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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Political parties and leaders:
governing coalition: Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Gerardo
GONZALEZ; Solidarity Party (PS), Samuel LEWIS GALINDO; Liberal
Republican Party (PLR), Rodolfo CHIARI; Labor Party (PALA), Carlos
Lopez GUEVARA
other parties: Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA),
Alfredo RAMIREZ; Authentic Liberal Party (PLA), Arnulfo ESCALONA;
Arnulfista Party (PA), Mireya MOSCOSO DE GRUBER; Christian Democratic
Party (PDC), Raul OSSA; Liberal Party (PL), Roberto ALEMAN Zubieta;
Papa Egoro Movement (MPE), Ruben BLADES; Civic Renewal Party (PRC),
Tomas HERRERA; National Unity Mission Party (MUN), Jose Manuel
PAREDES; Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Jacinto CARDENAS;
National Renovation Movement (MORENA), Pedro VALLERINO

Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Organized
Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP);
Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE); National Civic
Crusade; Chamber of Commerce; Panamanian Industrialists Society (SIP);
Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama (CTRP)

Member of: AG (associate), CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo Alberto ARIAS
chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Tampa

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Oliver P. GARZA
embassy: Avenida Balboa and Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5
mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945; APO AA 34002
telephone: [507] 27-1777
FAX: [507] 27-1964

Flag: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white
(hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain
red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a
red five-pointed star in the center

@Panama:Economy

Overview: Because of its key geographic location, Panama's economy is
service-based, heavily weighted toward banking, commerce, and tourism.
Trade and financial ties with the US are especially close. GDP grew at
3.6% in 1994, a respectable rate, yet below the 7.1% average of the
early 1990s. Banking and financial services and trade through the
Colon Free Zone continued to expand rapidly, with the industrial and
agricultural sectors experiencing little growth. The new
administration, inaugurated 1 September 1994, has launched an economic
plan designed to reverse rising unemployment, attract foreign
investment, cut back the size of government, and modernize the
economy. The success of the plan in meeting its goals for 1995 and
beyond depends largely on the success of the administration in
reforming the labor code and instituting the reforms necessary to join
the GATT.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $4,670 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12.9% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.93 billion
expenditures: $1.93 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994)

Exports: $520 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: bananas 43%, shrimp 11%, sugar 4%, clothing 5%, coffee 2%

partners: US 45%, EU, Central America and Caribbean

Imports: $2.205 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: capital goods 21%, crude oil 11%, foodstuffs 9%, consumer
goods, chemicals
partners: US 40%, EU, Central America and Caribbean, Japan

External debt: $6.7 billion (yearend 1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.8% (1994 est.); accounts for
about 9% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 960,000 kW
production: 2.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,047 kWh (1993)

Industries: manufacturing and construction, petroleum refining,
brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (1992 est.); crops - bananas,
rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock; fishing; importer of food
grain, vegetables

Illicit drugs: major cocaine transshipment point and drug money
laundering center

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $516 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $582 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4 million

Currency: 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Panama:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 238 km
broad gauge: 78 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 160 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 8,530 km
paved: 2,745 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 3,270 km; improved, unimproved earth
2,515 km

Inland waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km
Panama Canal

Pipelines: crude oil 130 km

Ports: Bahia de las Minas, Balboa, Colon, Cristobal, Panama

Merchant marine:
total: 3,526 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,748,525
GRT/95,102,552 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 787, cargo 1,070, chemical tanker
175, combination bulk 33, combination ore/oil 25, container 259,
liquefied gas tanker 125, livestock carrier 8, multifunction
large-load carrier 6, oil tanker 465, passenger 24, passenger-cargo 3,
refrigerated cargo 284, roll-on/roll-off cargo 81, short-sea passenger
34, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 137
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 93 countries; the 10
major fleet flags are: Japan 1,171 ships, Greece 323, Hong Kong 276,
US 212, Taiwan 184, Singapore 181, South Korea 172, China 145 ships,
UK 102, and Norway 70

Airports:
total: 115
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14
with paved runways under 914 m: 74
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 20

@Panama:Communications

Telephone system: 220,000 telephones; domestic and international
facilities well developed
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
earth stations; connected to the Central American Microwave System

