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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Norfolk Island:Communications

Telephone system: 987 telephones (1983)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: radio link service with Sydney

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 1,000 (1987 est.)

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Norfolk Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

________________________________________________________________________

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS

(commonwealth in political union with the US)

@Northern Mariana Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 477 sq km
land area: 477 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC
note: includes 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,482 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little
seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy
season July to October

Terrain: southern islands are limestone with level terraces and
fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic; highest elevation
is 471 m (Mt. Okso' Takpochao on Saipan)

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use:
arable land: 5% on Saipan
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: 19%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: contamination of groundwater on Saipan by raw sewage
contributes to disease
natural hazards: active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons
(especially August to November)
international agreements: NA

Note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean

@Northern Mariana Islands:People

Population: 51,033 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.04% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 33.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37.96 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.43 years
male: 65.53 years
female: 69.48 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.69 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic divisions: Chamorro, Carolinians and other Micronesians,
Caucasian, Japanese, Chinese, Korean

Religions: Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional
beliefs and taboos may still be found)

Languages: English, Chamorro, Carolinian
note: 86% of population speaks a language other than English at home

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 96%

Labor force: 7,476 total indigenous labor force, 2,699 unemployed;
21,188 foreign workers (1990)
by occupation: NA

@Northern Mariana Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
conventional short form: Northern Mariana Islands

Digraph: CQ

Type: commonwealth in political union with the US; self-governing with
locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature;
federal funds to the Commonwealth administered by the US Department of
the Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs

Capital: Saipan

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (commonwealth in political union with the US)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

Constitution: Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986 and the
Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

Legal system: based on US system except for customs, wages,
immigration laws, and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January
1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
head of government: Governor Froilan C. TENORIO (since January 1994);
Lieutenant Governor Jesus C. BORJA (since January 1994); election last
held in NA November 1993 (next to be held NA November 1997); results -
Froilan C. TENORIO (Democrat) was elected governor with 56% of the
vote

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature
Senate: elections last held NA November 1993 (next to be held NA
November 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9
total) Republicans retained a majority of the seats
House of Representatives: elections last held NA November 1993 (next
to be held NA November 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (18 total) Republicans retained a majority of the seats
US House of Representatives: the Commonwealth does not have a
nonvoting delegate in Congress; instead, it has an elected official
"resident representative" located in Washington, DC; seats - (1 total)
Juan N. BABAUTA (Republican)

Judicial branch: Commonwealth Supreme Court, Superior Court, Federal
District Court

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Benigno R. FITIAL,
Leader; Democratic Party, Dr. Carlos S. CAMACHO, Chairman

Member of: ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), SPC

Flag: blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray
silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in
building) in the center

@Northern Mariana Islands:Economy

Overview: The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance
from the US. The rate of funding has declined as locally generated
government revenues have grown. An agreement for the years 1986 to
1992 entitled the islands to $228 million for capital development,
government operations, and special programs. A rapidly growing major
source of income is the tourist industry, which now employs about 50%
of the work force. Japanese tourists predominate. The agricultural
sector is of minor importance and is made up of cattle ranches and
small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons.
Industry is small scale, mostly handicrafts, light manufacturing, and
garment production.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $524 million (1994
est.)
note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $10,500 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $190.4 million
expenditures: $190.4 million, including capital expenditures of $19.1
million (FY94/95)

Exports: $263.4 million (f.o.b. 1991 est.)
commodities: garments
partners: NA

Imports: $392.4 million (c.i.f. 1991 est.)
commodities: food, construction equipment and materials, petroleum
products
partners: US, Japan

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 105,000 kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh

Industries: tourism, construction, light industry, handicrafts

Agriculture: coconuts, fruits, cattle, vegetables; food is a major
import

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Northern Mariana Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 381.5 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA
undifferentiated: primary 134.5 km; secondary 55 km; local 192 km
(1991)

Inland waterways: none

Ports: Saipan, Tinian

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 8
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

@Northern Mariana Islands:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 2 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1984)
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1; note - there are 2 cable TV stations
televisions: NA

