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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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French Ministry of the Interior); President of the Territorial
Congress Simon LOUECKHOTE (since 26 June 1989)
cabinet: Consultative Committee

Legislative branch: unicameral
Territorial Assembly: elections last held 11 June 1989 (next to be
held July 1995); results - RPCR 44.5%, FLNKS 28.5%, FN 7%, CD 5%, UO
4%, other 11%; seats - (54 total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19, FN 3, other 5;
note - election boycotted by FULK
French Senate: elections last held 27 September 1992 (next to be held
September 2001); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1
total) RPCR 1
French National Assembly: elections last held 21 March 1993 (next to
be held 21 and 28 March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (2 total) RPCR 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: white-dominated Rassemblement pour la
Caledonie dans la Republique (RPCR), conservative, Jacques LAFLEUR,
president - affiliated to France's Rassemblement pour la Republique
(RPR; also called South Province Party); Melanesian proindependence
Kanaka Socialist National Liberation Front (FLNKS), Paul NEAOUTYINE;
Melanesian moderate Kanak Socialist Liberation (LKS), Nidoish
NAISSELINE; National Front (FN), extreme right, Guy GEORGE; Caledonie
Demain (CD), right-wing, Bernard MARANT; Union Oceanienne (UO),
conservative, Michel HEMA; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak (FULK),
proindependence, Clarence UREGEI; Union Caledonian (UC), Francois
BURCK, president; "1999" (new party calling for an autonomous state),
Philippe PENTECOST

Member of: ESCAP (associate), FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WFTU, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas territory of France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used

@New Caledonia:Economy

Overview: New Caledonia has more than 25% of the world's known nickel
resources. In recent years the economy has suffered because of
depressed international demand for nickel, the principal source of
export earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for
cultivation, and food accounts for about 25% of imports.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1991
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1988)

National product per capita: $6,000 (1991 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1989)

Budget:
revenues: $224 million
expenditures: $211 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1985 est.)

Exports: $671 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: nickel metal 87%, nickel ore
partners: France 32%, Japan 23.5%, US 3.6%

Imports: $764 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical equipment
partners: France 44.0%, US 10%, Australia 9%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 250,000 kW
production: 1.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 6,178 kWh (1993)

Industries: nickel mining and smelting

Agriculture: large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn,
wheat, vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef

Illicit drugs: illicit cannabis cultivation is becoming a principal
source of income for some families

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $4.185 billion

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
- 96.25 (January 1995), 100.93 (1994), 102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992),
102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

@New Caledonia:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 6,340 km
paved: 634 km
unpaved: 5,706 km (1987)

Ports: Mueo, Noumea, Thio

Merchant marine:
total: 1 roll-on/roll-off ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,079
GRT/724 DWT

Airports:
total: 36
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 19
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 13

@New Caledonia:Communications

Telephone system: 32,578 telephones (1987)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) satellite link

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 7
televisions: NA

@New Caledonia:Defense Forces

Branches: French Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie);
Police Force

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

NEW ZEALAND

@New Zealand:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of
Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 268,680 sq km
land area: 268,670 sq km
comparative area: about the size of Colorado
note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands,
Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross
Dependency)

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber,
hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 53%
forest and woodland: 38%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 2,800 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna
hard-hit by species introduced from outside
natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands,
Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation

Note: about 80% of the population lives in cities

@New Zealand:People

Population: 3,407,277 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (female 381,027; male 401,285)
15-64 years: 65% (female 1,109,402; male 1,111,079)
65 years and over: 12% (female 234,339; male 170,145) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.52% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.14 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.03 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.65 years
male: 73.08 years
female: 80.42 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: New Zealander(s)
adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic divisions: European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander 2.9%,
other 0.2%

Religions: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%,
Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33%
(1986)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 1,603,500 (June 1991)
by occupation: services 66.6%, industry 22.6%, agriculture 10.8%
(1992)

