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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 55
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 48
with paved runways under 914 m: 703
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 70
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 693

@Argentina:Communications

Telephone system: 2,650,000 telephones; 12,000 public telephones; 78
telephones/1,000 persons; extensive modern system but many families do
not have telephones; microwave widely used; however, during
rainstorms, the telephone system frequently grounds out, even in
Buenos Aires
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay and domestic satellite network with
40 earth stations
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 0, shortwave 13
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 231
televisions: NA

@Argentina:Defense Forces

Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine
Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast
Guard only), National Aeronautical Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 8,573,780; males fit for
military service 6,954,584; males reach military age (20) annually
301,166 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

ARMENIA

@Armenia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

Area:
total area: 29,800 sq km
land area: 28,400 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan
(south) 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: supports ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh
in their separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani government;
traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land;
fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
alumina

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 60%

Irrigated land: 3,050 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT;
energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to
deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan
(Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a result of its
use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies
natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Note: landlocked

@Armenia:People

Population: 3,557,284 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (female 542,664; male 570,998)
15-64 years: 61% (female 1,103,171; male 1,076,226)
65 years and over: 8% (female 154,784; male 109,441) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.94% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.79 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.66 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.36 years
male: 68.94 years
female: 75.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.06 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic divisions: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1994, most Azeris had emigrated from Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98%

Labor force: 1.578 million
by occupation: industry and construction 34%, agriculture and forestry
31%, other 35% (1992)

@Armenia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Digraph: AM

Type: republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 37 regions (shrjanner, singular - shrjan)
and 23 cities* (kaghakner, singular - kaghak); Abovyan*, Akhuryani
Shrjan, Alaverdi*, Amasiayi Shrjan, Anii Shrjan, Aparani Shrjan,
Aragatsi Shrjan, Ararat*, Ararati Shrjan, Armaviri Shrjan, Artashat*,
Artashati Shrjan, Art'ik*, Art'iki Shrjan, Ashots'k'i Shrjan,
Ashtarak*, Ashtaraki Shrjan, Baghramyani Shrjan, Ch'arents'avan*,
Dilijan*, Ejmiatsin*, Ejmiatsni Shrjan, Goris*, Gorisi Shrjan,
Gugark'i Shrjan, Gyumri*, Hoktemberyan*, Hrazdan*, Hrazdani Shrjan,
Ijevan*, Ijevani Shrjan, Jermuk*, Kamo*, Kamoyi Shrjan, Kapan*, Kapani
Shrjan, Kotayk'i Shrjan, Krasnoselski Shrjan, Martunu Shrjan, Masisi
Shrjan, Meghru Shrjan, Metsamor*, Nairii Shrjan, Noyemberyani Shrjan,
Sevan*, Sevani Shrjan, Sisiani Shrjan, Spitak*, Spitaki Shrjan,
Step'anavan*, Step'anavani Shrjan, T'alini Shrjan, Tashiri Shrjan,
Taushi Shrjan, T'umanyani Shrjan, Vanadzor*, Vardenisi Shrjan, Vayk'i
Shrjan, Yeghegnadzori Shrjan, Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991
(from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted NA April 1978; referendum on new constitution to
be held 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since October
1991) election last held 16 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996);
results - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists
about 7%; note - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN was elected Chairman of
the Armenian Supreme Soviet 4 August 1990 before becoming president
head of government: Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since 16 February
1993); First Deputy Prime Minister Vigen CHITECHYAN (since 16 February
1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Soviet: elections last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held 5
July 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (260 total)
non-aligned 136, ANM 52, DPA 17, Democratic Liberal Party 17, ARF 12,
NDU 9, Christian Democratic Party 1, Constitutional Rights Union 1,
ONS 1, Republican Party 1, Nagorno-Karabakh representatives 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenian National Movement (ANM),
Ter-Husik LAZARYAN, chairman; National Democratic Union (NDU), David
VARTANYAN, chairman; Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF,
Dashnaktsutyun); note - banned until reorganized; Democratic Party of
Armenia (DPA; Communist Party), Aram SARKISYAN, chairman; Christian
Democratic Party, Azat ARSHAKYAN, chairman; Greens Party, Hakob
SANASARIAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANYAN,
chairman; Republican Party, Ashot NAVARSARDYAN, chairman; Union for
Self-Determination (ONS), Paruir AIRIKYAN, chairman