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 23
televisions: NA

@Panama:Defense Forces

Branches: Panamanian Public Forces (PPF; includes the National Police
or PNP, Maritime Service, National Air Service, and Institutional
Protective Service); Judicial Branch Technical Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 701,691; males fit for military
service 481,927 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: expenditures for the Panamanian security forces
amounted to $105 million, 1.0% of GDP (1993 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

@Papua New Guinea:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern
half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South
Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 461,690 sq km
land area: 451,710 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total 820 km, Indonesia 820 km

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast
monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil
potential

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 71%
other: 28%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of
growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining
projects
natural hazards: active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Rim of
Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe
earthquakes; mudslides
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's
largest swamps along southwest coast

@Papua New Guinea:People

Population: 4,294,750 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (female 847,208; male 892,718)
15-64 years: 57% (female 1,161,961; male 1,268,266)
65 years and over: 2% (female 66,759; male 57,838) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.3% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 33.2 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.18 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.85 years
male: 56.01 years
female: 57.74 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.55 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean

Ethnic divisions: Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%,
Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%,
Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant
sects 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%

Languages: English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu
spoken in Papua region
note: 715 indigenous languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 52%
male: 65%
female: 38%

Labor force: NA

@Papua New Guinea:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea

Digraph: PP

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Moresby

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Central, Chimbu, Eastern
Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus,
Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, North
Solomons, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands,
West New Britain

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Constitution: 16 September 1975

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Wiwa KOROWI (since NA November 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Sir Julius CHAN (since 30 August
1994); Deputy Prime Minister Chris HAIVETA (since 7 September 1994)
cabinet: National Executive Council; appointed by the governor on
recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Parliament: (sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly)
elections last held 13-26 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results
- percent of vote by party NA; seats - (109 total) Pangu Party 24, PDM
17, PPP 10, PAP 10, independents 30, others 18; note - association
with political parties is fluid

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu
Party), Jack GENIA; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Paias WINGTI;
People's Action Party (PAP), Akoka DOI; People's Progress Party (PPP),
Sir Julius CHAN; United Party (UP), Paul TORATO; Papua Party (PP),
Galeva KWARARA; National Party (NP), Paul PORA; Melanesian Alliance
(MA), Fr. John MOMIS

Member of: ACP, APEC, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, NAM
(observer), SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kepas Isimel WATANGIA
chancery: 3rd floor, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20009
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. TEARE
embassy: Armit Street, Port Moresby
mailing address: P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby, or APO AE 96553
telephone: [675] 211455, 211594, 211654
FAX: [675] 213423

Flag: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper
triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the
lower triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the
Southern Cross constellation centered

@Papua New Guinea:Economy

Overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources,
but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and the high
cost of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture provides a
subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mining of numerous
deposits, including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of export
earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and development aid under
World Bank auspices have helped sustain the economy. Robust growth in
1991-92 was led by the mining sector; the opening of a large new gold
mine helped the advance. At the start of 1995, Port Moresby is looking
primarily to the exploitation of mineral and petroleum resources to
drive economic development but new prospecting in Papua New Guinea has
slumped as other mineral-rich countries have stepped up their
competition for international investment. Output from current projects
will probably begin to taper off in 1996, but no new large ventures
are being developed to succeed them.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $9.2 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6.1% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,200 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1.33 billion
expenditures: $1.36 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: gold, copper ore, oil, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa,
lobster
partners: Australia, Japan, US, Singapore, New Zealand

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
food, fuels, chemicals
partners: Australia, Japan, UK, New Zealand, Netherlands

External debt: $3.2 billion (1992)

Industrial production: accounts for 32% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 490,000 kW
production: 1.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 390 kWh (1993)

Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production,
wood chip production, mining of gold, silver, and copper,
construction, tourism

Agriculture: Accounts for 25% of GDP; livelihood for 85% of
population; fertile soils and favorable climate permits cultivating a
wide variety of crops; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm
kernels; other products - tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit,
vegetables, poultry, pork; net importer of food for urban centers

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $40.6 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $6.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million

Currency: 1 kina (K) = 100 toea

Exchange rates: kina (K) per US$1 - 0.8565 (December 1994), 0.9950
(1994), 1.0221 (1993), 1.0367 (1992), 1.0504 (1991), 1.0467 (1990);
note - the government floated the kina on 10 October 1994