@New Zealand:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: New Zealand

Abbreviation: NZ

Digraph: NZ

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town
districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller,
Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont,
Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay,
Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay,
Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt,
Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough,
Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua,
Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako,
Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga,
Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford,
Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga,
Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo,
Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea,
Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa,
Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland,
Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions
(Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay,
Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman,
Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are
subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*,
Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central
Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne,
Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*,
Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie,
Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*,
Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston
North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney,
Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato,
South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames
Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa,
Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western
Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various
documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand
Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1
January 1987, but has not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and
land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dame Catherine TIZARD (since 12
December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister James BOLGER (since 29 October
1990); Deputy Prime Minister Donald McKINNON (since 2 November 1990)
cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the governor general on
recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Representatives: (commonly called Parliament) elections last
held 6 November 1993 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - NP
35.2%, NZLP 34.7%, Alliance 18.3%, New Zealand First 8.3%; seats - (99
total) NP 50, NZLP 45, Alliance 2, New Zealand First Party 2

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: National Party (NP, government), James
BOLGER; New Zealand Labor Party (NZLP, opposition), Helen CLARK;
Alliance, Sandra LEE; Democratic Party, Dick RYAN; New Zealand Liberal
Party, Hanmish MACINTYRE and Gilbert MYLES; Green Party, no official
leader; Mana Motuhake, Martin RATA; Socialist Unity Party (SUP,
pro-Soviet), Kenneth DOUGLAS; New Zealand First, Winston PETERS
note: the New Labor, Democratic, and Mana Motuhake parties formed a
coalition called the Alliance Party, Sandra LEE, president, in
September 1991; the Green Party joined the coalition in May 1992

Member of: ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August
1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
MTCR, NAM (guest), OECD, PCA, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAVEM II,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel John WOOD
chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
consulate(s) general: Apia (Western Samoa), Los Angeles

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Josiah Horton BEEMAN
embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP
96531-1001
telephone: [64] (4) 472-2068
FAX: [64] (4) 472-3537
consulate(s) general: Auckland

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer
half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

@New Zealand:Economy

Overview: Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian
economy dependent on a guaranteed British market to a more
industrialized, open free market economy that can compete on the
global scene. The government has hoped that dynamic growth would boost
real incomes, broaden and deepen the technological capabilities of the
industrial sector, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the
expansion of welfare benefits. The initial results were mixed:
inflation is down from double-digit levels, but growth was sluggish in
1988-91. In 1992-93, growth picked up to 3% annually, a sign that the
new economic approach was beginning to pay off. Business confidence
strengthened in 1994, and export demand picked up in the Asia-Pacific
region, resulting in 6.2% growth. Inflation remains among the lowest
in the industrial world.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $56.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6.2% (1994)

National product per capita: $16,640 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (FY93/94)

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $18.94 billion
expenditures: $18.82 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95)
note: surplus $120 million (FY94/95)

Exports: $11.2 billion (1994)
commodities: wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fish, cheese, chemicals,
forestry products, fruits and vegetables, manufactures
partners: Australia 20%, Japan 15%, US 12%, UK 6%

Imports: $10.4 billion (1994)
commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft,
petroleum, consumer goods
partners: Australia 21%, US 18%, Japan 16%, UK 6%

External debt: $38.5 billion (September 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.9% (1990); accounts for about 20%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 7,520,000 kW
production: 30.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 8,401 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles,
machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism,
mining

Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GDP and about 11% of the work
force; livestock predominates - wool, meat, dairy products all export
earners; crops - wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables;
surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a record 503,000
metric tons in 1988

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526 million

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5601 (January
1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@New Zealand:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 4,716 km
narrow gauge: 4,716 km 1.067-m gauge (113 km electrified; 274 km
double track)

Highways:
total: 92,648 km
paved: 49,547 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 43,101 km

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; condensate
(liquified petroleum gas - LPG) 150 km

