Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1995 CIA World Factbook

Part 26 out of 45

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.6 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Languages: Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 33%
male: 45%
female: 21%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: 90% engaged in agriculture

@Mozambique:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica Popular de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique

Digraph: MZ

Type: republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula,
Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 30 November 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November
1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral
Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da Republica): draft electoral
law provides for periodic, direct presidential and Assembly elections
note: as called for in the 1992 peace accords, presidential and
legislative elections took place during 27-29 October 1994; fourteen
parties, including the Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO)
participated; Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO was elected president and his
FRELIMO party gathered a slim majority in the 250 seat legislature

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
(FRELIMO), Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, chairman; the ruling party since
independence, FRELIMO was the only legal party before 30 November 1990
when the new Constitution went into effect establishing a multiparty
system

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hipolito Pereira Zozimo PATRICIO
chancery: Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis Coleman JETT
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda, 193 Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490114

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow
with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band
is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed
star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open
white book

@Mozambique:Economy

Overview: One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has failed to
exploit the economic potential of its sizable agricultural,
hydropower, and transportation resources. Indeed, national output,
consumption, and investment declined throughout the first half of the
1980s because of internal disorders, lack of government administrative
control, and a growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid,
attracted by an economic reform policy, resulted in successive years
of economic growth in the late 1980s, but aid has declined steadily
since 1989. Agricultural output is at only 75% of its 1981 level, and
grain has to be imported. Industry operates at only 20%-40% of
capacity. The economy depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep
afloat. Peace accords signed in October 1992 improved chances of
foreign investment, aided IMF-supported economic reforms, and
supported continued economic recovery. Elections held in 1994 diverted
government attention from the economy, resulting in slippage and
delays in the economic reform program. Nonetheless, growth in 1994 was
solid and can continue into the late 1990s given continued foreign
help in meeting debt obligations.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $10.6 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $610 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 50% (1989 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $252 million
expenditures: $607 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: shrimp 40%, cashews, cotton, sugar, copra, citrus
partners: Spain, South Africa, US, Portugal, Japan

Imports: $1.14 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
partners: South Africa, UK, France, Japan, Portugal

External debt: $5 billion (1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 2,360,000 kW
production: 1.7 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 58 kWh (1993)

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints),
petroleum products, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement,
glass, asbestos), tobacco

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP and about 90% of exports; cash
crops - cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other crops -
cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $350 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $4.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $37 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $890 million

Currency: 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 5,220.63 (1st quarter 1994),
3,874.24 (1993), 2,550.40 (1992), 1,763.99 (1991), 1,053.09 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mozambique:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,288 km
narrow gauge: 3,140 km 1.067-m gauge; 148 km 0.762-m gauge

Highways:
total: 26,498 km
paved: 4,593 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 829 km; unimproved
earth 21,076 km

Inland waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Pipelines: crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km

Ports: Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba

Merchant marine:
total: 3 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,533 GRT/8,024 DWT

Airports:
total: 192
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 112
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 15
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 44

Note:
note: highway traffic impeded by land mines not removed at end of
civil war

@Mozambique:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephone density; fair system of troposcatter,
open-wire lines, and radio relay
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: 5 INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Mozambique:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Militia;
note - by late 1994, the army and former RENAMO rebels had
demobilized; under UN supervision and training, recruits from both the
army and rebel forces joined an integrated force that is still forming

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,061,109; males fit for
military service 2,331,793 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $110 million, 7.3% of
GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

NAMIBIA

@Namibia:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Angola and South Africa

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 825,418 sq km
land area: 825,418 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries: total 3,824 km, Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km,
South Africa 855 km, Zambia 233 km

Coastline: 1,572 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of boundary with Botswana is
indefinite; quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in
disagreement; dispute with Botswana over uninhabited Kasikili (
Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River remained unresolved in
mid-February 1995 and the parties agreed to refer the matter to the
International Court of Justice;

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari
Desert in east

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin,
lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected
deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 64%
forest and woodland: 22%
other: 13%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: very limited natural fresh water resources;
desertification
natural hazards: prolonged periods of drought
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change

@Namibia:People

Population: 1,651,545 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (female 384,885; male 394,216)
15-64 years: 50% (female 414,283; male 405,938)
65 years and over: 3% (female 26,783; male 25,440) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.44% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 43.04 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.61 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.1 years
male: 59.37 years
female: 64.9 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.34 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian

Ethnic divisions: black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%
note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to
the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups include (with approximate
share of total population): Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian
4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%

Religions: 80%-90% Christian (50% Lutheran; at least 30% other
Christian denominations)

Languages: English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of
the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%,
indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1960)
total population: 38%
male: 45%
female: 31%

Labor force: 500,000
by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 19%, services
8%, government 7%, mining 6% (1981 est.)