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Papua New Guinea:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 19,200 km
paved: 640 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 10,960 km; unimproved
earth 7,600 km

Inland waterways: 10,940 km

Ports: Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,565 GRT/27,071 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 3, combination ore/oil 5, container 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1

Airports:
total: 505
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 411
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 12
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 63

@Papua New Guinea:Communications

Telephone system: more than 70,000 telephones (1987); services are
adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiobroadcast,
radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and
international radiocommunication services
local: NA
intercity: mostly radio telephone
international: submarine cables extend to Australia and Guam; 1
INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station; international radio
communication service

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2 (1987)
televisions: NA

@Papua New Guinea:Defense Forces

Branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (includes Army, Navy, and Air
Force)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,111,661; males fit for
military service 618,696 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 1.8% of
GDP (1993 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

PARACEL ISLANDS

@Paracel Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of small islands and reefs in the
South China Sea, about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to
the northern Philippines

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: NA sq km
land area: NA sq km
comparative area: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 518 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and
Vietnam

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: typhoons
international agreements: NA

@Paracel Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered
Chinese garrisons

@Paracel Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Paracel Islands

Digraph: PF

@Paracel Islands:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Paracel Islands:Transportation

Ports: small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and Duncan Island
being expanded

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (on Woody Island)

@Paracel Islands:Communications

Telephone system:
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM, FM, shortwave
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Paracel Islands:Defense Forces

Note: occupied by China

________________________________________________________________________

PARAGUAY

@Paraguay:Geography

Location: Central South America, northeast of Argentina

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 406,750 sq km
land area: 397,300 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: total 3,920 km, Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km,
Brazil 1,290 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: short section of the boundary with Brazil,
just west of Salto del Guaira (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, has
not been determined

Climate: varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west

Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran
Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the
river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Natural resources: hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 39%
forest and woodland: 35%
other: 5%

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation (an estimated 2 million hectares of
forest land have been lost from 1958-1985); water pollution;
inadequate means for waste disposal present health risks for many
urban residents
natural hazards: local flooding in southeast (early September to
June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed,
but not ratified - Nuclear Test Ban

Note: landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

@Paraguay:People

Population: 5,358,198 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (female 1,077,284; male 1,123,776)
15-64 years: 55% (female 1,465,147; male 1,468,642)
65 years and over: 4% (female 120,776; male 102,573) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.71% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 31.48 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.38 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.58 years
male: 72.06 years
female: 75.18 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.22 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Spanish and Indian) 95%, Caucasians
plus Amerindians 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite and other Protestant
denominations

Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 90%
male: 92%
female: 88%

Labor force: 1.692 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 45%

@Paraguay:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay

Digraph: PA

Type: republic

Capital: Asuncion

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Boqueron,
Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Chaco, Concepcion, Cordillera,
Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Nueva Asuncion, Paraguari,
Presidente Hayes, San Pedro

Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)

Constitution: promulgated 20 June 1992

Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes;
judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does
not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 60

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Juan Carlos WASMOSY
(since 15 August 1993); Vice President Roberto Angel SEIFART (since 15
August 1993); election last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held May
1998); results - Juan Carlos WASMOSY 40.09%, Domingo LAINO 32.06%,
Guillermo CABALLERO VARGAS 23.04%
cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso)
Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): elections last held 9 May
1993 (next to be held May 1998); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (45 total) Colorado Party 20, PLRA 17, EN 8
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held on 9
May 1993 (next to be held by May 1998); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (80 total) Colorado Party 38, PLRA 33, EN 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders: Colorado Party, Eugenio SANABRIA
CANTERO, president; Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), Domingo
LAINO; National Encounter (EN), Guillermo CABALLERO VARGAS (the EN
party includes the following minor parties: Christian Democratic Party
(PDC), Jose Angel BURRO; Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF),
Euclides ACEVEDO; Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo RICHER)

Other political or pressure groups: Confederation of Workers (CUT);
Roman Catholic Church

Member of: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MERCOSUR, OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge Genaro Andres PRIETO CONTI
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general: Miami, New Orleans, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert SERVICE
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Asuncion
mailing address: C. P. 402, Asuncion; Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728

Flag: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with
an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem
is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears
the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green
wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two
circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the
treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y
Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL
PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