Member of: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, NACC, NAM
(observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ruben SHUGARIAN
chancery: Suite 210, 1660 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 628-5766
FAX: [1] (202) 628-5769

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harry J. GILMORE
embassy: 18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (8852) 151-144, 524-661
FAX: [7] (8852) 151-138

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

@Armenia:Economy

Overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had
developed a more modern industrial sector, supplying machine building
equipment, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics
in exchange for raw materials and energy resources. Armenia is a large
food importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The
economic decline in recent years (1991-94) has been particularly
severe due to the ongoing conflict over the ethnic Armenian-dominated
region of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and Turkey have
blockaded pipeline and railroad traffic to Armenia for its support of
the Karabakh Armenians. This has left Armenia with chronic energy
shortages because of a lack of capacity and frequent disruptions of
natural gas deliveries through unstable Georgia, as well as
difficulties in obtaining other types of fuel. In addition, bread is
strictly rationed and there are shortages of other goods. In 1994, the
economy seemed to bottom out. The government has managed to increase
its financial and budgetary discipline, bringing inflation down from
around 40% per month in first half 1994 to single digits in second
half 1994 and the first quarter of 1995. A full economic recovery
cannot be expected until the conflict is settled and the blockade
lifted.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,290 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27% per month average (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% of officially registered unemployed but large
numbers of underemployed (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $43 million to countries outside the FSU (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment,
electrical equipment
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

Imports: $120 million from countries outside the FSU (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1994 est.); accounts for 41% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 4,620,000 kW
production: 5.7 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,620 kWh (1994)

Industries: traditionally diverse, including (as a percent of output
of former USSR) metalcutting machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing
machines (1.9%), electric motors (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear
(4.4%), hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (0.8%), washing
machines (2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and
microelectronics (1990); currently, much of industry is shut down

Agriculture: only 17% of land area is arable; employs 31% of labor
force as residents increasingly turn to subsistence agriculture;
fruits (especially grapes) and vegetable farming, minor livestock
sector; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other
liqueurs

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Western Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: considerable humanitarian aid, mostly food and energy
products, from US and EU; Russia granted 60 billion rubles in
technical credits in late 1994 and approved a 110 billion ruble credit
almost half of which was to go toward the restart of the Metsamor
nuclear power plant

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma (introduced new currency in November 1993)

Exchange rates: dram per US$1 - 406 (end December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Armenia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 840 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 840 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 11,300 km
paved: 10,500 km
unpaved: earth 800 km (1990)

Inland waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 11
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 1

@Armenia:Communications

Telephone system: about 650,000 telephones; 177 telephones/1,000
persons; progress on installation of fiber optic cable and
construction of facilities for mobile cellular phone service remains
in the negotiation phase for joint venture agreement
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international connections to other former republics of
the USSR are by landline or microwave and to other countries by
satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow international
gateway switch; 1 INTELSAT satellite link

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA; note - 100% of population receives Armenian
and Russian TV programs
televisions: NA

@Armenia:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Security
Forces (internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 877,414; males fit for military
service 699,167; males reach military age (18) annually 28,634 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: 250 million rubles, NA% of GDP (1992 est.); note
- conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

ARUBA

(part of the Dutch realm)

@Aruba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 193 sq km
land area: 193 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
international agreements: NA

@Aruba:People

Population: 65,974 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (female 7,377; male 7,726)
15-64 years: 69% (female 24,269; male 21,141)
65 years and over: 8% (female 3,223; male 2,238) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.6 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.17 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.56 years
male: 72.89 years
female: 80.42 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Aruban(s)
adjective: Aruban

Ethnic divisions: mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: most employment is in the tourist industry (1995)