@Northern Mariana Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

NORWAY

@Norway:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 324,220 sq km
land area: 307,860 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total 2,515 km, Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km,
Russia 167 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413
km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093
km)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 10 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud
Land); maritime boundary dispute with Russia over portion of Barents
Sea

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current;
colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken
by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented
by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel,
iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 27%
other: 70%

Irrigated land: 950 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and
adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from
vehicle emissions
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber
94

Note: about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much
indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air
routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in
world; Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with
Russia

@Norway:People

Population: 4,330,951 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 390,344; male 444,570)
15-64 years: 65% (female 1,375,493; male 1,424,027)
65 years and over: 16% (female 408,675; male 287,842) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.37% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.86 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.35 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.61 years
male: 74.26 years
female: 81.15 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic divisions: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami)
20,000

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant
and Roman Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)

Languages: Norwegian (official)
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 2.13 million
by occupation: services 71%, industry 23%, agriculture, forestry, and
fishing 6% (1992)

@Norway:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge

Digraph: NO

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke);
Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og
Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland,
Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence: 26 October 1905 (from Sweden)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common
law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature
when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent
Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND (since 3
November 1990)
cabinet: State Council; appointed by the king in accordance with the
will of the Storting

Legislative branch: modified unicameral Parliament (Storting) which,
for certain purposes, divides itself into two chambers
Storting: elections last held 13 September 1993 (next to be held
September 1997); results - Labor 37.1%, Center Party 18.5%,
Conservatives 15.6%, Christian People's 8.4%, Socialist Left 7.9%,
Progress 6%, Left Party 3.6%, Red Electoral Alliance 1.2%; seats -
(165 total) Labor 67, Center Party 32, Consevatives 18, Christian
People's 13, Socialist Left 13, Progress 10, Left Party 1, Red
Electoral Alliance 1, unawarded 10
note: for certain purposes, the Storting divides itself into two
chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or
Lagting

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hoyesterett)

Political parties and leaders: Labor Party, Thorbjorn JAGLUND;
Conservative Party, Jan PETERSEN; Center Party, Anne ENGER LAHNSTEIN;
Christian People's Party, Kjell Magne BONDEVIK; Socialist Left,
Kjellbjorg LUNDE; Norwegian Communist, Kare Andre NILSEN; Progress
Party, Carl I. HAGEN; Liberal, Odd Einar DORUM; Left Party; Red
Electoral Alliance, Erling FOLKVORD

Member of: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN,
EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA,
NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU,
WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kjeld VIBE
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and
San Francisco
consulate(s): Miami

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas A. LOFTUS
embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] 22 44 85 50
FAX: [47] 22 44 33 63

Flag: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Norway:Economy

Overview: Norway has a mixed economy involving a combination of free
market activity and government intervention. The government controls
key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale
state enterprises) and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing,
and areas with sparse resources. Norway also maintains an extensive
welfare system that helps propel public sector expenditures to
slightly more than 50% of the GDP and results in one of the highest
average tax burdens in the world (54%). A small country with a high
dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an exporter of
raw materials and semiprocessed goods, with an abundance of small- and
medium-sized firms, and is ranked among the major shipping nations.
The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum,
hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on
its oil sector to keep its economy afloat. Norway imports more than
half its food needs. Although one of the government's main priorities
is to reduce this dependency, this situation is not likely to improve
for years to come. The government also hopes to reduce unemployment
and strengthen and diversify the economy through tax reform and a
series of expansionary budgets. The budget deficit is expected to hit
a record 8% of GDP because of welfare spending and bail-outs of the
banking system. Unemployment is currently running at 8.4% - including
those in job programs - because of the weakness of the economy outside
the oil sector. Economic growth, only 1.6% in 1993, moved up to 5.5%
in 1994. Oslo opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in
November 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $95.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $22,170 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.4% (including people in job-training programs;
1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $50.9 billion
expenditures: $55.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $36.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 40%, metals and products
10.6%, fish and fish products 6.9%, chemicals 6.4%, natural gas 6.0%,
ships 5.4%
partners: EC 66.3%, Nordic countries 16.3%, developing countries 8.4%,
US 6.0%, Japan 1.8% (1993)