@Paraguay:Economy

Overview: Agriculture, including forestry, accounts for about 25% of
GDP, employs about 45% of the labor force, and provides the bulk of
exports, in which soybeans and cotton are the most important. Paraguay
lacks substantial mineral or petroleum resources but possesses a large
hydropower potential. In a major step to increase its economic
activity in the region, Paraguay in March 1991 joined the Southern
Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), which includes Brazil, Argentina, and
Uruguay. In 1992, the government, through an unorthodox approach,
reduced external debt with both commercial and official creditors by
purchasing a sizable amount of the delinquent commercial debt in the
secondary market at a substantial discount. The government had paid
100% of remaining official debt arrears to the US, Germany, France,
and Spain. All commercial debt arrears have been rescheduled. For the
long run, the government must press forward with general,
market-oriented economic reforms. Growth of 3.5% in 1993 was spurred
by higher-than-expected agricultural output and rising international
commodity prices. Inflation picked up steam in fourth quarter 1993
because of rises in public sector salaries and utility rates. GDP
growth continued in 1994 at 3.5%. Although inflation declined a bit
over 1993, increases in food prices, and crop and infrastructure
damage from heavy rains at the end of the year, forced inflation to
18%, above the government's target of 15%. Paraguay reaffirmed its
commitment to MERCOSUR on 1 January 1995 by implementing the
organization's common external tariff.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $15.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,950 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.2% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.2 billion
expenditures: $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $487
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $728 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: cotton, soybeans, timber, vegetable oils, meat products,
coffee, tung oil
partners: EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%

Imports: $1.38 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, raw materials,
fuels
partners: Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%

External debt: $1.4 billion (yearend 1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.6% (1993 est.); accounts for 20%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 6,530,000 kW
production: 26.5 billion kWh (1992)
consumption per capita: NA
note: much of the electricity produced in Paraguay is exported to
Brazil and domestic consumption cannot be determined

Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing,
textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction

Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GDP; cash crops - cotton, sugarcane,
soybeans; other crops - corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava, fruits,
vegetables; animal products - beef, pork, eggs, milk; surplus producer
of timber; self-sufficient in most foods

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; important transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for
the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $172 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.1 billion

Currency: 1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: guaranies (G) per US$ - 1,949.6 (January 1995),
1,911.5 (1994), 1,744.3 (1993), 1,500.3 (1992), 1,325.2 (1991),
1,229.8 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Paraguay:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 970 km
standard gauge: 440 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 60 km 1.000-m gauge
other: 470 km various gauges (privately owned)

Highways:
total: 28,300 km
paved: 2,600 km
unpaved: gravel 500 km; earth 25,200 km

Inland waterways: 3,100 km

Ports: Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion

Merchant marine:
total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,747 GRT/19,513 DWT
ships by type: cargo 11, oil tanker 2
note: in addition, 1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used commercially

Airports:
total: 929
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 578
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 27
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 314

@Paraguay:Communications

Telephone system: 78,300 telephones; 16 telephones/1,000 persons;
meager telephone service; principal switching center in Asuncion
local: NA
intercity: fair microwave radio relay network
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 40, FM 0, shortwave 7
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 5
televisions: NA

@Paraguay:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines), Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,290,894; males fit for
military service 937,054; males reach military age (17) annually
55,551 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1.6% of
GDP (1994 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

PERU

@Peru:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean,
between Chile and Ecuador

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 1,285,220 sq km
land area: 1.28 million sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km,
Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador
are in dispute

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in
center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron
ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 21%
forest and woodland: 55%
other: 21%

Irrigated land: 12,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa
and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in
Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining
wastes
natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild
volcanic activity
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake,
with Bolivia

@Peru:People

Population: 24,087,372 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 4,152,520; male 4,296,293)
15-64 years: 61% (female 7,280,287; male 7,378,227)
65 years and over: 4% (female 535,156; male 444,889) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.8% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.88 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.84 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.07 years
male: 63.86 years
female: 68.38 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic divisions: Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European
ancestry) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 82%
male: 92%
female: 74%

Labor force: 8 million (1992)
by occupation: government and other services 44%, agriculture 37%,
industry 19% (1988 est.)