Ports: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Wellington

Merchant marine:
total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 165,504 GRT/218,699 DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 3,
railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5

Airports:
total: 102
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 28
with paved runways under 914 m: 41
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21

@New Zealand:Communications

Telephone system: 2,110,000 telephones; excellent international and
domestic systems
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: submarine cables extend to Australia and Fiji; 2
INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 64, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 14
televisions: NA

@New Zealand:Defense Forces

Branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand
Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 883,668; males fit for military
service 742,871; males reach military age (20) annually 27,162 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $792 million, 2% of
GDP (FY90/91)

________________________________________________________________________

NICARAGUA

@Nicaragua:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 129,494 sq km
land area: 120,254 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than New York State

Land boundaries: total 1,231 km, Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 25-nm security zone
continental shelf: natural prolongation
territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: territorial disputes with Colombia over the
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; with
respect to the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca, the
International Court of Justice (ICJ) referred the disputants to an
earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite
resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be
required

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior
mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber,
fish

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 43%
forest and woodland: 35%
other: 12%

Irrigated land: 850 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
natural hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and
occasionally severe hurricanes
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

@Nicaragua:People

Population: 4,206,353 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (female 921,356; male 930,594)
15-64 years: 53% (female 1,146,485; male 1,097,811)
65 years and over: 3% (female 62,607; male 47,500) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.61% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 33.73 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.45 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.54 years
male: 61.67 years
female: 67.53 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.17 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Caucasian) 69%, white
17%, black 9%, Indian 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%

Languages: Spanish (official)
note: English- and Indian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
total population: 57%
male: 57%
female: 57%

Labor force: 1.086 million
by occupation: services 43%, agriculture 44%, industry 13% (1986)

@Nicaragua:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua
conventional short form: Nicaragua
local long form: Republica de Nicaragua
local short form: Nicaragua

Digraph: NU

Type: republic

Capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 16 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada,
Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio
San Juan, Rivas, Zelaya

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 January 1987

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review
administrative acts

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Violeta Barrios de
CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990); Vice President Virgilio GODOY Reyes
(since 25 April 1990); election last held 25 February 1990 (next to be
held November 1996); results - Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO)
54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 40.8%, other 4.5%
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional): elections last held 25 February
1990 (next to be held November 1996); results - UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%,
PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%; seats - (92 total) UNO 41, FSLN 39, "Centrist"
(Dissident UNO) 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders:
far right: Liberal Constitutionalist Party* (PLC), Arnold ALEMAN;
Conservative Popular Alliance Party (APC), Myriam ARGUELLO; Central
American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS Echaverry; Independent
Liberal Party for National Unity (PLUIN), Alfonso MOCADO Guillen;
Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCN - formed in 1992 by the merger of
the Conservative Social Party (PSC) with the Democratic Conservative
Party (PCD) and PCL, the Conservative party of Labor), Fernando
AGUERO; National Justice Party (PJN), Jorge DIAZ Cruz; National
Conservative Party* (PNC), Adolfo CALERO
center right: Neoliberal Party* (PALI), Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel;
National Action Party* (PAN), Delvis MONTIEL; Independent Liberal
Party* (PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO
center left: Christian Democratic Union (UDC), Luis Humberto GUZMAN;
Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto URROZ; Social Democratic
Party (PSD), Adolfo JARQUIN; Movement of Revolutionary Unity (MUR),
Pablo HERNANDEZ; Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS), Sergio RAMIREZ;
Democratic Action Movement (MAD), Eden PASTORA; Communist Party of
Nicaragua* (PCdeN), Eli ALTIMIRANO Perez
far left: Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), Daniel ORTEGA;
Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA; Popular Action
Movement-Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ; Nicaraguan
Socialist Party (PSN), Gustavo TABLADA; Unidad Nicaraguense de
Obreros, Campesinos, y Profesionales (UNOCP), Rosalio GONZALEZ Urbina
note: parties marked with an asterisk belong to the National
Opposition Union (UNO), an alliance of moderate parties, which,
however, does not always follow a unified political agenda