Imports: $29.3 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: machinery and equipment 38.9%, chemicals and other
industrial inputs 26.6%, manufactured consumer goods 17.8%, foodstuffs
6.4%
partners: EC 48.6%, Nordic countries 25.1%, developing countries 9.6%,
US 8.1%, Japan 8.0% (1993)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 4.6% (1994); accounts for 14% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 27,280,000 kW
production: 118 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 23,735 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and
paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GDP and about 6% of labor force; among
world's top 10 fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value of
crops; fish catch of 1.76 million metric tons in 1989

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for drugs shipped via the CIS and
Baltic states for the European market

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion

Currency: 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.7014 (January
1995), 7.0469 (1994), 7.0941 (1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991),
6.2597 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Norway:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 4,026 km
standard gauge: 4,026 km 1.435-m gauge (2,422 km electrified; 96 km
double track) (1994)

Highways:
total: 88,922 km
paved: 61,356 km (75 km of expressway)
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 27,566 km (1990)

Inland waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels
maximum

Pipelines: refined products 53 km

Ports: Bergen, Drammen, Flora, Hammerfest, Harstad, Haugesund,
Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger, Tromso,
Trondheim

Merchant marine:
total: 764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,793,968
GRT/35,409,472 DWT
ships by type: bulk 159, cargo 92, chemical tanker 85, combination
bulk 8, combination ore/oil 28, container 17, liquefied gas tanker 81,
oil tanker 162, passenger 13, passenger-cargo 2, railcar carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 13, roll-on/roll-off cargo 54, short-sea passenger
21, vehicle carrier 28
note: the government has created a captive register, the Norwegian
International Ship Register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian
register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience
and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians

Airports:
total: 104
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10
with paved runways under 914 m: 62
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Norway:Communications

Telephone system: 3,102,000 telephones; high-quality domestic and
international telephone, telegraph, and telex services
local: NA
intercity: domestic earth stations
international: 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine
cables; EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean), and MARISAT earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 46, FM 493 (350 private and 143 government),
shortwave 0
radios: 3.3 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 54 (repeaters 2,100)
televisions: 1.5 million

@Norway:Defense Forces

Branches: Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air
Force, Home Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,116,130; males fit for
military service 928,774; males reach military age (20) annually
29,123 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.4 billion, 3.2% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

OMAN

@Oman:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and
Persian Gulf, between Yemen and the United Arab Emirates

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 212,460 sq km
land area: 212,460 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries: total 1,374 km, Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km,
Yemen 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: no defined boundary with most of UAE;
Administrative Line with UAE in far north

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong
southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and
south

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble,
limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: less than 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 5%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 93%

Irrigated land: 410 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills;
very limited natural fresh water resources
natural hazards: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and
duststorms in interior; periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change

Note: strategic location with small foothold on Musandam Peninsula
controlling Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude
oil

@Oman:People

Population: 2,125,089 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (female 480,974; male 498,619)
15-64 years: 51% (female 493,685; male 593,740)
65 years and over: 3% (female 31,826; male 26,245) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.71% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 38.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.25 years
male: 68.31 years
female: 72.29 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.16 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani

Ethnic divisions: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri
Lankan, Bangladeshi)

Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu

Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 430,000 (est.)
by occupation: agriculture 40% (est.)

@Oman:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form: Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman

Digraph: MU

Type: monarchy

Capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: 6 regions (mintaqah, singular - mintaqat)
and 2 governorates* (muhafazah, singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah,
Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*,
Zufar*

Independence: 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)

National holiday: National Day, 18 November (1940)

Constitution: none

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate
appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister
QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970)
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Consultative Council

Judicial branch: none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent civil
court system

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Aqil al-DHAHAB
chancery: 2535 Belmont Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1982
FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador David J. DUNFORD
embassy: address NA, Muscat
mailing address: P. O. Box 202, Code No. 115, Muscat
telephone: [968] 698989
FAX: [968] 699779