@Namibia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia

Digraph: WA

Type: republic

Capital: Windhoek

Administrative divisions: 13 districts; Erongo, Hardap, Karas, Khomas,
Kunene, Caprivi (Liambezi), Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati,
Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa

Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)

Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Sam NUJOMA (since 21
March 1990); election last held 7-8 December 1994 (next to be held
NA); results - Sam NUJOMA elected president by popular vote
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from the National
Assembly

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature
National Council: elections last held 30 November-3 December 1992
(next to be held by December 1998); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (26 total) SWAPO 19, DTA 6, UDF 1
National Assembly: elections last held 7-8 December 1994 (next to be
held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total)
SWAPO 53, DTA 15, UDF 2, MAG 1, DCN 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: South West Africa People's Organization
(SWAPO), Sam NUJOMA; DTA of Namibia (formerly Democratic Turnhalle
Alliance) (DTA), Mishake MUYONGO; United Democratic Front (UDF),
Justus GAROEB; Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Kephics CONRUDIE;
Monitor Action Group (MAG), Kosie PRETORIUS; Workers Revolutionary
Party (WRP); Southwest African National Union (SWANU), Hitjevi VEII;
Democratic Coalition of Namibia (DCN), Moses KATJIUONGA

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU,
SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tuliameni KALOMOH
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marshall F. McCALLIE
embassy: Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St., Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 221601
FAX: [264] (61) 229792

Flag: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper
left section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower
right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is
contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders

@Namibia:Economy

Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry to
extract and process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost
25% of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals
in Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial
diamond deposits are among the richest in the world, making Namibia a
primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large
quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. More than half
the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence
agriculture) for its livelihood. Namibia must import some of its food.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $5.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,600 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 35% in urban areas (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $941 million
expenditures: $1.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $157
million (FY93/94)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle,
processed fish, karakul skins
partners: Switzerland, South Africa, Germany, Japan

Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and
equipment
partners: South Africa, Germany, US, Switzerland

External debt: about $385 million (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -14% (1993); accounts for 30% of
GDP, including mining

Electricity:
capacity: 406,000 kW
production: 1.29 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 658 kWh (1991)

Industries: meat packing, fish processing, dairy products, mining
(copper, lead, zinc, diamond, uranium)

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; livestock raising major source
of cash income; crops - millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish catch potential
of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $47.2 million

Currency: 1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: South African rand (R) per US$1 - 3.539 (January
1995), 3.5489 (1994), 3.2678 (1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7653 (1991),
2.5863 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Namibia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,341 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 2,341 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 54,500 km
paved: 4,080 km
unpaved: gravel 2,540 km; earth 47,880 km (roads and tracks)

Ports: Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 135
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 20
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 23
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 70

@Namibia:Communications

Telephone system: 62,800 telephones; telephone density - 38/1,000
persons
local: good urban services
intercity: fair rural service; microwave radio relay links major
towns; connections to other populated places are by open wire
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 40, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 3
televisions: NA

@Namibia:Defense Forces

Branches: National Defense Force (Army), Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 348,380; males fit for military
service 206,684 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $54 million, 2% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

NAURU

@Nauru:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the
Marshall Islands

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 21 sq km
land area: 21 sq km
comparative area: about one-tenth the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs
with phosphate plateau in center

Natural resources: phosphates

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage
tanks collect rainwater; phosphate mining threatens limited remaining
land resources
natural hazards: periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Marine Dumping; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the
Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

@Nauru:People

Population: 10,149 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.33% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 18.03 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.68 years
male: 64.3 years
female: 69.18 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nauruan(s)
adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic divisions: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%,
European 8%

Religions: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Languages: Nauruan (official; a distinct Pacific Island language),
English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and
commercial purposes