Other political or pressure groups: National Workers Front (FNT) is a
Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions: Sandinista Workers'
Central (CST); Farm Workers Association (ATC); Health Workers
Federation (FETASALUD); National Union of Employees (UNE); National
Association of Educators of Nicaragua (ANDEN); Union of Journalists of
Nicaragua (UPN); Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional
Associations (CONAPRO); and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers
(UNAG); Permanent Congress of Workers (CPT) is an umbrella group of
four non-Sandinista labor unions: Confederation of Labor Unification
(CUS); Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN-A); Independent
General Confederation of Labor (CGT-I); and Labor Action and Unity
Central (CAUS); Nicaraguan Workers' Central (CTN) is an independent
labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is a
confederation of business groups

Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto Genaro MAYORGA Cortes
chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
York, San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John F. MAISTO
embassy: Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua
mailing address: APO AA 34021
telephone: [505] (2) 666010, 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026,
666027, 666032 through 34
FAX: [505] (2) 666046

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with
the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El
Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white
band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars
arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

@Nicaragua:Economy

Overview: Since March 1991, when President CHAMORRO began an ambitious
economic stabilization program, Nicaragua has had considerable success
in reducing inflation and obtaining substantial economic aid from
abroad. Annual inflation fell from more than 750% in 1991 to less than
5% in 1992. Inflation rose again to an estimated 20% in 1993, although
this increase was due almost entirely to a large currency devaluation
in January. As of early 1994, the government was close to finalizing
an enhanced structural adjustment facility with the IMF, after the
previous standby facility expired in early 1993. Despite these
successes, achieving overall economic growth in an economy scarred by
misguided economic values and civil war during the 1980s has proved
elusive. Economic growth was flat in 1992 and slightly negative in
1993. Nicaragua's per capita foreign debt is one of the highest in the
world; nonetheless, as of late 1993, Nicaragua was current on its
post-1988 debt as well as on payments to the international financial
institutions. Definition of property rights remains a problem;
ownership disputes over large tracts of land, businesses, and homes
confiscated by the previous government have yet to be resolved. A rise
in exports of coffee and other products led growth in 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,570 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19.5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 21.8%; underemployment 50% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $375 million (1992)
expenditures: $410 million (1992), including capital expenditures of
$115 million (1991 est.)

Exports: $329 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: meat, coffee, cotton, sugar, seafood, gold, bananas
partners: US, Central America, Canada, Germany

Imports: $786 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: consumer goods, machinery and equipment, petroleum
products
partners: Central America, US, Venezuela, Japan

External debt: $11 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate -0.8% (1993 est.); accounts for 26%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 460,000 kW
production: 1.6 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 376 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles,
clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear

Agriculture: crops account for about 15% of GDP; export crops -
coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton; food crops - rice, corn, cassava,
citrus fruit, beans; also produces a variety of animal products -
beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products; normally self-sufficient in
food

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-92), $620 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.381 billion

Currency: 1 gold cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: gold cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 7.08 (December 1994),
6.72 (1994), 5.62 (1993), 5.00 (1992); note - gold cordoba replaced
cordoba as Nicaragua's currency in 1991 (exchange rate of old cordoba
had reached per US$1 - 25,000,000 by March 1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Nicaragua:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 376 km; note - majority of system is nonoperational
standard gauge: 3 km 1.435-m gauge line at Puerto Cabezas; note - does
not connect with mainline
narrow gauge: 373 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 15,286 km
paved: 1,598 km
unpaved: 13,688 km
note: there is a 368.5 km portion of the Pan-American Highway which is
not in the total

Inland waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km

Ports: Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino,
Rama, San Juan del Sur

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 198
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 149
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 39