@Aruba:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Aruba

Digraph: AA

Type: part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs
obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing part of the
Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba requested
and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to
automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January
1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed with the advice and approval
of the legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislature (Staten): elections last held 29 July 1994 (next to be
held by NA July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(21 total) AVP 10, MEP 9, OLA 2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson
ODUBER; Aruban People's Party (AVP), Jan (Henny) H. EMAN; National
Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY; New Patriotic Party
(PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny NISBET;
Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86
(AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization for Aruban Liberty (OLA),
Glenbert CROES
note: governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN

Member of: ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL,
WTO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing part of the
Netherlands)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing part of the
Netherlands)

Flag: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower
portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
hoist-side corner

@Aruba:Economy

Overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy, although
offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also important. The
rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted
in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has
boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. Additionally,
the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of
employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth.
Aruba's small labor force and less than 1% unemployment rate have led
to a large number of unfilled job vacancies despite sharp rises in
wage rates in recent years.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $17,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $145 million
expenditures: $185 million, including capital expenditures of $42
million (1988)

Exports: $1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: mostly refined petroleum products
partners: US 64%, EC

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products,
crude oil for refining and re-export
partners: US 8%, EC

External debt: $81 million (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 90,000 kW
production: 330 million kWh
consumption per capita: 4,761 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Agriculture: poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural
activity to the cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing

Illicit drugs: drug money laundering center and transit point for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-89), $220 million

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate
since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Aruba:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
note: government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts
transatlantic flights

@Aruba:Communications

Telephone system: 72,168 telephones; 1,100 telephones/1,000 persons;
more than adequate
local: NA
intercity: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Aruba:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands

________________________________________________________________________

ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS

(territory of Australia)

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
Australia

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 5 sq km
land area: 5 sq km
comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC
note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
Cartier Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs which can pose
maritime hazards
international agreements: NA

Note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only seasonal
caretakers

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Digraph: AT

Type: territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry
for the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore And Cartier Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by
the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

________________________________________________________________________

ATLANTIC OCEAN

@Atlantic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Antarctica, and the Western
Hemisphere

Map references: World

Area:
total area: 82.217 million sq km
comparative area: slightly less than nine times the size of the US;
second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean,
but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)
note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea,
North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary
water bodies

Coastline: 111,866 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre
(broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic,
counterclockwise warm water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south
centerline for the entire Atlantic basin; maximum depth is 8,605
meters in the Puerto Rico Trench

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and
whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic
nodules, precious stones

Environment:
current issues: endangered marine species include the manatee, seals,
sea lions, turtles, and whales; driftnet fishing is exacerbating
declining fish stocks and contributing to international disputes;
municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and
eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico,
Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean
Sea
natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and
the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from
Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean; ships subject
to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to
May and extreme southern Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog
can be a maritime hazard from May to September
international agreements: NA

Note: major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar,
access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the
Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound
(Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic
Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean:Government

Digraph: ZH

@Atlantic Ocean:Economy

Overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily
trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western
Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation of
natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands (The
Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean Sea,
Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean:Transportation

Ports: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium),
Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco),
Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk
(Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary
Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK),
Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples
(Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo
(Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
(Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

@Atlantic Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international: numerous submarine cables with most between continental
Europe and the UK, North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean;
numerous direct links across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network

________________________________________________________________________

AUSTRALIA

@Australia:Geography

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 7,686,850 sq km
land area: 7,617,930 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than the US
note: includes Macquarie Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian
Antarctic Territory)

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
natural gas, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 58%
forest and woodland: 14%
other: 22%

Irrigated land: 18,800 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development,
urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to
the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for
agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique
animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast
coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased
shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh
water resources
natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population
concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular,
tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along
the west coast in the summer

@Australia:People

Population: 18,322,231 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 1,929,366; male 2,032,238)
15-64 years: 67% (female 6,017,362; male 6,181,887)
65 years and over: 11% (female 1,227,004; male 934,374) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.31% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.13 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.37 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.78 years
male: 74.67 years
female: 81.04 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Australian(s)
adjective: Australian

Ethnic divisions: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Labor force: 8.63 million (September 1991)
by occupation: finance and services 33.8%, public and community
services 22.3%, wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and
industry 16.2%, agriculture 6.1% (1987)