Literacy: NA%

Labor force:
by occupation: NA

@Nauru:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Nauru
conventional short form: Nauru
former: Pleasant Island

Digraph: NR

Type: republic

Capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare,
Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia, New Zealand, and
UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: own Acts of Parliament and British common law

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Bernard DOWIYOGO
(since 12 December 1989); election last held 19 November 1992 (next to
be held NA November 1995); results - Bernard DOWIYOGO elected by
Parliament
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from the parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held on 14 November 1992 (next to be held
NA November 1995); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (18 total)
independents 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Member of: AsDB, C (special), ESCAP, ICAO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), INTERPOL, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UPU

Diplomatic representation in US:
consulate(s): Agana (Guam)

US diplomatic representation: the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited
to Nauru

Flag: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center
and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side;
the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator
(the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes
of Nauru

@Nauru:Economy

Overview: Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves of
which are expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have
given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third
World. Few other resources exist, so most necessities must be
imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of
mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious
long-term problems. Substantial amounts of phosphate income are
invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $100 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $10,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues: $69.7 million
expenditures: $51.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1986 est.)

Exports: $93 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: phosphates
partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $73 million (c.i.f., 1984)
commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery
partners: Australia, UK, NZ, Japan

External debt: $33.3 million

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 14,000 kW
production: 30 million kWh
consumption per capita: 3,036 kWh (1993)

Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconut products

Agriculture: coconuts; other agricultural activity negligible; almost
completely dependent on imports for food and water

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries (1970-89), $2 million

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2834 (1991),
1.2799 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Nauru:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3.9 km; note - used to haul phosphates from the center of the
island to processing facilities on the southwest coast

Highways:
total: 27 km
paved: 21 km
unpaved: improved earth 6 km

Ports: Nauru

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Nauru:Communications

Telephone system: 1,600 telephones; adequate local and international
radio communications provided via Australian facilities
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 4,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Nauru:Defense Forces

Branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru Police
Force

Defense expenditures: $NA; note - no formal defense structure

________________________________________________________________________

NAVASSA ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Navassa Island:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of
the way from Haiti to Jamaica

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 5.2 sq km
land area: 5.2 sq km
comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Haiti

Climate: marine, tropical

Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating;
ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)

Natural resources: guano

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 10%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 90%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to
support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

@Navassa Island:People

Population: uninhabited; note - transient Haitian fishermen and others
camp on the island

@Navassa Island:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Navassa Island

Digraph: BQ

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Coast
Guard

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

@Navassa Island:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Navassa Island:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

@Navassa Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

NEPAL

@Nepal:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 140,800 sq km
land area: 136,800 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: total 2,926 km, China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to
subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central
hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential,
scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 13%
forest and woodland: 33%
other: 37%

Irrigated land: 9,430 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: the almost total dependence on wood for fuel and
cutting down trees to expand agricultural land without replanting has
resulted in widespread deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
(use of contaminated water presents human health risks)
natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought,
and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the
summer monsoons
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains
eight of world's 10 highest peaks

@Nepal:People

Population: 21,560,869 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (female 4,479,950; male 4,692,575)
15-64 years: 55% (female 5,778,107; male 5,994,147)
65 years and over: 2% (female 305,502; male 310,588) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.44% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 37.31 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.9 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 81.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.09 years
male: 52.86 years
female: 53.34 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.15 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepalese

Ethnic divisions: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs,
Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas

Religions: Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2% (1981)
note: only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp
distinction between many Hindu and Buddhist groups

Languages: Nepali (official), 20 languages divided into numerous
dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 26%
male: 38%
female: 13%

Labor force: 8.5 million (1991 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2%
note: severe lack of skilled labor

@Nepal:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal

Digraph: NP

Type: parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991

Capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural);
Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi,
Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Constitution: 9 November 1990