Flag: three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red, and
green (double width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist
side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed
on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of
the vertical band

@Oman:Economy

Overview: Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of the
oil industry, including trends in international oil prices and the
ability of OPEC producers to agree on output quotas. Petroleum
accounts for more than 85% of export earnings, about 80% of government
revenues, and roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has proved oil reserves of 4
billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years' supply at the current
rate of extraction. Agriculture is carried on at a subsistence level
and the general population depends on imported food. The government is
encouraging private investment, both domestic and foreign, as a prime
force for further economic development.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $17 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $10,020 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $4.4 billion
expenditures: $5.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1
billion (1994 est.)

Exports: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: petroleum 87%, re-exports, fish, processed copper,
textiles
partners: UAE 33%, Japan 20%, South Korea 14%, China 7% (1993)

Imports: $4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods,
food, livestock, lubricants
partners: UAE 24% (largely re-exports), Japan 21%, UK 12%, US 7%,
France 6% (1993)

External debt: $3 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.6% (1991); accounts for almost
60% of GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 1,540,000 kW
production: 6 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,407 kWh (1993)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production,
construction, cement, copper

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP and 40% of the labor force
(including fishing); less than 2% of land cultivated; largely
subsistence farming (dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables,
camels, cattle); not self-sufficient in food; annual fish catch
averages 100,000 metric tons

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $137 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $148 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million

Currency: 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza

Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate since
1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Oman:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 26,000 km
paved: 5,000 km
unpaved: 21,000 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

Ports: Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Qabus, Mina' Raysut

Merchant marine:
total: 1 passenger ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,442 GRT/1,320
DWT

Airports:
total: 140
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 36
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 61
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 31

@Oman:Communications

Telephone system: 50,000 telephones; modern system consisting of
open-wire, microwave, and radio communications stations; limited
coaxial cable
local: NA
intercity: open wire, microwave, radio communications, and 8 domestic
satellite links
international: 2 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) and 1 ARABSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 7
televisions: NA

@Oman:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 520,428; males fit for military
service 294,993; males reach military age (14) annually 26,065 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.7 billion, 14.2%
of GDP (1995 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

PACIFIC OCEAN

@Pacific Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Antarctica, Asia, Australia, and the
Western Hemisphere

Map references: World

Area:
total area: 165.384 million sq km
comparative area: about 18 times the size of the US; the largest ocean
(followed by the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic
Ocean); covers about one-third of the global surface; larger than the
total land area of the world
note: includes Bali Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering
Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Flores Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of
Tonkin, Java Sea, Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Savu Sea, Sea of Japan,
Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, and other
tributary water bodies

Coastline: 135,663 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

Climate: the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs
during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the
ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when
dry winds blow from the Asian land mass back to the ocean

Terrain: surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a
clockwise, warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in
the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the
northern Pacific sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in
winter; in the southern Pacific sea ice from Antarctica reaches its
northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific
is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is
dissected by deep trenches, including the world's deepest, the 10,924
meter Marianas Trench

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish

Environment:
current issues: endangered marine species include the dugong, sea
lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in
Philippine Sea and South China Sea
natural hazards: surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and
earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire;
subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia
from May to December (most frequent from July to October); tropical
cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike Central
America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August and
September); southern shipping lanes subject to icebergs from
Antarctica; occasional El Nino phenomenon occurs off the coast of Peru
when the trade winds slacken and the warm Equatorial Countercurrent
moves south, killing the plankton that is the primary food source for
anchovies; consequently, the anchovies move to better feeding grounds,
causing resident marine birds to starve by the thousands because of
their lost food source; ships subject to superstructure icing in
extreme north from October to May and in extreme south from May to
October; persistent fog in the northern Pacific can be a maritime
hazard from June to December
international agreements: NA

Note: the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal,
Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the
Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific
Ocean; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in
the southwestern Pacific Ocean

@Pacific Ocean:Government

Digraph: ZN

@Pacific Ocean:Economy

Overview: The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world
economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly touch.
It provides low-cost sea transportation between East and West,
extensive fishing grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and
sand and gravel for the construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%)
of the world's fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the
only ocean where the fish catch has increased every year since 1978.
Exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an
ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of Australia, NZ, China,
US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering offshore oil and gas,
combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil since 1985, has
slowed but not stopped new drillings.

