSN 18, PUNR 13, UDMR 12, PRM
6, PAC 6, PDAR 5, PSM 5, PL-93 2 other 1
House of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor): elections last held 27
September 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - PSDR 34.0%, CDR
16,4%, DP-FSN 12.3%, others 37.3%; seats - (341 total) PSDR 116, CDR
56, DP-FSN 42, PUNR 29, UDMR 27, PL-93 19, PRM 15, PSM 13, PAC 5,
other 19

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party (DP-FSN), Petre ROMAN;
Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR), Adrian NASTASE; Democratic
Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR), Bela MARKO; National Liberal
Party (PNL), Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS; National Peasants' Christian and
Democratic Party (PNTCD), Corneliu COPOSU; Romanian National Unity
Party (PUNR), Gheorghe FUNAR; Socialist Labor Party (PSM), Ilie
VERDET; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania (PDAR), Victor SURDU; The
Democratic Convention (CDR), Emil CONSTANTINESCU; Romania Mare Party
(PRM), Corneliu Vadim TUDOR; Civic Alliance Party (PAC), Nicolae
MANOLESCU, chairman
note: numerous other small parties exist but almost all failed to gain
representation in the most recent election

Other political or pressure groups: various human rights and
professional associations

Member of: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI (associate members), EBRD,
ECE, FAO, G- 9, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OSCE,
PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WEU
(associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mihai Horia BOTEZ
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred H. MOSES
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Consulate General (Bucharest), Unit 1315,
Bucharest; APO AE 09213-1315
telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
branch office: Cluj-Napoca

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow
band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

@Romania:Economy

Overview: Despite the continuing difficulties in moving away from the
former command system, the Romanian economy seems to have bottomed out
in 1993-94. Market oriented reforms have been introduced fitfully
since the downfall of CEAUSESCU in December 1989, with the result a
growing private sector, especially in services. The slow pace of
structural reform, however, has exacerbated Romania's high inflation
rate and eroded real wages. Agricultural production rebounded in 1993
from the drought-reduced harvest of 1992. The economy continued its
recovery in 1994, further gains being realized in agriculture,
construction, services, and trade. Food supplies are adequate but
expensive. Romania's infrastructure had deteriorated over the last
five years due to reduced levels of public investment. Residents of
the capital reported frequent disruptions of heating and water
services. The slow and painful process of conversion to a more open
economy will continue in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $64.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,790 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 62% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 10.9% (December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $8.3 billion
expenditures: $9.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Exports: $6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: metals and metal products 17.6%, mineral products 11.9%,
textiles 18.5%, electric machines and equipment 8.4%, transport
materials 6.5% (1994)
partners: EC 36.1%, developing countries 27.4%, East and Central
Europe 14.9%, EFTA 5.1%, Russia 5%, Japan 1.4%, US 1.3% (1993)

Imports: $6.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: minerals 21.1%, machinery and equipment 19.7%, textiles
11.5%, agricultural goods 9.2% (1994)
partners: EC 45.8%, East and Central Europe 8.6%, developing countries
22.6%, Russia 11%, EFTA 6.2%, US 5.0%, Japan 0.8% (1993)

External debt: $4.4 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate -1% (1993 est.); accounts for 45%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 22,180,000 kW
production: 50.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,076 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy,
chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and
refining

Agriculture: accounts for 18% of GDP and 28% of labor force; major
wheat and corn producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin and
Latin American cocaine transiting the Balkan route

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 1,776.00 (January 1995), 1,655.09
(1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95 (1992), 76.39 (1991), 22.432 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Romania:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 11,365 km
broad gauge: 45 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,893 km 1.435-m gauge (3,723 km electrified; 3,060
km double track)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 461,880 km
paved: 235,559 km (113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 226,321 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural
gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports: Braila, Constanta, Galatz, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine:
total: 238 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,528,971 GRT/3,849,943
DWT
ships by type: bulk 46, cargo 167, container 2, oil tanker 14,
passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7
note: in addition, Romania owns 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,207,388 DWT that operate under Liberian, Maltese, Cypriot, and
Bahamian registry

Airports:
total: 156
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 17
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 108

@Romania:Communications

Telephone system: about 2.3 million telephones; 99 telephones/1,000
persons; 89% of phone network is automatic; poor service; cable and
open wire
local: NA
intercity: trunk network is microwave; roughly 3,300 villages with no
service (February 1990)
international: 1 INTELSAT earth station; new digital international
direct dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993)

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 13 (1990)
televisions: NA

@Romania:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces,
Civil Defense

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,934,524; males fit for
military service 5,002,287; males reach military age (20) annually
196,587 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 1,260 billion lei, 3% of GDP (1994); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

RUSSIA

@Russia:Geography

Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes
included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and
the North Pacific Ocean

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 17,075,200 sq km
land area: 16,995,800 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 1.8 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: total 20,139 km, Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km,
China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km,
Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19
km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia
3,441 km, Norway 167 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine
1,576 km

Coastline: 37,653 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: inherited disputes from former USSR including:
sections of the boundary with China; islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri,
and Shikotan and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in
1945, administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; maritime dispute with
Norway over portion of the Barents Sea; Caspian Sea boundaries are not
yet determined; potential dispute with Ukraine over Crimea; Estonia
claims over 2,000 sq km of Russian territory in the Narva and Pechora
regions; the Abrene section of the border ceded by the Latvian Soviet
Socialist Republic to Russia in 1944; has made no territorial claim in
Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not
recognize the claims of any other nation

Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in
much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the
polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in
Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic
coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous
forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern
border regions

Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits
of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder
exploitation of natural resources

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: NEGL%
meadows and pastures: 5%
forest and woodland: 45%
other: 42%

Irrigated land: 56,000 sq km (1992)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of
coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities;
industrial and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea
coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper
application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes
intense radioactive contamination
natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment
to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and
earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Note: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably
located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size,

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