@Australia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form: Australia

Digraph: AS

Type: federal parliamentary state

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General William George HAYDEN (since 16
February 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20
December 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991)
cabinet: Cabinet; prime minister selects his cabinet from members of
the House and Senate

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament
Senate: elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to be held by NA
1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total)
Liberal-National 36, Labor 30, Australian Democrats 7, Greens 2,
independents 1
House of Representatives: elections last held 13 March 1993 (next to
be held by NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(147 total) Labor 80, Liberal-National 65, independent 2

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders:
government: Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
opposition: Liberal Party, John HOWARD; National Party, Timothy
FISCHER; Australian Democratic Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party,
leader NA

Other political or pressure groups: Australian Democratic Labor Party
(anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 8, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest),
NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald Eric RUSSELL
chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New
York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward J. PERKINS
embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
Territory 2600
mailing address: APO AP 96549
telephone: [61] (6) 270-5000
FAX: [61] (6) 270-5970
consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney
consulate(s): Brisbane

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the
remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation
in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger,
seven-pointed stars

@Australia:Economy

Overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy,
with a per capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West
European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major
exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels.
Primary products account for more than 60% of the value of total
exports, so that, as in 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices
can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for
increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
international markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered
from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD
countries in the early 1990s. In 1992-93 the economy recovered slowly
from the prolonged recession of 1990-91, a major restraining factor
being weak world demand for Australia's exports. Growth picked up so
strongly in 1994 that the government felt the need for fiscal and
monetary tightening by yearend. Australia's GDP grew 6.4% in 1994,
largely due to increases in industrial output and business investment.
A severe drought in 1994 is expected to reduce the value of
Australia's net farm production by $825 million in the twelve months
through June 1995, but rising world commodity prices are likely to
boost rural exports by 7.7% to $14.5 billion in 1995/96, according to
government statistics.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $374.6 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6.4% (1994)

National product per capita: $20,720 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 8.9% (December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $83.8 billion
expenditures: $92.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY93/94)

Exports: $50.4 billion (1994)
commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and
transport equipment
partners: Japan 25%, US 11%, South Korea 6%, NZ 5.7%, UK, Taiwan,
Singapore, Hong Kong (1992)

Imports: $51.1 billion (1994)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office
machines, crude oil and petroleum products
partners: US 23%, Japan 18%, UK 6%, Germany 5.7%, NZ 4% (1992)

External debt: $147.2 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.9% (FY93/94); accounts for 32% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 34,540,000 kW
production: 155 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 8,021 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP and over 30% of export revenues;
world's largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton,
and among top wheat exporters; major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane,
fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep, poultry

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit
opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of
opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991),
1.2799 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Australia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 40,478 km (1,130 km electrified; 183 km dual gauge)
broad gauge: 7,970 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 16,201 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 16,307 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 837,872 km
paved: 243,750 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 228,396 km;
unimproved earth 365,726 km

Inland waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas
5,600 km

Ports: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle,
Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceton (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne,
Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
total: 81 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,620,536 GRT/3,801,970
DWT
ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 7, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
2, container 7, liquefied gas tanker 6, oil tanker 18,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1

Airports:
total: 480
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 128
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 125
with paved runways under 914 m: 31
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 23
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 149

@Australia:Communications

Telephone system: 8,700,000 telephones; good international and
domestic service
local: NA
intercity: domestic satellite service
international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and
Indonesia; 10 INTELSAT (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 258, FM 67, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 134
televisions: NA

@Australia:Defense Forces

Branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air
Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,934,175; males fit for
military service 4,274,900; males reach military age (17) annually
131,852 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $7.2 billion, 2.2% of
GDP (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

AUSTRIA

@Austria:Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 83,850 sq km
land area: 82,730 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total 2,496 km, Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784
km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km,
Slovenia 262 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent
rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional
showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Natural resources: iron ore, petroleum, timber, magnesite, aluminum,
lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 24%
forest and woodland: 39%
other: 19%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil
pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural
chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired
power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting
Austria between northern and southern Europe
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Air Pollution-Sulpher 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
Sea, Whaling