Industries: fishing, oil and gas production

@Pacific Ocean:Transportation

Ports: Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Los Angeles (US), Manila
(Philippines), Pusan (South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle (US),
Shanghai (China), Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok (Russia),
Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)

@Pacific Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international: several submarine cables with network nodal points on
Guam and Hawaii

________________________________________________________________________

PAKISTAN

@Pakistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India and
Iran

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 803,940 sq km
land area: 778,720 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total 6,774 km, Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km,
India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: status of Kashmir with India; border question
with Afghanistan (Durand Line); water-sharing problems (Wular Barrage)
over the Indus with upstream riparian India

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in
north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited
petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 23%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 6%
forest and woodland: 4%
other: 67% (1993)

Irrigated land: 170,000 sq km (1992)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes,
and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a
majority of the population does not have access to potable water;
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially
in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July
and August)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine
Life Conservation

Note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes
between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

@Pakistan:People

Population: 131,541,920 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 28,033,354; male 29,777,818)
15-64 years: 52% (female 33,456,410; male 35,109,482)
65 years and over: 4% (female 2,556,846; male 2,608,010) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 41.8 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.07 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -16.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.86 years
male: 57.18 years
female: 58.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.35 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir
(immigrants from India and their descendents)

Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and
other 3%

Languages: Urdu (official), English (official; lingua franca of
Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Punjabi 64%, Sindhi
12%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu 7%, Balochi and other 9%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 35%
male: 47%
female: 21%

Labor force: 36 million
by occupation: agriculture 46%, mining and manufacturing 18%, services
17%, other 19%
note: extensive export of labor

@Pakistan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan

Digraph: PK

Type: republic

Capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital
territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*,
Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and
Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)

National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the
republic)

Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with
amendments 30 December 1985

Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to
accommodate Pakistan's stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and
reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Sardar Farooq LEGHARI; election last held 13
November 1993 (next to be held no later than 14 October 1998); results
- LEGHARI was elected by Parliament and the four provincial assemblies

head of government: Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora)
Senate: elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held NA March
1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (87 total) PPP
22, PML/N 17; Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8, ANP 6, PML/J
5, JWP 5, MQM/A 5, JUI/F 2, PKMAP 2, JI 2, NPP 2, BNM/H 1, BNM/M 1,
JUP/NI 1, JUP/NO 1, JAH 1, JUI/S 1, PML/F 1, PNP 1, independents 2,
vacant 1
National Assembly: elections last held 6 October 1993 (next to be held
by October 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (217
total) PPP 92, PML/N 75, PML/J 6, IJM-Islamic Democratic Front 4, ANP
3, PKMAP 4, PIF 3, JWP 2, MDM 2, BNM/H 1, BNM/M 1, NDA 1, NPP 1, PKQP
1, Religious minorities 10 reserved seats, independents 9, results
pending 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shari'at) Court

Political parties and leaders:
government: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; Pakistan
Muslim League, Junejo faction (PML/J), Hamid Nasir CHATTHA; National
People's Party (NPP), Ghulam Mustapha JATOI; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami
Party (PKMAP), Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI; Balochistan National Movement,
Hayee Group (BNM/H), Dr. HAYEE Baluch; National Democratic Alliance
(NDA), Maulana Kausar NIAZI; Pakhtun Quami Party (PKQP), Mohammed
AFZAL Khan; Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Akbar Khan BUGTI
opposition: Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction (PML/N),
Nawaz SHARIF; Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul WALI KHAN;
Pakistan Islamic Front (PIF), Qazi Hussain AHMED; Balochistan National
Movement, Mengal Group (BNM/M), Sardar Akhtar MENGAL; Mohajir Quami
Movement, Altaf faction (MQM/A), Altaf HUSSAIN; Jamaat-i-Islami (JI),
Qazi Hussain AHMED; Jamiat-al-Hadith (JAH)
frequently shifting: Mutaheda Deeni Mahaz (MDM), Maulana Sami-ul-HAQ,
the MDM includes Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction (JUP/NI) and
Anjuman Sepah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (ASSP); Islami-Jamhoori-Mahaz
(IJM-Islamic Democratic Party), the IJM includes Jamiat
Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur Rehman group (JUI/F); Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan,
Noorani faction (JUP/NO); Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction
(JUI/S); Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group (PML/F); Pakistan
National Party (PNP)
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently

Other political or pressure groups: military remains important
political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small
merchants also influential

Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMIL, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Maleeha LODHI
chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6200
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John C. MONJO
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, PSC 1212, Box 2000, Unit 6220,
Islamabad; APO AE 09812-2000
telephone: [92] (51) 826161 through 826179
FAX: [92] (51) 214222
consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore
consulate(s): Peshawar

Flag: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of
religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and
star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color
green are traditional symbols of Islam

@Pakistan:Economy

Overview: The Pakistani economy has made progress in several key areas
since Benazir BHUTTO became Prime Minister in October 1993. She has
been under pressure from international donors and the IMF - which gave
Pakistan a $1.3 billion structural adjustment credit in February 1994
- to continue the economic reforms and austerity measures begun by her
predecessor, caretaker Prime Minister Moeen QURESHI (July-October
1993). Foreign exchange reserves climbed to more than $3 billion in
1994, and the budget deficit was substantially reduced. Real GDP
growth was 4% in FY93/94, up from 2.3% in FY92/93. Foreign direct and
portfolio investment also have increased. Privatization of large
public sector utilities began in 1994 with the sale of 12% of the
Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation (PTC) and the Water and Power
Development Authority (WAPDA); the sale of state-owned banks and other
large units are planned for 1995. Still, the government must cope with
long-standing economic vulnerabilities - high levels of debt service
and defense spending, a small tax base, a huge population, and
dependence on cotton-based exports - which hamper its ability to
create a stable economic environment. In addition, Pakistan's
infrastructure is inadequate and deteriorating, low levels of literacy
constrain industrial growth, and increasing sectarian, ethnic, and
tribal violence disrupt production.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $248.5 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,930 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (FY93/94)

Unemployment rate: 10% (FY90/91 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10.5 billion
expenditures: $11.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1
billion (FY93/94)

Exports: $6.7 billion (1993)
commodities: cotton, textiles, clothing, rice, leather, carpets
partners: US, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, UK, UAE, France

Imports: $9.5 billion (1993)
commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, transportation
equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals
partners: Japan, US, Germany, UK, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Korea

External debt: $24 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.6% (FY93/94); accounts for 18% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 10,800,000 kW (1994)
production: 52.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 389 kWh (1993)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, construction
materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp

Agriculture: 24% of GDP; world's largest contiguous irrigation system;
major crops - cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
livestock products - milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of opium and hashish for the
international drug trade; remains world's third largest opium producer
(160 metric tons in 1994); major center for processing Afghan heroin
and key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western
market

Economic aid:
recipient: $2.5 billion (FY91/92); $2.5 billion (FY92/93); $2.5
billion (FY93/94); no US commitments, includes bi- and multilateral
aid

Currency: 1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 30.860 (January
1995), 30.570 (1994), 28.107 (1993), 25.083 (1992), 23.801 (1991),
21.707 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Pakistan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 8,773 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (286 km electrified; 1,037 double
track)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge; 610 km less than 1.000-m gauge
(1985)

Highways:
total: 177,410 km
paved: 94,027 km
unpaved: 83,383 km (1991 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas
4,044 km (1987)

Ports: Gwadar, Karachi, Ormaro (under construction), Port Muhammad bin
Qasim

Merchant marine:
total: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 352,189 GRT/532,782 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 25, oil tanker 1, passenger-cargo 3

Airports:
total: 119
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 12
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 33
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14
with paved runways under 914 m: 24
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 7
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8