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
head of government: Prime Minister Man Mohan ADHIKARI (since 30
November 1994)
chief of state: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January
1972, crowned King 24 February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev, son of the King (born 21 June 1971)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the king on recommendation of the prime
minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
National Council: consists of a 60-member body, 50 appointed by House
of Representatives and 10 by the King
House of Representatives: elections last held on 15 November 1994
(next to be held NA); results - NCP 33%, CPN/UML 31%, NDP 18%, Terai
Rights Sadbhavana Party 3%, NWPP 1%; seats - (205 total) CPN/UML 88,
NCP 83, NDP 20, NWPP 4, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 3, independents
7; note - the new Constitution of 9 November 1990 gave Nepal a
multiparty democracy system for the first time in 32 years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist
and Leninist (CPN/UML), Prime Minister Man Mohan ADHIKARI, Deputy
Prime Minister Madhav Kumar NEPAL; Nepali Congress Party (NCP),
president Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI, former Prime Minister Girija
Prasad KOIRALA, Leader of the Opposition Sher Bahadur DEUBA; National
Democratic Party (NDP), Surya Bahadur THAPA; Terai Rights Sadbhavana
(Goodwill) Party, Gajendra Narayan SINGH; United People's Front (UPF),
Niranjan Govinda BAIDYA; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party (NWPP),
Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE; Communist Party of Nepal
(Democratic-Manandhar), B. B. MANANDHAR

Other political or pressure groups: numerous small, left-leaning
student groups in the capital; several small, radical Nepalese
antimonarchist groups

Member of: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Pradeep
KHATIWADA
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sandra L. VOGELGESANG
embassy: Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [977] (1) 411179
FAX: [977] (1) 419963

Flag: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two
overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white
stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed
sun

@Nepal:Economy

Overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in
the world. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a
livelihood for over 90% of the population and accounting for half of
GDP. Industrial activity is limited, mainly involving the processing
of agricultural produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain).
Production of textiles and carpets has expanded recently and accounted
for 85% of foreign exchange earnings in FY93/94. Apart from
agricultural land and forests, exploitable natural resources are mica,
hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural production in the late 1980s
grew by about 5%, as compared with annual population growth of 2.6%.
More than 40% of the population is undernourished. Since May 1991, the
government has been encouraging trade and foreign investment, e.g., by
eliminating business licenses and registration requirements in order
to simplify domestic and foreign investment. The government also has
been cutting public expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing
state industries, and laying off civil servants. Prospects for foreign
trade and investment in the 1990s remain poor, however, because of the
small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its
remoteness, and susceptibility to natural disaster. The international
community provides funding for 70% of Nepal's developmental budget and
for 30% of total budgetary expenditures. The government, realizing
that attempts to reverse three years of liberalization would
jeopardize this vital support, almost certainly will move ahead with
its reform program in 1995-96.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $22.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,060 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.6% (June 1994)

Unemployment rate: NA%; note - there is substantial underemployment
(1994)

Budget:
revenues: $455 million
expenditures: $854 million, including capital expenditures of $427
million (FY93/94 est.)

Exports: $593 million (f.o.b., 1993) but does not include unrecorded
border trade with India
commodities: carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
partners: India, US, Germany, UK

Imports: $899 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
partners: India, Singapore, Japan, Germany

External debt: $2 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: NA

Electricity:
capacity: 280,000 kW
production: 920 million kWh
consumption per capita: 41 kWh (1993)

Industries: small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette,
textile, carpet, cement, and brick production; tourism

Agriculture: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo
meat; not self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and
international drug markets; transit point for heroin from Southeast
Asia to the West

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $304 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-89), $2.23 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $30 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $286 million

Currency: 1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1 - 49.884 (January
1995), 49.398 (1994), 48.607 (1993), 42.742 (1992), 37.255 (1991),
29.370 (1990)

Fiscal year: 16 July - 15 July

@Nepal:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 101 km; note - all in Terai close to Indian border
narrow gauge: 101 km 0.762-m gauge

Highways:
total: 7,400 km
paved: 3,000 km
unpaved: 4,400 km

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 44
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 28
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10

@Nepal:Communications

Telephone system: 50,000 telephones (1990); poor telephone and
telegraph service; fair radio communication service
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international radio communication service is fair; 1
INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 88, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Nepal:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service,
Nepalese Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,163,703; males fit for
military service 2,682,284; males reach military age (17) annually
247,978 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $36 million, 1.2% of
GDP (FY92/93)

________________________________________________________________________

NETHERLANDS

@Netherlands:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and
Germany

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 37,330 sq km
land area: 33,920 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: total 1,027 km, Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some
hills in southeast