@Nicaragua:Communications

Telephone system: 60,000 telephones; low-capacity radio relay and wire
system being expanded; connection into Central American Microwave
System
local: NA
intercity: wire and radio relay
international: 1 Intersputnik and 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 45, FM 0, shortwave 3
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 7
televisions: NA

@Nicaragua:Defense Forces

Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force
note: total strength of all branches - 14,500

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 982,345; males fit for military
service 604,721; males reach military age (18) annually 47,064 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $32 million, 1.7% of
GDP (1994), 8.1% of government budget

________________________________________________________________________

NIGER

@Niger:Geography

Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1.267 million sq km
land area: 1,266,700 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,697 km, Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina
628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern
Niger; demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack
of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and
awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; Burkina
and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the
tripoint with Niger

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling
plains in south; hills in north

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 7%
forest and woodland: 2%
other: 88%

Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation;
desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus,
and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
natural hazards: recurring droughts
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked

@Niger:People

Population: 9,280,208 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (female 2,275,338; male 2,275,999)
15-64 years: 49% (female 2,314,857; male 2,188,938)
65 years and over: 2% (female 107,432; male 117,644) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.4% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 54.8 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 20.8 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 109.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.07 years
male: 43.42 years
female: 46.77 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.35 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien

Ethnic divisions: Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri
Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 4,000
French expatriates

Religions: Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1988)
total population: 11%
male: 17%
female: 5%

Labor force: 2.5 million wage earners (1982)
by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government
4%

@Niger:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger

Digraph: NG

Type: republic

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements, singular -
departement); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Constitution: approved by national referendum 16 December 1992;
promulgated January 1993

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mahamane OUSMANE (since 16 April 1993);
election last held 17 March 1993 (next to be held NA February 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 21 February
1995)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the
prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elected by proportional representation for 5 year
terms; elections last held 12 January 1995 (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (83 total) MNSD-NASSARA
29, CDS 24, PNDS 12, ANDP-Z 9, UDFP 3, UDPS 2, PADN 2, PPN-RDA 1, UPDP
1

Judicial branch: State Court (Cour d'Etat), Court of Appeal (Cour
d'Apel)

Political parties and leaders: National Movement of the Development
Society (MNSD-NASSARA), Mamadou TANDJA, chairman; Democratic and
Social Convention (CDS), Jacoub SANOUSSI; Nigerien Party for Democracy
and Socialism (PNDS), Mahamadou ISSOUFOU; Nigerien Alliance for
Democracy and Progress-Zamanlahia (ANDP-Z), Moumouni Adamou
DJERMAKOYE; Union of Popular Forces for Democracy and Progress-Sawaba
(UDFP), Djibo BAKARY, chairman; Union for Democracy and Social
Progress (UDPS), Akoli DAOUEL; Niger Social Democrat Party (PADN),
Malam Adji WAZIRI; Niger Progressive Party-African Democratic Rally
(PPN-RDA), Dori ABDOULAI, chairman; Union of Patriots, Democrats, and
Progressives (UPDP), Professor Andre SALIFOU, chairman

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Adamou SEYDOU
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John S. DAVISON
embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey
telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64
FAX: [227] 73 31 67

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green
with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white
band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel
centered in the white band

@Niger:Economy

Overview: Niger is one of the world's poorest countries, with GDP
growth lagging behind the rapid growth of population. The economy is
centered on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, and reexport
trade, and increasingly less on uranium, its major export throughout
the 1970s and 1980s. Uranium revenues dropped by almost 50% between
1983 and 1990 with the end of the uranium boom. Terms of trade with
Nigeria, Niger's largest regional trade partner, have improved
dramatically since the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January
1994; this devaluation boosted exports of livestock, peas, onions, and
the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies
on bilateral and multilateral aid for operating expenses and public
investment and is strongly induced to adhere to structural adjustment
programs designed by the IMF and the World Bank.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.4% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $550 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $188 million
expenditures: $400 million, including capital expenditures of $125
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $246 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: uranium ore 67%, livestock products 20%, cowpeas, onions
partners: France 77%, Nigeria 8%, Cote d'Ivoire, Italy

Imports: $286 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles
and parts, petroleum, cereals
partners: France 23%, Cote d'Ivoire, Germany, Italy, Japan

External debt: $1.2 billion (December 1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -2.7% (1992 est.); accounts for 15%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 60,000 kW
production: 200 million kWh
consumption per capita: 42 kWh (1992)

Industries: cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals,
slaughterhouses, and a few other small light industries; uranium
mining began in 1971

Agriculture: accounts for roughly 40% of GDP and 90% of labor force;
cash crops - cowpeas, cotton, peanuts; food crops - millet, sorghum,
cassava, rice; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats; self-sufficient in
food except in drought years

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $3.165 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $504 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $61 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: the official rate is pegged to the French franc, and beginning
12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French
franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Niger:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 39,970 km
paved: bituminous 3,170 km
unpaved: gravel, laterite 10,330 km; earth 3,470 km; tracks 23,000 km

Inland waterways: Niger River is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya
on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 29
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 16

@Niger:Communications

Telephone system: 14,260 telephones; small system of wire,
radiocommunications, and radio relay links concentrated in
southwestern area
local: NA
intercity: wire, radiocommunications, and radio relay; 3 domestic
satellite links, with 1 planned
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 5, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 18
televisions: NA

@Niger:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Republican Guard,
National Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,908,767; males fit for
military service 1,029,384; males reach military age (18) annually
94,506 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $32 million, 1.3% of
GDP (FY92/93)

________________________________________________________________________

NIGERIA

@Nigeria:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Benin and Cameroon

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 923,770 sq km
land area: 910,770 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total 4,047 km, Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad
87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm

International disputes: demarcation of international boundaries in
Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is
completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
Nigeria; dispute with Cameroon over land and maritime boundaries in
the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred to the
International Court of Justice

Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in
north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus;
mountains in southeast, plains in north

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal,
limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 31%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 23%
forest and woodland: 15%
other: 28%

Irrigated land: 8,650 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation;
desertification; recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities
natural hazards: periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

@Nigeria:People

Population: 101,232,251 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (female 22,643,026; male 22,850,322)
15-64 years: 52% (female 25,842,286; male 26,978,906)
65 years and over: 3% (female 1,438,392; male 1,479,319) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 3.16% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.26 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.01 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.98 years
male: 54.69 years
female: 57.3 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.31 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic divisions:
north: Hausa and Fulani
southwest: Yoruba
southeast: Ibos non-Africans 27,000
note: Hausa and Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibos together make up 65% of
population

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 51%
male: 62%
female: 40%

Labor force: 42.844 million
by occupation: agriculture 54%, industry, commerce, and services 19%,
government 15%

@Nigeria:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria

Digraph: NI

Type: military government since 31 December 1983; plans to institute a
constitutional conference to prepare for a new transition to civilian
rule after plans for a transition in 1993 were negated by General
BABANGIDA

Capital: Abuja
note: on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially moved from Lagos
to Abuja; many government offices remain in Lagos pending completion
of facilities in Abuja

Administrative divisions: 30 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja
Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Borno,
Cross River, Delta, Edo, Enugu, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina,
Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau,
Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Constitution: 1979 constitution still in force; plan for 1989
constitution to take effect in 1993 was not implemented

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and tribal law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: Chairman of the Provisional
Ruling Council and Commander in Chief of Armed Forces and Defense
Minister Gen. Sani ABACHA (since 17 November 1993); Vice-Chairman of
the Provisional Ruling Council Oladipo DIYA (since 17 November 1993)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
Senate: suspended after coup of 17 November 1993
House of Representatives: suspended after coup of 17 November 1993

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
note: two political party system suspended after the coup of 17
November 1993