@Pakistan:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; about 7 telephones/1,000 persons; the
domestic telephone system is poor, adequate only for government and
business use; the system for international traffic is better
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: 3 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) earth
stations; microwave radio relay

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 19, FM 8, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 29
televisions: NA

@Pakistan:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard,
paramilitary/security forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 30,219,551; males fit for
military service 18,544,008; males reach military age (17) annually
1,429,719 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.2 billion, 5.6% of
GDP (FY94/95)

________________________________________________________________________

PALAU

@Palau:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the North Pacific Ocean,
southeast of the Philippines

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 458 sq km
land area: 458 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,519 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid

Terrain: about 200 islands varying geologically from the high,
mountainous main island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually
fringed by large barrier reefs

Natural resources: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine
products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: inadequate facilities for disposal of solid waste;
threats to the marine ecosystem from sand and coral dredging and
illegal fishing practices that involve the use of dynamite
natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)
international agreements: NA

Note: includes World War II battleground of Beliliou (Peleliu) and
world-famous rock islands; archipelago of six island groups totaling
over 200 islands in the Caroline chain

@Palau:People

Population: 16,661 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.76% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.11 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.07 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.01 years
male: 69.14 years
female: 73.02 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.85 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Palauan(s)
adjective: Palauan

Ethnic divisions: Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan, and
Melanesian races

Religions: Christian (Catholics, Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's
Witnesses, the Assembly of God, the Liebenzell Mission, and Latter-Day
Saints), Modekngei religion (one-third of the population observes this
religion which is indigenous to Palau)

Languages: English (official in all of Palau's 16 states), Sonsorolese
(official in the state of Sonsoral), Angaur and Japanese (in the state
of Anguar), Tobi (in the state of Tobi), Palauan (in the other 13
states)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 92%
male: 93%
female: 90%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: NA

@Palau:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Palau
conventional short form: Palau
former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Digraph: PS

Type: self-governing territory in free association with the US
pursuant to Compact of Free Association which entered into force 1
October 1994; Palau is fully responsible for internal affairs; US
retains responsibility for external affairs

Capital: Koror
note: a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast in eastern
Babelthuap

Administrative divisions: there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 16 states:
Aimeliik, Airai, Angaur, Kayangel, Koror, Melekeok, Ngaraard,
Ngardmau, Ngaremlengui, Ngatpang, Ngchesar, Ngerchelong, Ngiwal,
Peleliu, Sonsorol, Tobi

Independence: 1 October 1994 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)

Constitution: 1 January 1981

Legal system: based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature,
municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Kuniwo NAKAMURA
(since 1 January 1993), Vice-President Tommy E. REMENGESAU Jr. (since
1 January 1993); election last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held
NA November 1996); results - Kuniwo NAKAMURA 50.7%, Johnson TORIBIONG
49.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or OEK)
Senate: elections last held 4 November 1992 (next to be held NA
November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (14
total) number of seats by party NA
House of Delegates: elections last held 4 November 1992 (next to be
held NA November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(16 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, National Court, Court of Common Pleas

Member of: ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF (observer), UN

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Liaison Officer NA
liaison office: 444 North Capital Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: (202) 624-7793
FAX: NA
note: relationship of free association with the US pursuant to compact
of free association which entered into force 1 October 1994

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Liaison Officer Lloyd W. MOSS
liaison office: Erenguul Street, Koror, Republic of Palau
mailing address: P.O. Box 6028, Republic of Palau 96940
telephone: [680] 488-2920
FAX: [680] 488-2911
note: relationship of free association with the US pursuant to compact
of free association which entered into force 1 October 1994

Flag: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon)
shifted slightly to the hoist side

@Palau:Economy

Overview: The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture
and fishing. The government is the major employer of the work force,
relying heavily on financial assistance from the US. The compact of
"free association" with the United States, entered into after the end
of the UN trusteeship on 1 October 1994, provides Palau with $500
million in US aid over 15 years in return for furnishing some military
facilities. The population, in effect, enjoys a per capita income of
$5,000, twice that of the Philippines and much of Micronesia. Long-run
prospects for the tourist sector have been greatly bolstered by the
expansion of air travel in the Pacific and the rapidly rising
prosperity of leading East Asian countries.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $81.8 million (1994
est.)
note: GDP numbers reflect US spending

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $5,000 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1986)

Budget:
revenues: $6 million
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986 est.)