Note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central
Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major
river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands
because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

@Austria:People

Population: 7,986,664 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (female 681,087; male 711,127)
15-64 years: 67% (female 2,672,554; male 2,677,100)
65 years and over: 16% (female 791,762; male 453,034) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.35% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 11.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.27 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.9 years
male: 73.7 years
female: 80.27 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Ethnic divisions: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other
0.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%

Languages: German

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 3.47 million (1989)
by occupation: services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture
and forestry 8.1%
note: an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 5% of
labor force (1988)

@Austria:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich

Digraph: AU

Type: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular -
bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich,
Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review
of legislative acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative
and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992); election
last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of second ballot
- Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
head of government: Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986);
Vice Chancellor Erhard BUSEK (since 2 July 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; chosen by the president on the advice
of the chancellor

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)
Federal Council (Bundesrat): consists of 63 members representing each
of the provinces on the basis of population, but with each province
having at least 3 representatives
National Council (Nationalrat): elections last held 9 October 1994
(next to be held October 1998); results - SPOE 34.9%, OEVP 27.7%, FPOE
22.5%, Greens 7.3%, LF 6.0% other 1.6%; seats - (183 total) SPOE 65,
OEVP 52, FPOE 42, Greens 13, LF 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for
civil and criminal cases, Administrative Court
(Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases, Constitutional Court
(Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria
(SPOE), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman; Austrian People's Party (OEVP),
Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Movement (F) (was the Freedom Party of
Austria, FPOE), Joerg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPOE), Walter
SILBERMAYER, chairman; The Greens, Madeleine PETROVIC; Liberal Forum
(LF), Heide SCHMIDT

Other political or pressure groups: Federal Chamber of Commerce and
Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist); three
composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party (OEVP) representing
business, labor, and farmers; OEVP-oriented League of Austrian
Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay
organization, Catholic Action

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE,
CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM
(guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, UN,
UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH,
UNOMIL, UNOMOZ, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT
chancery: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 313-39
FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682
consulate(s) general: none (Salzburg closed September 1993)

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

@Austria:Economy

Overview: Austria boasts a prosperous and stable market economy with a
sizable but falling proportion of nationalized industry and with
extensive welfare benefits. Thanks to its raw material endowment, a
technically skilled labor force, and strong links to German industrial
firms, Austria occupies specialized niches in European industry and
services (tourism, banking) and produces almost enough food to feed
itself with only 8% of the labor force in agriculture. After 11
consecutive years of growth, the Austrian economy experienced a mild
recession in 1993, but growth resumed in 1994. Unemployment is 4.3%
and will likely stay at that level as companies adjust to the
competition of EU membership beginning 1 January 1995. To prepare for
EU membership, Austria's government has taken measures to open the
economy by introducing a major tax reform, privatizing state-owned
firms, and liberalizing cross-border capital movements. Problems for
the 1990s include an aging population, the high level of industrial
subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budgetary
capabilities - the deficit climbed to over 4% of GDP in 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $139.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $17,500 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $52.2 billion
expenditures: $60.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993 est.)

Exports: $44.1 billion (1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber,
textiles, paper products, chemicals
partners: EC 63.5% (Germany 38.9%), EFTA 9.0%, Eastern Europe/FSU
12.3%, Japan 1.5%, US 3.4% (1993)

Imports: $53.8 billion (1994 est.)
commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles,
chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners: EC 66.8% (Germany 41.3%), EFTA 6.7%, Eastern Europe/FSU
7.5%, Japan 4.4%, US 4.4% (1993)

External debt: $21.5 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 17,230,000 kW
production: 50.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,824 kWh (1993)

Industries: foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals,
electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles

Agriculture: accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal
crops and animals - grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood,
cattle, pigs, poultry; 80%-90% self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
transiting the Balkan route and Eastern Europe

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 10.774 (January
1995), 11.422 (1994), 11.632 (1993), 10.989 (1992), 11.676 (1991),
11.370 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Austria:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 5,624 km
standard gauge: 5,269 km 1.435-m gauge (3,162 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 355 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (84 km electrified)
(1994)