@Peru:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru

Digraph: PE

Type: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia
constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho,
Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La
Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco,
Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: the 1979 Constitution mandated the creation of regions
(regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous
economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been
constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto),
Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from
Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from
Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los
Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui
(from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from
Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin),
Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed
by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge
with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the
central government and organizational and political difficulties, the
regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993
Constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993
Constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal
governments.

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Alberto Kenyo
FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); election last held 9 April
1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results - Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%,
Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%

cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
note: Prime Minister Efrain GOLDENBERG Schreiber (since NA February
1994) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of
the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Congress: elections last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000);
results - C90/NM 52.1% of the total vote, UPP 14%, eleven other
parties 33.9%; seats - (120 total, when installed on 28 July 1995)
C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3,
Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, MIA 1, FRENATRACA 1, (FREPAP) 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders: Change 90-New Majority (C90/NM),
Alberto FUJIMORI; Union for Peru (UPP), Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR;
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Agustin MANTILLA
Campos; Independent Moralizing Front (FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega;
Democratic Coordinator (CODE) - Pais Posible, Jose BARBA Caballero and
Alejandro TOLEDO; Popular Action Party (AP), Raul DIEZ CANSECO;
Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Renovacion, Rafael
REY Rey; Civic Works Movement (OBRAS), Ricardo BELMONT; United Left
(IU), Agustin HAYA de la TORRE; Independent Agrarian Movement (MIA),
Rolando SALVATERRIE; Peru 2000-National Front of Workers and Peasants
(FRENATRACA), Roger CACARES; Popular Agricultural Front (FREPAP),
Ezequiel ATAUCUSI

Other political or pressure groups: leftist guerrilla groups include
Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned); Tupac Amaru
Revolutionary Movement, Nestor SERPA and Victor POLAY (imprisoned)

Member of: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG (suspended), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA Mendoza
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Paterson (New Jersey), and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.
embassy: corner of Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida
Espana, Lima
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO
AA 34031
telephone: [51] (14) 338000
FAX: [51] (14) 316682

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red
with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of
quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed
by a green wreath

@Peru:Economy

Overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly
market-oriented, with major privatizations completed in 1994 in the
mining and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s the economy
suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and
mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank
support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An
austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government
took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly
contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late
that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as
the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly
price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991
dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a
financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991,
although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By
working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and
arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March
1993. In 1992, GDP had fallen by 2.8%, in part because a
warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish
catch, but the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped
push growth to 6% in 1993 and 8.6% in 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $73.6 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 8.6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,110 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15%; extensive underemployment (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2 billion
expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $300
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts,
lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
partners: US 19%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany

Imports: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum,
iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: US 21%, Colombia, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil

External debt: $22.4 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: NA

Electricity:
capacity: 4,190,000 kW
production: 11.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 448 kWh (1993)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing,
food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal
fabrication

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP, about 35% of labor force;
commercial crops - coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice,
wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red
meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil;
fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about 108,600
hectares under cultivation in 1994; source of supply for most of the
world's coca paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation
is for illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to
Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the
international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are
increasing

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $4.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million

Currency: 1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.20 (February 1995), 2.195
(1994),1.988 (1993), 1.245 (1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Peru:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,801 km
standard gauge: 1,501 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 300 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 69,942 km
paved: 7,459 km
unpaved: improved earth 13,538 km; unimproved earth 48,945 km

Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system
and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Ports: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Paita, Pucallpa,
Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches
of the Amazon and its tributaries

Merchant marine:
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 90,501 GRT/144,913 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 1
note: in addition, 4 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes
used commercially

Airports:
total: 236
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 97
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 21
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 77

@Peru:Communications

Telephone system: 544,000 telephones; fairly adequate for most
requirements
local: NA
intercity: nationwide microwave radio relay system and 12 domestic
satellite links
international: 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 273, FM 0, shortwave 144
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 140
televisions: NA

@Peru:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru),
Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,369,157; males fit for
military service 4,300,772; males reach military age (20) annually
251,798 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $810 million, about
2.7% of GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

PHILIPPINES

@Philippines:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea
and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 300,000 sq km
land area: 298,170 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from
coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed
polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

International disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei;
claims Malaysian state of Sabah

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April);
southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold,
salt, copper

Land use:
arable land: 26%
permanent crops: 11%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 40%
other: 19%

Irrigated land: 16,200 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil
erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of
coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds
natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and
struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides, active
volcanoes, destructive earthquakes, tsunamis
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands

@Philippines:People

Population: 73,265,584 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (female 13,841,552; male 14,214,234)
15-64 years: 58% (female 21,603,818; male 20,923,307)
65 years and over: 4% (female 1,425,706; male 1,256,967) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 2.23% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 30.42 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.97 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.65 years
male: 63.16 years
female: 68.25 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine

Ethnic divisions: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese
1.5%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and
other 3%

Languages: Pilipino (official; based on Tagalog), English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 94%
male: 94%
female: 93%

Labor force: 24.12 million
by occupation: agriculture 46%, industry and commerce 16%, services
18.5%, government 10%, other 9.5% (1989)

@Philippines:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas

Digraph: RP

Type: republic

Capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra,
Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique,
Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*,
Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon,
Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*,
Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin,
Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*,
Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del
Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General
Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo,
Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna,
Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union,
Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*,
Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental,
Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros
Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva
Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*,
Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto
Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*,
Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in
Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South
Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del
Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*,
Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*,
Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June (1898) (from Spain)

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Fidel Valdes RAMOS
(since 30 June 1992); Vice President Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA (since 30
June 1992); election last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May
1998); results - Fidel Valdes RAMOS won 23.6% of the vote, a narrow
plurality
cabinet: Executive Secretary; appointed by the president with the
consent of the Commission of Appointments

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Kongreso)
Senate (Senado): elections last held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA
May 1995); results - LDP 66%, NPC 20%, Lakas/NUCD 8%, Liberal 6%;
seats - (24 total) LDP 15, NPC 5, Lakas/NUCD 2, Liberal 1, independent
1
House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan): elections last
held 11 May 1992 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - LDP 43.5%;
Lakas/NUCD 25%, NPC 23.5%, Liberal 5%, KBL 3%; seats - (200 total) LDP
87, NPC 45, Lakas/NUCD 41, Liberal 15, NP 6, KBL 3, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Filipino Struggle (Laban ng
Demokratikong Pilipinas, LDP), Edgardo ESPIRITU; People Power-National
Union of Christian Democrats (Lakas ng Edsa, NUCD and Partido Lakas
Tao, Lakas/NUCD); Fidel V. RAMOS, President of the Republic, Raul
MANGLAPUS, Jose DE VENECIA, secretary general; Nationalist People's
Coalition (NPC), Eduardo COJUANGCO; Liberal Party, Jovito SALONGA;
People's Reform Party (PRP), Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO; New Society
Movement (Kilusan Bagong Lipunan; KBL), Imelda MARCOS; Nacionalista
Party (NP), Salvador H. LAUREL, president

Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Chaves RABE
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los
Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
consulate(s): San Diego and San Jose (Saipan)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita Manila 1000
mailing address: APO AP 96440
telephone: [63] (2) 521-71-16
FAX: [63] (2) 522-43-61
consulate(s): Cebu

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white
equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the
triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing
three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small
yellow five-pointed star

@Philippines:Economy

Overview: Domestic output in this primarily agricultural economy
failed to grow in 1992 and rose only slightly in 1993. Drought and
power supply problems hampered production, while inadequate revenues
prevented government pump priming. Worker remittances helped to
supplement GDP. A marked increase in capital goods imports,
particularly power generating equipment, telecommunications equipment,
and electronic data processors, contributed to 20% annual import
growth in 1992-94. Provided the government can cope with the
substantial trade deficit and meet the fiscal targets agreed to with
the IMF, the Philippines should duplicate the strong growth
performance of 1994 in 1995-96.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $161.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,310 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.1% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $14 billion
expenditures: $15.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Exports: $13.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: electronics, textiles, coconut products, copper, fish
partners: US 39%, Japan 16%, Germany 5%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 4% (1993)

Imports: $21.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: raw materials 40%, capital goods 25%, petroleum products
10%
partners: Japan 23%, US 20%, Taiwan 6%, Singapore 5%, South Korea 5%
(1993)

External debt: $40 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.4% (1993); accounts for 28% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 6,770,000 kW
production: 20.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 278 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food
processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 22% of GDP and about 45% of labor force;
major crops - rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples,
mangos; animal products - pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm
products; fish catch of 2 million metric tons annually

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; growers are producing more and better quality cannabis despite
government eradication efforts; transit point for Southwest Asian
heroin bound for the US