Exports: $600,000 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: trochus (type of shellfish), tuna, copra, handicrafts
partners: US, Japan

Imports: $24.6 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: NA
partners: US

External debt: about $100 million (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 16,000 kW
production: 22 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,540 kWh (1990)

Industries: tourism, craft items (shell, wood, pearl), some commercial
fishing and agriculture

Agriculture: subsistence-level production of coconut, copra, cassava,
sweet potatoes

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.56 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $92 million

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Palau:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 61 km
paved: 36 km
unpaved: gravel 25 km

Ports: Koror

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2

@Palau:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Palau:Defense Forces

Branches: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US pursuant to Compact of
Free Association which entered into force 1 October 1994

________________________________________________________________________

PALMYRA ATOLL

(territory of the US)

@Palmyra Atoll:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 11.9 sq km
land area: 11.9 sq km
comparative area: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 14.5 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

Terrain: low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 100%
other: 0%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees,
and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

@Palmyra Atoll:People

Population: uninhabited

@Palmyra Atoll:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Palmyra Atoll

Digraph: LQ

Type: incorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but
administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs,
US Department of the Interior

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

@Palmyra Atoll:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Palmyra Atoll:Transportation

Highways: much of the road and many causeways built during the war are
unserviceable and overgrown

Ports: West Lagoon

Airports:
total: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1

@Palmyra Atoll:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

PANAMA

@Panama:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 78,200 sq km
land area: 75,990 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: total 555 km, Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to
January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland
plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 2%
meadows and pastures: 15%
forest and woodland: 54%
other: 23%

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens
fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land
degradation
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but
not ratified - Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation, Tropical Timber 94

Note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge
connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links
North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

@Panama:People

Population: 2,680,903 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (female 439,491; male 458,817)
15-64 years: 61% (female 812,876; male 823,124)
65 years and over: 5% (female 74,672; male 71,923) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.9% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.12 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.79 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.2 years
male: 72.57 years
female: 77.97 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Panamanian(s)
adjective: Panamanian

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%,
West Indian 14%, white 10%, Indian 6%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%

Languages: Spanish (official), English 14%
note: many Panamanians bilingual

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 89%
male: 89%
female: 88%

Labor force: 979,000 (1994 est.)
by occupation: government and community services 31.8%, agriculture,
hunting, and fishing 26.8%, commerce, restaurants, and hotels 16.4%,
manufacturing and mining 9.4%, construction 3.2%, transportation and
communications 6.2%, finance, insurance, and real estate 4.3%
note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

@Panama:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Panama
conventional short form: Panama
local long form: Republica de Panama
local short form: Panama

Digraph: PM

Type: constitutional republic

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui,
Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from
Spain 28 November 1821)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Ernesto PEREZ
BALLADARES Gonzalez Revilla (since 1 September 1994, elected 8 May
1994); First Vice President Tomas Gabriel ALTAMIRANO DUQUE (since 1
September 1994); Second Vice President Felipe Alejandro VIRZI Lopez
(since 1 September 1994 election last held 8 May 1994 (next to be held
9 May 1999); results - Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES (PRD) 33%, Mireya
MOSCOSO DE GRUBER (PA) 29%, Ruben BLADES (MPE) 17%, Ruben Dario CARLES
(MOLIRENA) 16%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): legislators from outlying
rural districts are chosen on a plurality basis while districts
located in more populous towns and cities elect multiple legislators
by means of a proportion-based formula; elections last held 8 May 1994
(next to be held 9 May 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA ;
seats - (72 total) PRD 32, PS 4, PALA 1, PA 14, MPE 6, MOLIRENA 4, PLA
3, PRC 3, PL 2, PDC 1, UDI 1, MORENA 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
5 superior courts, 3 courts of appeal

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