Highways:
total: 110,000 km
paved: 35,000 km (including 1,554 km of autobahn)
unpaved: mostly gravel and earth 75,000 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 446 km

Pipelines: crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas
2,611 km

Ports: Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine:
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 152,885 GRT/235,719 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 25, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 55
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 41
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Austria:Communications

Telephone system: 4,014,000 telephones; highly developed and efficient

local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), and
EUTELSAT earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 21 (repeaters 545), shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 47 (repeaters 870)
televisions: NA

@Austria:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,026,567; males fit for
military service 1,695,879; males reach military age (19) annually
46,821 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - about $1.8 billion,
0.9% of GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

AZERBAIJAN

Note--Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved
seven-year-old conflict with Armenian separatists over its
Nagorno-Karabakh region. The Karabakh Armenians have declared
independence and seized almost 20% of the country's territory,
creating almost 1 million Azeri displaced persons in the process. Both
sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated cease-fire in place
since May 1994, and support the OSCE-mediated peace process, now
entering its fourth year. Nevertheless, Baku and Xankandi
(Stepanakert) remain far apart on most substantive issues from the
placement and composition of a peacekeeping force to the enclave's
ultimate political status, and prospects for a negotiated settlement
remain dim.

@Azerbaijan:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
and Russia

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

Area:
total area: 86,600 sq km
land area: 86,100 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maine
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Land boundaries: total 2,013 km, Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia
(southwest) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran
(southwest) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: violent and longstanding dispute with ethnic
Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh over its status; Caspian Sea boundaries
are not yet determined

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level)
with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland
in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into
Caspian Sea

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
metals, alumina

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 53%

Irrigated land: 14,010 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron)
Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the
ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air,
water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT
as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the production
of cotton
natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising
levels of the Caspian Sea
international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change

Note: landlocked

@Azerbaijan:People

Population: 7,789,886 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (female 1,241,952; male 1,315,313)
15-64 years: 61% (female 2,437,810; male 2,307,496)
65 years and over: 6% (female 303,926; male 183,389) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.32% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.56 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.09 years
male: 67.4 years
female: 74.97 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic divisions: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%,
Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual
practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96%

Labor force: 2.789 million
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction
26%, other 42% (1990)

@Azerbaijan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: none
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: AJ

Type: republic

Capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
respublika); Abscron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, AliBayramli Sahari*, Astara
Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu,
Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu,
Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy
Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli
Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran
Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir
Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala
Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*,
Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu,
Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali
Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimb Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted NA April 1978; writing a new constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993); election
last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held NA); results - Heydar ALIYEV
won 97% of vote
head of government: Acting Prime Minister Fuad QULIYEV (since 9
October 1994); First Deputy Prime Ministers Abbas ABBASOV, Samed
SADYKOV, Vahid AKHMEDOV (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and
confirmed by the Mejlis

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Milli Mejlis): elections last held 30 September and
14 October 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next expected to be held
September 1995 for the National Assembly); seats for Supreme Soviet -
(360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc 45 (grouping of opposition
parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - on 19 May 1992 the Supreme
Soviet was prorogued in favor of a Popular Front-dominated National
Council; seats - (50 total) Popular Front 25, opposition elements 25
note: since June 1993 ALIYEV has rotated in several supporters to
replace Popular Front adherents