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.6 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $7.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million;
Communist countries (1975-89), $123 million

Currency: 1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1 - 24.622 (January 1995),
26.417 (1994), 22.120 (1993), 25.512 (1992), 27.479 (1991), 24.311
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Philippines:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 800 km (est.); note - including about 390 km in Luzon
narrow gauge: 800 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 160,700 km
paved: 29,000 km
unpaved: 131,700 km

Inland waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m)
vessels

Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km

Ports: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iligan,
Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando,
Subic Bay, Zamboanga

Merchant marine:
total: 552 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,748,083 GRT/14,373,730
DWT
ships by type: bulk 237, cargo 134, chemical tanker 4, combination
bulk 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 10, liquefied gas tanker 6,
livestock carrier 9, oil tanker 46, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 11,
refrigerated cargo 24, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger
17, vehicle carrier 29
note: a flag of convenience registry; Japan owns 13 ships, Norway 2,
Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, and South Korea 1

Airports:
total: 269
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 32
with paved runways under 914 m: 133
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 4
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 67

@Philippines:Communications

Telephone system: 872,900 telephones; good international radio and
submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
local: NA
intercity: 11 domestic satellite links
international: submarine cables extended to Hong Kong, Guam,
Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan; 3 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific
Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 267 (including 6 US), FM 55, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 33 (including 4 US)
televisions: NA

@Philippines:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air
Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 18,238,568; males fit for
military service 12,876,771; males reach military age (20) annually
752,622 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $731 million, 1.4% of
GNP (1992)

________________________________________________________________________

PITCAIRN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Pitcairn Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Peru to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 47 sq km
land area: 47 sq km
comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 51 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds;
rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: deforestation (only a small portion of the original
forest remains because of burning and clearing for settlement)
natural hazards: typhoons (especially November to March)
international agreements: NA

@Pitcairn Islands:People

Population: 73 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.8% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Pitcairn Islander(s)
adjective: Pitcairn Islander

Ethnic divisions: descendants of the Bounty mutineers

Religions: Seventh-Day Adventist 100%

Languages: English (official), Tahitian/English dialect

Labor force: NA
by occupation: no business community in the usual sense; some public
works; subsistence farming and fishing

@Pitcairn Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands
conventional short form: Pitcairn Islands

Digraph: PC

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Adamstown

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964

Legal system: local island by-laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal with three years residency

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor
(non-resident) of the Pitcairn Islands Robert John ALSTON (since NA);
Commissioner (non-resident) G.D. HARRAWAY (since NA; is the liaison
person between the governor and the Island Council)
head of government: Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island
Council Jay WARREN (since NA)

Legislative branch: unicameral
Island Council: elections take place each December; last held NA
December 1994 (next to be held NA December 1995); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (11 total, 5 elected) all independents

Judicial branch: Island Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: SPC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a
shield featuring a yellow anchor

@Pitcairn Islands:Economy

Overview: The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming.
The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and
vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams,
and beans. Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major
sources of revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and
the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $430,000
expenditures: $429,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1987
est.)

Exports: $NA
commodities: fruits, vegetables, curios
partners: NA

Imports: $NA
commodities: fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar,
other foodstuffs
partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 110 kW
production: 300,000 kWh
consumption per capita: 5,360 kWh (1990)

Industries: postage stamps, handicrafts

Agriculture: based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety of
fruits and vegetables; must import grain products

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $84,000

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5601 (January
1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Pitcairn Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 6.4 km
unpaved: earth 6.4 km

Ports: Bounty Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: none

@Pitcairn Islands:Communications

Telephone system: 24 telephones; party line telephone service on the
island
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Pitcairn Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

POLAND

@Poland:Geography

Location: Central Europe, east of Germany

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 312,680 sq km
land area: 304,510 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total 3,114 km, Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658
km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432
km, Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 428 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with
frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and
thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead,
salt

Land use:
arable land: 46%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 13%
forest and woodland: 28%
other: 12%

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: forest damage due to air pollution and resulting acid
rain; improper means for disposal of large amounts of hazardous and
industrial waste; severe water pollution from industrial and municipal
sources; severe air pollution results from emissions of sulfur dioxide
from coal-fired power plants, which also drifts into Germany and the
Netherlands
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and
the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

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