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, fertile soil

Land use:
arable land: 26%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 32%
forest and woodland: 9%
other: 32%

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic
compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air
pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain
natural hazards: the extensive system of dikes and dams, protects
nearly one-half of the total area from being flooded
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Desertification,
Law of the Sea

Note: located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or
Meuse, and Schelde)

@Netherlands:People

Population: 15,452,903 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 1,382,057; male 1,445,451)
15-64 years: 68% (female 5,184,224; male 5,369,018)
65 years and over: 14% (female 1,238,336; male 833,817) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.52% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.42 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.48 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.95 years
male: 74.9 years
female: 81.17 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)
adjective: Dutch

Ethnic divisions: Dutch 96%, Moroccans, Turks, and other 4% (1988)

Religions: Roman Catholic 34%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 3%, other 2%,
unaffiliated 36% (1991)

Languages: Dutch

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.)
total population: 99%

Labor force: 6.4 million (1993)
by occupation: services 71.4%, manufacturing and construction 24.6%,
agriculture 4.0% (1992)

@Netherlands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands
conventional short form: Netherlands
local long form: Koninkrijk de Nederlanden
local short form: Nederland

Digraph: NL

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien, singular -
provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen,
Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland,
Zuid-Holland

Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Constitution: 17 February 1983

Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory;
judicial review in the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order
rather than Acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER, Prince of Orange, son of Queen
Beatrix (born 27 April 1967)
head of government: Prime Minister Willem (Wim) KOK (since 22 August
1994); Vice Prime Minister Hans DIJKSTAL and Hans VAN MIERLO (since 22
August 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature (Staten Generaal)
First Chamber (Eerste Kamer): members indirectly elected by the
country's 12 provincial councils for four-year terms; elections last
held 9 June l991 (next to be held 9 June 1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (75 total) number of seats by party NA
Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer): members directly elected for four-year
terms; elections last held on 3 May 1994 (next to be held in May
1999); results - PvdA 24.3%, CDA 22.3%, VVD 20.4%, D'66 16.5%, other
16.5%; seats - (150 total) PvdA 37, CDA 34, VVD 31, D'66 24, other 24

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Hans
HELGERS; Labor (PvdA), Wim KOK; Liberal (VVD - People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy), Frits BOLKESTEIN; Democrats '66 (D'66), Hans
van MIERLO; a host of minor parties

Other political or pressure groups: large multinational firms;
Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist
and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of
Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; the nondenominational
Federation of Netherlands Enterprises; and Interchurch Peace Council
(IKV)

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS,
CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, G-10, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR,
NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR,
UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Adriaan JACOBOVITS DE SZEGED
chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kirk Terry DORNBUSH
embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ The Hague
mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, the Hague; APO AE 09715
telephone: [31] (70) 310-9209
FAX: [31] (70) 361-4688
consulate(s) general: Amsterdam

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue;
similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is
longer

@Netherlands:Economy

Overview: This highly developed and affluent economy is based on
private enterprise. The government makes its presence felt, however,
through many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare programs
affecting most aspects of economic activity. The trade and financial
services sector contributes over 50% of GDP. Industrial activity
provides about 25% of GDP and is led by the food-processing,
oil-refining, and metalworking industries. The highly mechanized
agricultural sector employs only 4% of the labor force, but provides
large surpluses for export and the domestic food-processing industry.
Indeed the Netherlands ranks third worldwide in value of agricultural
exports, behind the US and France. High unemployment and a sizable
budget deficit are currently the most serious economic problems. Many
of the economic issues of the 1990s will reflect the course of
European economic integration.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $275.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $17,940 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (December 1994)

Unemployment rate: 8.8% (December 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $109.9 billion
expenditures: $122.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: $153 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: metal products, chemicals, processed food and tobacco,
agricultural products
partners: EC 77% (Germany 27%, Belgium-Luxembourg 15%, UK 10%),
Central and Eastern Europe 10%, US 4% (1991)

Imports: $137 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: raw materials and semifinished products, consumer goods,
transportation equipment, crude oil, food products
partners: EC 64% (Germany 26%, Belgium-Luxembourg 14%, UK 8%), US 8%
(1991)

External debt: $0

Industrial production: growth rate -1.5% (1993 est.); accounts for 25%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 17,520,000 kW
production: 72.4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 5,100 kWh (1993)

Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction,
microelectronics

Agriculture: accounts for 4.6% of GDP; animal production predominates;
crops - grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; shortages
of grain, fats, and oils

Illicit drugs: important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish
entering Europe; European producer of illicit amphetamines and other
synthetic drugs

Economic aid:
donor: ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $19.4 billion

Currency: 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per US$1
- 1.7178 (January 1995), 1.8200 (1994), 1.8573 (1993), 1.7585 (1992),
1.8697 (1991), 1.8209 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Netherlands:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,757 km
standard gauge: 2,757 km km 1.435-m gauge (1,991 km electrified; 1,800
km double track) (1994)

Highways:
total: 104,831 km
paved: 92,251 km (2,118 km of expressway)
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 12,580 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of 1,000
metric ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas
10,230 km

Ports: Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Dordrecht, Eemshaven, Groningen, Haarlem,
Ijmuiden, Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Utrecht

Merchant marine:
total: 343 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,629,578 GRT/3,337,307
DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 195, chemical tanker 21, combination bulk
3, container 33, liquefied gas tanker 12, livestock carrier 1,
multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 37, railcar carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 18, roll-on/roll-off cargo 14, short-sea passenger
3, specialized tanker 2
note: many Dutch-owned ships are also registered on the Netherlands
Antilles register

Airports:
total: 29
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 8
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3

@Netherlands:Communications

Telephone system: 9,418,000 telephones; highly developed, well
maintained, and integrated; extensive redundant system of
multiconductor cables, supplemented by microwave radio relay links
local: nationwide mobile phone system
intercity: microwave radio relay
international: 5 submarine cables; 3 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 2
Atlantic Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3 (relays 3), FM 12 (repeaters 39), shortwave 0

radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 8 (repeaters 7)
televisions: NA

@Netherlands:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes
Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force,
Royal Constabulary

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,177,555; males fit for
military service 3,656,529; males reach military age (20) annually
94,771 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, 2.2% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES

(part of the Dutch realm)

@Netherlands Antilles:Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the Caribbean Sea - one
includes Curacao and Bonaire north of Venezuela and the other is east
of the Virgin Islands

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 960 sq km
land area: 960 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington,
DC
note: includes Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint
Maarten (Dutch part of the island of Saint Martin)

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 364 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 92%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane
belt, so rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are
subject to hurricanes from July to October
international agreements: party to - Whaling (extended from
Netherlands)

@Netherlands Antilles:People

Population: 203,505 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (female 25,349; male 26,577)
15-64 years: 67% (female 69,273; male 67,485)
65 years and over: 7% (female 8,599; male 6,222) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 16.23 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.26 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.94 years
male: 74.67 years
female: 79.33 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Netherlands Antillean(s)
adjective: Netherlands Antillean

Ethnic divisions: mixed African 85%, Carib Indian, European, Latin,
Oriental

Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento a
Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect predominates, English widely
spoken, Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99%

Labor force: 89,000
by occupation: government 65%, industry and commerce 28% (1983)

@Netherlands Antilles:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Netherlands Antilles
local long form: none
local short form: Nederlandse Antillen

Digraph: NT

Type: part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in internal affairs
granted in 1954

Capital: Willemstad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Dutch realm)

Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm)

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the
Netherlands, as amended

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980), represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH (since NA October
1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Miguel POURIER (since 25 February
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed with the advice and approval
of the unicameral legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral
Staten: elections last held on 25 February 1994 (next to be held March
1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (23 total) PAR
8, PNP 3, SPA 2, PDB 2, UPB 1, MAN 2, DP 1, WIPM 1, DP-St.E 1, DP-St.M
1, Nos Patria 1
note: the government of Prime Minister Miguel POURIER is a coalition
of several parties