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Popular Front (APF), Ebulfez
ELCIBEY, chairman; Musavat Party, Isa GAMBAR, chairman; National
Independence Party, Etibar MAMEDOV, chairman; Social Democratic Party
(SDP), Araz ALIZADE, chairman; Communist Party, Ramiz AKHMEDOV,
chairman; People's Freedom Party, Yunus OGUZ, chairman; Independent
Social Democratic Party, Arif YUNUSOV and Leila YUNOSOVA, cochairmen;
New Azerbaijan Party, Heydar ALIYEV, chairman; Boz Gurd Party,
Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman; Azerbaijan Democratic Independence Party,
Qabil HUSEYNLI, chairman; Islamic Party of Azerbaijan, Ali Akram,
chairman; Ana Veten Party, Fazail AGAMALIYEV; Azerbaijan Democratic
Party, Sardar Jalaloglu MAMEDOV; Azerbaijan Democratic Party of
Proprietors (DPOP), Makhmud MAMEDOV; Azerbaijan Patriotic Solidarity
Party, Sabir RUSTAMHANLI; Azerbaijan Republic Reform Party, Fuad
ASADOV; Communist Party of Azerbaijan (unregistered), Sayad SAYADOV;
Equality of the Peoples Party, Faukhraddin AYDAYEV; Independent
Azerbaijan Party, Nizami SULEYMANOV; Labor Party of Azerbaijan,
Sabutai HAJIYEV; Liberal-Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, Lyudmila
NIKOLAYEVNA; National Enlightenment Party, Hajy Osman EFENDIYEV;
National Liberation Party, Panak SHAKHSEVEV; Peasant Party, Firuz
MUSTAFAYEV; Radical Party of Azerbaijan, Malik SHARIFOV; United
Azerbaijan Party, Kerrar ABILOV; Vetan Adzhagy Party, Zakir TAGIYEV

Other political or pressure groups: self-proclaimed Armenian
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement

Member of: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDB,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20005
telephone: [1] (202) 842-0001
FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard D. KAUZLARICH
embassy: Azadliq Prospect 83, Baku
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [9] (9412) 96-00-19, 98-03-37
FAX: [9] (9412) 98-37-55

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a
crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

@Azerbaijan:Economy

Overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either
Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the
Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim population, high
structural unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's
most prominent products are oil, cotton, and gas. Production from the
Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline for several years, but
the November 1994 ratification of the $7.5 billion oil deal with a
consortium of Western companies should generate the funds needed to
spur future industrial development. Azerbaijan accounted for 1.5% to
2% of the capital stock and output of the former Soviet Union.
Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet
republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy,
but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term
prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic
reform, and old economic ties and structures have yet to be replaced.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $13.8 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -22% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,790 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 28% monthly average (1994)

Unemployment rate: 0.9% includes officially registered unemployed;
also large numbers of other unemployed and underemployed workers
(December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $167.5 million
expenditures: $234.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Exports: $366 million to non-FSU countries (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles,
cotton (1991)
partners: mostly CIS and European countries

Imports: $296 million from non-FSU countries (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs,
textiles (1991)
partners: European countries

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate -25% (1994)

Electricity:
capacity: 4,900,000 kW
production: 17.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,270 kWh (1994)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals;
textiles

Agriculture: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea,
tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep and goats

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: wheat from Turkey

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4500 (April 1995), 4168 (end of
December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Azerbaijan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,090 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 2,090 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 36,700 km
paved or graveled: 31,800 km
unpaved: earth 4,900 km (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas
1,240 km

Ports: Baku (Baki)

Airports:
total: 69
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 33

@Azerbaijan:Communications

Telephone system: 710,000 telephones; 90 telephones/1,000 persons
(1991); 202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations (January
1991); domestic telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate
local: a joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system
(Bakcel) in the Baku area is supposed to become operational in 1994
intercity: NA
international: connections to other former USSR republics by cable and
microwave and to other countries via the Moscow international gateway
switch; INTELSAT link installed in late 1992 in Baku with Turkish
financial assistance with access to 200 countries through Turkey;
since August 1993 an earth station near Baku has provided direct
communications with New York through Russia's Stationar-11 satellite

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA; domestic and Russian TV programs are received
locally and Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an INTELSAT
satellite through a receive-only earth station
televisions: NA

@Azerbaijan:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Maritime Border Guard, National
Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,927,955; males fit for
military service 1,553,736; males reach military age (18) annually
68,407 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 70.5 billion rubles, 10% of GDP (1993 budget
allocation); note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars
using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

THE BAHAMAS

@The Bahamas:Geography

Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of Florida

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 13,940 sq km
land area: 10,070 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 32%
other: 67%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: coral reef decay
natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause
extensive flood and wind damage
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

Note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island
chain

@The Bahamas:People

Population: 256,616 (July 1995 est.)

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