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU,
OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Zubair Mahmud KAZAURE
chancery: 1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Walter C. CARRINGTON
embassy: 2 Eleke Crescent, Lagos
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone: [234] (1) 261-0097
FAX: [234] (1) 261-0257
branch office: Abuja
consulate(s) general: Kaduna

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
green

@Nigeria:Economy

Overview: The oil-rich Nigerian economy continues to be hobbled by
political instability and poor macroeconomic management. Nigeria's
unpopular military rulers show no sign of wanting to restore
democratic civilian rule in the near future and appear divided on how
to redress fundamental economic imbalances that cause troublesome
inflation and the steady depreciation of the naira. The government's
domestic and international arrears continue to limit economic growth -
even in the oil sector - and prevent an agreement with the IMF and
bilateral creditors on debt relief. The inefficient (largely
subsistence) agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid
population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now
must import food.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $122.6 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -0.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,250 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 53% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $9 billion
expenditures: $10.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: $11.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: oil 95%, cocoa, rubber
partners: US 54%, EC 23%

Imports: $8.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: machinery and equipment, manufactured goods, food and
animals
partners: EC 64%, US 10%, Japan 7%

External debt: $29.5 billion (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.7% (1991); accounts for 43% of
GDP, including petroleum

Electricity:
capacity: 4,570,000 kW
production: 11.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 109 kWh (1993)

Industries: crude oil and mining - coal, tin, columbite; primary
processing industries - palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, wood, hides
and skins; manufacturing industries - textiles, cement, building
materials, food products, footwear, chemical, printing, ceramics,
steel

Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GDP and half of labor force; cash
crops - cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food crops - corn, rice,
sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats,
pigs; fishing and forestry resources extensively exploited

Illicit drugs: passenger and cargo air hub for West Africa;
facilitates movement of heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest
Asia to Western Europe and North America; increasingly a transit route
for cocaine from South America intended for West European, East Asian,
and North American markets

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $705 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.2 billion

Currency: 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: naira (N) per US$1 - 21.996 (January 1995), 21.996
(1994), 22.065 (1993), 17.298 (1992), 9.909 (1991), 8.038 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Nigeria:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,567 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge
standard gauge: 62 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 107,990 km
paved: mostly bituminous-surface treatment 30,019 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 25,411 km; unimproved
earth 52,560 km

Inland waterways: 8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and
smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural
gas 500 km

Ports: Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri

Merchant marine:
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 404,064 GRT/661,850 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 14, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas
tanker 1, oil tanker 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 80
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7
with paved runways under 914 m: 25
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21

@Nigeria:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; above-average system limited by poor
maintenance; major expansion in progress
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and 20 domestic
satellite earth stations carry intercity traffic
international: 3 INTELSAT earth stations (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean) and 1 coaxial submarine cable carry international
traffic

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 35, FM 17, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 28
televisions: NA

@Nigeria:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 23,167,009; males fit for
military service 13,246,223; males reach military age (18) annually
1,024,059 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $172 million, about
1% of GDP (1992)

________________________________________________________________________

NIUE

(free association with New Zealand)

@Niue:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 260 sq km
land area: 260 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 61%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 19%
other: 12%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: traditional methods of burning brush and trees to
clear land for agriculture have threatened soil supplies which
naturally are not very abundant
natural hazards: typhoons
international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Note: one of world's largest coral islands

@Niue:People

Population: 1,837 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -3.66% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA

Death rate: NA

Net migration rate: NA

Infant mortality rate: NA

Life expectancy at birth: NA

Total fertility rate: NA

Nationality:
noun: Niuean(s)
adjective: Niuean

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and
Tongans)

Religions: Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church) 75% - a Protestant church
closely related to the London Missionary Society, Morman 10%, other
15% (mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day
Adventist)

Languages: Polynesian closely related to Tongan and Samoan, English

Labor force: 1,000 (1981 est.)
by occupation: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only
in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board

@Niue:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Niue

Digraph: NE

Type: self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand;
Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
responsibility for external affairs

Capital: Alofi

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 19 October 1974 (became a self-governing territory in
free association with New Zealand on 19 October 1974)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty)

Constitution: 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by New Zealand Representative Kurt MEYER (since NA)
head of government: Premier Frank F. LUI (since 12 March 1993; Acting
Premier since December 1992)
cabinet: Cabinet; consists of the premier and three other ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly: elections last held 6 March 1993 (next to be
held NA 1996); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (20 total, 6
elected)

Judicial branch: Appeal Court of New Zealand, High Court

Political parties and leaders: Niue Peoples Party (NPP), Young VIVIAN

Member of: ESCAP (associate), INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), SPARTECA,
SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing territory in
free association with New Zealand)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing territory in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant;
the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one
on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold
red cross

@Niue:Economy

Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New Zealand.
Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the shortfall
made up by grants from New Zealand - the grants are used to pay wages
to public employees. The agricultural sector consists mainly of
subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export.
Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion
fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps
to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in
recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of
migration of Niueans to New Zealand.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.4 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $1,200 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1992)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5.5 million
expenditures: $6.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1985 est.)

Exports: $117,500 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit
products, pawpaw, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
partners: NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

Imports: $4.1 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels,
lubricants, chemicals, drugs
partners: NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 1,500 kW
production: 2.7 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,490 kWh (1992)

Industries: tourism, handicrafts, food processing

Agriculture: coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes; subsistence crops
- taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef
cattle

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $62 million

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5601 (January
1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991),
1.6750 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Niue:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 229 km
unpaved: all-weather 123 km; plantation access 106 km

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Niue:Communications

Telephone system: 383 telephones
local: NA
intercity: single-line telephone system connects all villages on
island
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1,000, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1987 est.)
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Niue:Defense Forces

Branches: Police Force

Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

________________________________________________________________________

NORFOLK ISLAND

(territory of Australia)

@Norfolk Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of
Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 34.6 sq km
land area: 34.6 sq km
comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 75%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: typhoons (especially May to July)
international agreements: NA

@Norfolk Island:People

Population: 2,756 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.69% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: NA

Death rate: NA

Net migration rate: NA

Infant mortality rate: NA

Life expectancy at birth: NA

Total fertility rate: NA

Nationality:
noun: Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic divisions: descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New
Zealander

Religions: Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in
Australia 16.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%,
other 2.4% (1986)

Languages: English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century
English and ancient Tahitian

Labor force: NA

@Norfolk Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form: Norfolk Island

Digraph: NF

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: Kingston (administrative center); Burnt Pine (commercial
center)

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1979

Legal system: wide legislative and executive responsibility under the
Norfolk Island Act of 1979; Supreme Court

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Administrator Alan Gardner KERR (since NA April 1992),
who is appointed by the Governor General of Australia
head of government: Assembly President David Ernest BUFFETT (since NA
May 1992)
cabinet: Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly: elections last held 20 May 1992 (next to be held
NA May 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total)
independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: NA

Member of: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly
wider white band

@Norfolk Island:Economy

Overview: The primary economic activity is tourism, which has brought
a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific
islands. The number of visitors has increased steadily over the years
and reached 29,000 in FY88/89. Revenues from tourism have given the
island a favorable balance of trade and helped the agricultural sector
to become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and
eggs.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $4.2 million, including capital expenditures of $400,000
(1989 est.)

Exports: $1.7 million (f.o.b., FY85/86)
commodities: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and
Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
partners: Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

Imports: $15.6 million (c.i.f., FY85/86)
commodities: NA
partners: Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 7,000 kW
production: 8 million kWh
consumption per capita: 3,160 kWh (1990)

Industries: tourism

Agriculture: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals,
vegetables, fruit, cattle, poultry

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991),
1.2799 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Norfolk Island:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 80 km
paved: 53 km
unpaved: earth, coral 27 km

Ports: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1

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