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: political parties are indigenous to
each island
Bonaire: Patriotic Union of Bonaire (UPB), Rudy ELLIS; Democratic
Party of Bonaire (PDB), Franklin CRESTIAN
Curacao: Antillean Restructuring Party (PAR), Miguel POURIER; National
People's Party (PNP), Maria LIBERIA-PETERS; New Antilles Movement
(MAN), Domenico Felip Don MARTINA; Workers' Liberation Front (FOL),
Wilson (Papa) GODETT; Socialist Independent (SI), George HUECK and
Nelson MONTE; Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustin DIAZ; Nos
Patria, Chin BEHILIA
Saba: Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Will JOHNSON;
Saba Democratic Labor Movement, Vernon HASSELL; Saba Unity Party,
Carmen SIMMONDS
Sint Eustatius: Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius (DP-St.E), K. Van
PUTTEN; Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM); St. Eustatius
Alliance (SEA), Ralph BERKEL
Sint Maarten: Democratic Party of Sint Maarten (DP-St.M), Claude
WATHEY; Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten (SPA), Vance JAMES

Member of: CARICOM (observer), ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL,
IOC, UNESCO (associate), UPU, WMO, WTO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing part of the
Netherlands)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Consul General Bernard J. WOERZ
consulate(s) general: Saint Anna Boulevard 19, Willemstad, Curacao
mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone: [599] (9) 61-3066
FAX: [599] (9) 61-6489

Flag: white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed
on a vertical red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars
are arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the
five stars represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba,
Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

@Netherlands Antilles:Economy

Overview: Tourism and offshore finance are the mainstays of the
economy. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a
well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the
region. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with
Venezuela and the US being the major suppliers. Poor soils and
inadequate water supplies hamper the development of agriculture.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.85 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $10,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.4% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $209 million
expenditures: $232 million, including capital expenditures of $8
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $240 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: petroleum products 98%
partners: US 39%, Brazil 9%, Colombia 6%

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: crude petroleum 64%, food, manufactures
partners: Venezuela 26%, US 18%, Colombia 6%, Netherlands 6%, Japan 5%

External debt: $672 million (December 1991)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 200,000 kW
production: 810 million kWh
consumption per capita: 4,054 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum refining
(Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire),
light manufacturing (Curacao)

Agriculture: chief products - aloes, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables,
tropical fruit

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center; transshipment point for South
American cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $513 million

Currency: 1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) =
100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins
(NAf.) per US$1 - 1.79 (fixed rate since 1989; 1.80 fixed rate
1971-88)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Netherlands Antilles:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 950 km
paved: 300 km
unpaved: gravel, earth 650 km

Ports: Kralendijk, Philipsburg, Willemstad

Merchant marine:
total: 110 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,044,553 GRT/1,343,842
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 2, cargo 36, chemical tanker 6,
combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas tanker 4, multifunction
large-load carrier 20, oil tanker 2, passenger 4, refrigerated cargo
27, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7

Airports:
total: 5
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Netherlands Antilles:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; generally adequate facilities
local: NA
intercity: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
international: 2 submarine cables; 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Netherlands Antilles:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Netherlands Navy, Marine Corps, Royal Netherlands Air
Force, National Guard, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 56,058; males fit for military
service 31,558; males reach military age (20) annually 1,734 (1995
est.)

Note: defense is responsibility of the Netherlands

________________________________________________________________________

NEW CALEDONIA

(overseas territory of France)

@New Caledonia:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of
Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 19,060 sq km
land area: 18,760 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,254 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver,
gold, lead, copper

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 14%
forest and woodland: 51%
other: 35%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: typhoons most frequent from November to March
international agreements: NA

@New Caledonia:People

Population: 184,552 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (female 27,712; male 28,677)
15-64 years: 64% (female 58,462; male 60,169)
65 years and over: 5% (female 4,997; male 4,535) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.75% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 22.04 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.02 years
male: 70.73 years
female: 77.48 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.57 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: New Caledonian(s)
adjective: New Caledonian

Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%,
Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%

Languages: French, 28 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
total population: 91%
male: 92%
female: 90%

Labor force: 50,469 foreign workers for plantations and mines from
Wallis and Futuna, Vanuatu, and French Polynesia (1980 est.)
by occupation: NA

@New Caledonia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies
conventional short form: New Caledonia
local long form: Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances
local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie

Digraph: NC

Type: overseas territory of France since 1956

Capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 3 provinces named Iles Loyaute, Nord, and
Sud

Independence: none (overseas territory of France; a referendum on
independence will be held in 1998)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to
the islands; formerly under French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government: High Commissioner and President of the Council of
Government Didier CULTIAUX (since NA July 1994; appointed by the

Book of the day: