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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the
eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with
occasional severe damage

Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to
low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: typhoons (June to December)
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law
of the Sea

Note: four major island groups totaling 607 islands

@Micronesia, Federated States Of:People

Population: 122,950 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.35% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 28.12 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 36.52 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.81 years
male: 65.84 years
female: 69.81 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.98 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Micronesian(s)
adjective: Micronesian; Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

Ethnic divisions: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, other and none 3%

Languages: English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian,
Yapese, Kosrean

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 89%
male: 91%
female: 88%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: two-thirds are government employees
note: 45,000 people are between the ages of 15 and 65

@Micronesia, Federated States Of:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Federated States of Micronesia
conventional short form: none
former: Kosrae, Ponape, Truk, and Yap Districts (Trust Territory of
the Pacific Islands)

Abbreviation: FSM

Digraph: FM

Type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the
Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986

Capital: Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei)
note: a new capital is being built about 10 km southwest in the
Palikir valley

Administrative divisions: 4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk (Truk), Yap

Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN
Trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia,
10 May (1979)

Constitution: 10 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Bailey OLTER (since
21 May 1991); Vice President Jacob NENA (since 21 May 1991); election
last held 11 May 1991 (next to be held 7 March 1995); results - Bailey
OLTER elected president; Jacob NENA elected vice-president
cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral
Congress: elections last held 5 March 1991 (next to be held 7 March
1995); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (14 total) independents
14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties

Member of: AsDB, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC,
SPF, UN, UNCTAD, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jesse B. MAREHALAU
chancery: 1725 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4383
FAX: [1] (202) 223-4391
consulate(s) general: Honolulu and Tamuning (Guam)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador March Fong EU
embassy: address NA, Kolonia
mailing address: P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of
Micronesia 96941
telephone: [691] 320-2187
FAX: [691] 320-2186

Flag: light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the
stars are arranged in a diamond pattern

@Micronesia, Federated States Of:Economy

Overview: Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming
and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting,
except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry
exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate
facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from the US is the
primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1 billion in
the islands in the 1990s. Geographical isolation and a poorly
developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term growth.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $160 million (1990
est.)
note: GDP was supplemented by approximately $100 million in grant aid
in 1990

National product real growth rate: 4% (1994)

National product per capita: $1,500 (1990 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 27% (1989)

Budget:
revenues: $45 million
expenditures: $31 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Exports: $3.2 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities: fish, copra, bananas, black pepper
partners: Japan, US

Imports: $91.2 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
beverages
partners: US, Japan, Australia

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 18,000 kW
production: 40 million kWh
consumption per capita: 380 kWh (1990)

Industries: tourism, construction, fish processing, craft items from
shell, wood, and pearls

Agriculture: mainly a subsistence economy; black pepper; tropical
fruits and vegetables, coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pigs,
chickens

Economic aid:
recipient: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will
provide $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Micronesia, Federated States Of:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 226 km
paved: 39 km (on major islands)
unpaved: stone, coral, laterite 187 km

Ports: Colonia (Yap), Kolonia (Pohnpei), Lele, Moen

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 6
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Micronesia, Federated States Of:Communications

Telephone system: 960 telephones on Kolonia and Truk
local: NA
intercity: islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for
government purposes
international: 4 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 1, shortwave 1
radios: 16,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 6
televisions: 1,125 (1987 est.)

@Micronesia, Federated States Of:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

MIDWAY ISLANDS

(territory of the US)

@Midway Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third
of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 5.2 sq km
land area: 5.2 sq km
comparative area: about 9 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

note: includes Eastern Island and Sand Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

Terrain: low, nearly level

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: a coral atoll; closed to the public

@Midway Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 453 US
military personnel (July 1995 est.)

@Midway Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Midway Islands

Digraph: MQ

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy,
under Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Division; this
facility has been operationally closed since 10 September 1993 and is
currently being transferred from Pacific Fleet to Naval Facilities
Engineering Command via a Memorandum of Understanding

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the US flag is used

@Midway Islands:Economy

Overview: The economy is based on providing support services for US
naval operations located on the islands. All food and manufactured
goods must be imported.

Electricity: supplied by US Military

@Midway Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 32 km
paved: NA

Pipelines: 7.8 km

Ports: Sand Island

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Midway Islands:Communications

Telephone system:
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Midway Islands:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

MOLDOVA

@Moldova:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - European States

Area:
total area: 33,700 sq km
land area: 33,700 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii

Land boundaries: total 1,389 km, Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine -
including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by
Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was
incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

Climate: moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 50%
permanent crops: 13%
meadows and pastures: 9%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 28%

Irrigated land: 2,920 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned
pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater;
extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change

Note: landlocked

@Moldova:People

Population: 4,489,657 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (female 588,155; male 609,372)
15-64 years: 64% (female 1,487,170; male 1,386,293)
65 years and over: 9% (female 258,958; male 159,709) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.93 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.05 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.22 years
male: 64.81 years
female: 71.8 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic divisions: Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian
13%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 figures)

note: internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the
Dniester region and Gagauz Turks in the south

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about
1,000 members) (1991)
note: the large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian

Languages: Moldovan (official; virtually the same as the Romanian
language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 96%
male: 99%
female: 94%

Labor force: 2.03 million (January 1994)
by occupation: agriculture 34.4%, industry 20.1%, other 45.5% (1985
figures)

@Moldova:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: none
former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Digraph: MD

Type: republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: previously divided into 40 rayons; new
districts possible under new constitution in 1994

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: new constitution adopted NA July 1994; replaces old
Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but
accepts many UN and OSCE documents

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mircea SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990);
election last held 8 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results
- Mircea SNEGUR ran unopposed and won 98.17% of vote; note - President
SNEGUR was named executive president by the Supreme Soviet on 3
September 1990 and was confirmed by popular election on 8 December
1991
head of government: Prime Minister Andrei SANGHELI (since 1 July 1992;
reappointed 5 April 1994 after elections for new legislature); First
Deputy Prime Minister Ion GUTU (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on
recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA
1999); results - percent by party NA; seats - (104 total)
Agrarian-Democratic Party 56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants
and Intellectual Bloc 11, Christian Democratic Popular Front 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Popular Front
(formerly Moldovan Popular Front), Iurie ROSCA, chairman; Yedinstvo
Intermovement, Vladimir SOLONARI, chairman; Social Democratic Party,
Oazu NANTOI, chairman, two other chairmen; Agrarian-Democratic Party,
Dumitru MOTPAN, chairman; Democratic Party, Gheorghe GHIMPU, chairman;
Democratic Labor Party, Alexandru ARSENI, chairman; Reform Party,
Anatol SELARU; Republican Party, Victor PUSCAS; Socialist Party,
Valeriu SENIC, cochairman; Communist Party, Vladimir VORONIN,
cochairman; Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc

Other political or pressure groups: United Council of Labor
Collectives (UCLC), Igor SMIRNOV, chairman; Congress of Intellectuals,
Alexandru MOSANU; The Ecology Movement of Moldova (EMM), G. MALARCHUK,
chairman; The Christian Democratic League of Women of Moldova (CDLWM),
L. LARI, chairman; National Christian Party of Moldova (NCPM), D.
TODIKE, M. BARAGA, V. NIKU, leaders; The Peoples Movement Gagauz
Khalky (GKh), S. GULGAR, leader; The Democratic Party of Gagauzia
(DPG), G. SAVOSTIN, chairman; The Alliance of Working People of
Moldova (AWPM), G. POLOGOV, president; Christian Alliance for Greater
Romania; Stefan the Great Movement; Liberal Convention of Moldova;
Association of Victims of Repression; Christian Democratic Youth
League

Member of: BSEC, CE (guest), CIS, EBRD, ECE, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae TAU
chancery: Suites 329, 333, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 783-3012
FAX: [1] (202) 783-3342

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary C. PENDLETON
embassy: Strada Alexei Mateevich #103, Chisinau
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72
FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44

Flag: same color scheme as Romania - 3 equal vertical bands of blue
(hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman
eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a
yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons
and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield
divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star,
rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

@Moldova:Economy

Overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has
no major mineral deposits. As a result, Moldova's economy is primarily
based on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco.
Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas,
and energy shortages have contributed to sharp production declines
since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Moldovan government
is making steady progress on an ambitious economic reform agenda, and
the IMF has called Moldova a model for the region. As part of its
reform efforts, Chisinau has introduced a stable currency, freed all
prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises and
backed their steady privatization, removed export controls, and freed
interest rates. Chisinau appears strongly committed to continuing
these reforms in 1995. Meanwhile, privatization of medium and large
enterprises got underway in mid-1994 and is expected to pick up speed
in 1995. To improve its precarious energy situation, Chisinau reached
an agreement with Moscow in December 1994 on gas deliveries for 1995.
Gazprom, Russia's national gas company, has agreed to reduce prices
for natural gas deliveries to Moldova from the world market price of
$80/thousand cubic meters (tcm) to $58/tcm in return for part
ownership of the Moldovan pipeline system.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $11.9 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -30% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $2,670 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.6% per month (1994)

Unemployment rate: 1% (includes only officially registered unemployed;
large numbers of underemployed workers)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
note: budget deficit for 1993 approximately 6% of GDP

Exports: $144 million to outside the FSU countries (1994); over 70% of
exports go to FSU countries
commodities: foodstuffs, wine, tobacco, textiles and footwear,
machinery, chemicals (1991)
partners: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Romania, Germany

Imports: $174 million from outside the FSU countries (1994); over 70%
of imports are from FSU countries
commodities: oil, gas, coal, steel, machinery, foodstuffs,
automobiles, and other consumer durables
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Romania, Germany

External debt: $300 million (as of 11 December 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate -30% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 3,000,000 kW
production: 8.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,830 kWh (1994)

Industries: key products are canned food, agricultural machinery,
foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines,
hosiery, refined sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles

Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP; Moldova's principal
economic activity; products are vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar
beets, sunflower seed, meat, milk, tobacco

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly
for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western
Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: joint EC-US loan (1993), $127 million; IMF STF credit
(1993), $64 million; IMF stand-by loan (1993), $72 million; US
commitments (1992-93), $61 million in humanitarian aid, $11 million in
technical assistance; World Bank loan (1993), $60 million; Russia
(1993), 50 billion ruble credit; Romania (1993), 20 billion lei credit

Currency: the leu (plural lei) was introduced in late 1993

Exchange rates: lei per US$1 - 4.277 (22 December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Moldova:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,150 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 1,150 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 20,000 km
paved or graveled: 13,900 km
unpaved: earth 6,100 km (1990)

Pipelines: natural gas 310 km (1992)

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 26
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 8

@Moldova:Communications

Telephone system: 577,000 telephones; 134 telephones/1,000 persons;
telecommunication system not well developed; 215,000 unsatisfied
requests for telephone service (1991)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: international connections to the other former Soviet
republics by land line and microwave radio relay through Ukraine, and
to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international
gateway switch; 1 EUTELSAT and 1 INTELSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Moldova:Defense Forces

Branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic Security
Forces (internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,116,912; males fit for
military service 881,642; males reach military age (18) annually
35,447 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, 2% of GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

MONACO

@Monaco:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, on the
southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 1.9 sq km
land area: 1.9 sq km
comparative area: about three times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total 4.4 km, France 4.4 km

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Law of
the Sea

Note: second smallest independent state in world (after Holy See);
almost entirely urban

@Monaco:People

Population: 31,515 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (female 2,691; male 2,740)
15-64 years: 63% (female 10,233; male 9,645)
65 years and over: 20% (female 3,939; male 2,267) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 10.66 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.12 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.9 years
male: 74.18 years
female: 81.8 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s)
adjective: Monacan or Monegasque

Ethnic divisions: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

@Monaco:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco

Digraph: MN

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier);
Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419 (rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 25 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since NA November 1949); Heir
Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958)
head of government: Minister of State Paul DIJOUD (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Government; under the authority of the Prince

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Council (Conseil National): elections last held 24 and 31
January 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (18 total) Campora List 15, Medecin List 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union (UND);
Campora List, Anne-Marie CAMPORA; Medecin List, Jean-Louis MEDECIN

Member of: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in US:
honorary consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
honorary consulate(s): Dallas, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and
Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation: no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul
General in Marseille, France, is accredited to Monaco

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to
the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is
white (top) and red

@Monaco:Economy

Overview: Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a
popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant
climate. The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into
services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The
state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax
haven both for individuals who have established residence and for
foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. About 50%
of Monaco's annual revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels,
banks, and the industrial sector; about 25% of revenue comes from
tourism. Living standards are high, that is, roughly comparable to
those in prosperous French metropolitan suburbs.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $558 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $18,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NEGL%

Budget:
revenues: $424 million
expenditures: $376 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1991 est.)

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EU market system
through customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EU market system
through customs union with France

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 10,000 kW standby; power imported from France
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Agriculture: none

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.9243 (January 1995),
5.520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Monaco:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1.7 km
standard gauge: 1.7 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways: none; city streets

Ports: Monaco

Merchant marine: none

Airports: linked to airport in Nice, France, by helicopter service

@Monaco:Communications

Telephone system: 38,200 telephones; automatic telephone system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: no satellite links; served by cable into the French
communications system

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 5
televisions: NA

@Monaco:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

MONGOLIA

@Mongolia:Geography

Location: Northern Asia, north of China

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 1.565 million sq km
land area: 1.565 million sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total 8,114 km, China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature
ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and
southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten,
phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 79%
forest and woodland: 10%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 770 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the
former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial
growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the
environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of
factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air;
deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to
agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and
rain; desertification
natural hazards: duststorms can occur in the spring
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified
- Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

@Mongolia:People

Population: 2,493,615 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (female 495,919; male 511,464)
15-64 years: 56% (female 693,037; male 693,776)
65 years and over: 4% (female 54,991; male 44,428) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 32.65 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.82 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.54 years
male: 64.28 years
female: 68.92 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.26 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic divisions: Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other
2%

Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note: previously limited religious activity because of Communist
regime

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural
note: over half the adult population is in the labor force, including
a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor

@Mongolia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia

Digraph: MG

Type: republic

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and
3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor,
Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan,
Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay,
Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: adopted 13 January 1992

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law;
no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September
1990); election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997);
results - Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) elected directly with
57.8% of the vote; other candidate Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP)
head of government: Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August
1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Lhamsuren ENEBISH and Choijilsurengiyn
PUREVDORJ (since NA)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the Great Hural

Legislative branch: unicameral
State Great Hural: elections held for the first time 28 June 1992
(next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(76 total) MPRP 71, United Party of Mongolia 4, MSDP 1
note: the People's Small Hural no longer exists

Judicial branch: Supreme Court serves as appeals court for people's
and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower
courts

Political parties and leaders: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
(MPRP), Budragchagiin DASH-YONDON, secretary general; Mongolian
National Democratic Party (MNDP), D. GANBOLD, chairman; Mongolian
Social Democratic Party (MSDP), B. BATBAYAR, chairman; United Party of
Mongolia, leader NA
note: opposition parties were legalized in May 1990

Member of: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luvsandorj DAWAAGIW
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
embassy: address NA, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big
Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [976] (1) 329095, 329606
FAX: [976] (1) 320776

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red,
centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem
("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric
representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang
symbol)

@Mongolia:Economy

Overview: Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide
expanses of unproductive land have constrained economic development.
Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the
breeding of livestock. In past years extensive mineral resources had
been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its
height amounted to 30% of GDP. The mining and processing of coal,
copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part
of industrial production. Timber and fishing are also important
sectors. The Mongolian leadership has been gradually making the
transition from Soviet-style central planning to a market economy
through privatization and price reform, and is soliciting support from
international financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy,
however, has still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid, and the
country continues to suffer substantial economic hardships, with
one-fourth of the population below the poverty line.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,800 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)
note: deficit of $67 million

Exports: $360 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool,
hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
partners: former CMEA countries 62%, China 17%, EC 8% (1992)

Imports: $361 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial
consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners: USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5% (1991)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate -15% (1992 est.); accounts for
about 42% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 900,000 kW
production: 3.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,267 kWh (1993)

Industries: copper, processing of animal products, building materials,
food and beverage, mining (particularly coal)

Agriculture: accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides livelihood for
about 50% of the population; livestock raising predominates (primarily
sheep and goats, but also cattle, camels, and horses); crops - wheat,
barley, potatoes, forage

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 415.34 (January 1995),
412.72 (1994), 42.56 (1992), 9.52 (1991), 5.63 (1990)
note: the exchange rate 40 tughriks = 1US$ was introduced June 1991
and was in force to the end of 1992; beginning 27 May 1993 the
exchange rate is the midpoint of the average buying and selling rates
that are freely determined on the basis of market transactions between
commercial banks and the nonbank public

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mongolia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,750 km
broad gauge: 1,750 km 1.524-m gauge (1988)

Highways:
total: 46,700 km
paved: 1,000 km
unpaved: 45,700 km (1988)

Inland waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 34
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 10
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 5

@Mongolia:Communications

Telephone system: 63,000 telephones (1989)
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: at least 1 satellite earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: 220,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 1 (provincial repeaters - 18)
televisions: 120,000

@Mongolia:Defense Forces

Branches: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces
and Frontier Guards), Air Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 605,633; males fit for military
service 394,433; males reach military age (18) annually 25,862 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million, 1% of
GDP (1992)

________________________________________________________________________

MONTSERRAT

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Montserrat:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto
Rico

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 100 sq km
land area: 100 sq km
comparative area: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal
lowland

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 10%
forest and woodland: 40%
other: 30%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared
for cultivation
natural hazards: severe hurricanes (June to November); volcanic
eruptions (there are seven active volcanoes on the island)
international agreements: NA

@Montserrat:People

Population: 12,738 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.3% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.5 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.81 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.69 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.69 years
male: 73.93 years
female: 77.49 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Montserratian(s)
adjective: Montserratian

Ethnic divisions: black, Europeans

Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal,
Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970)
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97%

Labor force: 5,100
by occupation: community, social, and personal services 40.5%,
construction 13.5%, trade, restaurants, and hotels 12.3%,
manufacturing 10.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%, other
14.4% (1983 est.)

@Montserrat:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montserrat

Digraph: MH

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Plymouth

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges,
Saint Peter's

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday of June)

Constitution: present constitution came into force 19 December 1989

Legal system: English common law and statute law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Frank SAVAGE (since NA February 1993)
head of government: Chief Minister Reuben T. MEADE (since NA October
1991)
cabinet: Executive Council; consists of the governor, the chief
minister, three other ministries, the attorney-general, and the
finance secretary

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Council: elections last held 8 October 1991; results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) NPP 4, NDP
1, PLM 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party (NPP) Reuben
T. MEADE; People's Liberation Movement (PLM), Noel TUITT; National
Development Party (NDP), Bertrand OSBORNE

Member of: CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC (associate), ICFTU, INTERPOL
(subbureau), OECS, WCL

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp
with her arm around a black cross

@Montserrat:Economy

Overview: The economy is small and open with economic activity
centered on tourism and construction. Tourism is the most important
sector and accounts for roughly one-fifth of GDP. Agriculture accounts
for about 4% of GDP and industry 10%. The economy is heavily dependent
on imports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.
Exports consist mainly of electronic parts sold to the US.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $55.6 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 1% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $4,380 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1992)

Unemployment rate: NA

Budget:
revenues: $12.1 million
expenditures: $14.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.2
million (1988 est.)

Exports: $2.8 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: electronic parts, plastic bags, apparel, hot peppers,
live plants, cattle
partners: NA

Imports: $80.6 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs,
manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
partners: NA

External debt: $2.05 million (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (1986); accounts for 10% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 5,271 kW
production: 17 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,106 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism; light manufacturing - rum, textiles, electronic
appliances

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; small-scale farming; food crops -
tomatoes, onions, peppers; not self-sufficient in food, especially
livestock products

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $90 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Montserrat:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 280 km
paved: 200 km
unpaved: gravel, earth 80 km

Ports: Plymouth

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Montserrat:Communications

Telephone system: 3,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Montserrat:Defense Forces

Branches: Police Force

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

MOROCCO

@Morocco:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 446,550 sq km
land area: 446,300 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total 2,002 km, Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443
km

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims and administers Western Sahara, but
sovereignty is unresolved; the UN is attempting to hold a referendum;
the UN-administered cease-fire has been currently in effect since
September 1991; Spain controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de
soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of
Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests as well as the islands of
Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas
of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish,
salt

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 28%
forest and woodland: 12%
other: 41%

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: land degradation/desertification (soil erosion
resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of
vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of
reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
natural hazards: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject
to earthquakes; periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

Note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

@Morocco:People

Population: 29,168,848 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (female 5,486,176; male 5,659,410)
15-64 years: 58% (female 8,456,525; male 8,327,560)
65 years and over: 4% (female 641,236; male 597,941) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.09% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 27.93 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.97 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 45.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.98 years
male: 67.03 years
female: 71.02 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.69 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Moroccan(s)
adjective: Moroccan

Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Languages: Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the
language of business, government, and diplomacy

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 50%
male: 61%
female: 38%

Labor force: 7.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 50%, services 26%, industry 15%, other 9%
(1985)

@Morocco:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco
conventional short form: Morocco
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah
local short form: Al Maghrib

Digraph: MO

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 36 provinces and 5 wilayas*; Agadir, Al
Hoceima, Assa-Zag, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane,
Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Er Rachidia,
Essaouira, Es Smara, Fes*, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra,
Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech*,
Meknes*, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi
Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan,
Tiznit

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 3 March (1961) (anniversary of King
Hassan II's accession to the throne)

Constitution: 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber
of Supreme Court

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdellatif FILALI (since 29 May
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the King

Legislative branch: unicameral
Chamber of Representatives (Majlis Nawab): two-thirds elected by
direct, universal suffrage and one-third by an electoral college of
government, professional, and labor representatives; direct, popular
elections last held 15 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats (333 total, 222 directly elected)
USFP 48, IP 43, MP 33, RNI 28, UC 27, PND 14, MNP 14, PPS 6, PDI 3,
SAP 2, PA 2, OADP 2; indirect, special interest elections last held 17
September 1993 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (333 total, 111 indirectly elected) UC 27, MP 18,
RNI 13, MNP 11, PND 10, IP 7, Party of Shura and Istiqlal 6, USFP 4,
PPS 4, CDT 4, UTM 3, UGTM 2, SAP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
opposition: Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP), Mohammad
al-YAZGHI; Istiqlal Party (IP), M'Hamed BOUCETTA; Party of Progress
and Socialism (PPS), Ali YATA; Organization of Democratic and Popular
Action (OADP), leader NA
pro-government: Constitutional Union (UC), Maati BOUABID; Popular
Movement (MP), Mohamed LAENSER; National Democratic Party (PND),
Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI; National Popular Movement (MNP), Mahjoubi
AHARDANE
independents: National Rally of Independents (RNI), Ahmed OSMAN;
Democracy and Istiqlal Party (PDI), leader NA; Action Party (PA),
Abdullah SENHAJI; Non-Obedience Candidates (SAP), leader NA
labor unions and community organizations (indirect elections) only):
Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT), Nabir AMAOUI; General Union
of Moroccan Workers (UGTM), Abderrazzak AFILAL; Moroccan Union of
Workers (UTM), leader NA; Party of Shura and Istiqlal, leader NA

Member of: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC,
EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed BENAISSA
chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982
FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marc C. GINSBERG
embassy: 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
mailing address: PSC 74, Box 003, APO AE 09718
telephone: [212] (7) 76 22 65
FAX: [212] (7) 76 56 61
consulate(s) general: Casablanca

Flag: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as
Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional
color of Islam

@Morocco:Economy

Overview: Morocco faces the typical problems of developing countries -
restraining government spending, reducing constraints on private
activity and foreign trade, and keeping inflation within bounds. Since
the early 1980s the government has pursued an economic program toward
these objectives with the support of the IMF, the World Bank, and the
Paris Club of creditors. The economy has substantial assets to draw
on: the world's largest phosphate reserves, diverse agricultural and
fishing resources, a sizable tourist industry, a growing manufacturing
sector, and remittances from Moroccans working abroad. A severe
drought in 1992-93 depressed economic activity and held down exports.
Real GDP contracted by 4.4% in 1992 and 1.1% in 1993. Despite these
setbacks, initiatives to relax capital controls, strengthen the
banking sector, and privatize state enterprises went forward in
1993-94. Favorable rainfall in 1994 boosted agricultural production by
40%. Servicing the large debt, high unemployment, and vulnerability to
external economic forces remain long-term problems for Morocco.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $87.5 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,060 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $8.1 billion
expenditures: $8.9 billion (1994 est.)

Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: food and beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer
goods 21%, phosphates 17%
partners: EU 70%, Japan 5%, US 4%, Libya 3%, India 2% (1993)

Imports: $7.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: capital goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials
16%, fuel and lubricants 16%, food and beverages 13%, consumer goods
9%
partners: EC 59%, US 8%, Saudi Arabia 5%, UAE 3%, Russia 2% (1993)

External debt: $20.5 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.1% accounts for 28% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 2,620,000 kW
production: 9.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 361 kWh (1993)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing,
leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP, 50% of employment, and 30% of
export value; not self-sufficient in food; cereal farming and
livestock raising predominate; barley, wheat, citrus fruit, wine,
vegetables, olives

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the
increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments
of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for
cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.3 billion; US
commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $123.6 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $7.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4.8 billion; Communist countries
(1970-89), $2.5 billion
note: $2.8 billion debt canceled by Saudi Arabia (1991); IMF standby
agreement worth $13 million; World Bank, $450 million (1991)

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 2.892 (January 1995),
9.203 (1994), 9.299 (1993), 8.538 (1992), 8.707 (1991), 8.242 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Morocco:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,893 km
standard gauge: 1,893 km 1.435-m gauge (974 km electrified; 246 km
double track)

Highways:
total: 59,474 km
paved: 29,440 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, improved earth, unimproved earth
30,034 km

Pipelines: crude oil 362 km; petroleum products (abandoned) 491 km;
natural gas 241 km

Ports: Agadir, Al Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra,
Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta
and Melilla

Merchant marine:
total: 38 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 183,951 GRT/273,057 DWT
ships by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 9, container 2, oil tanker 4,
refrigerated cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1

Airports:
total: 74
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 11
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 3
with paved runways under 914 m: 13
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 10
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 24

@Morocco:Communications

Telephone system: 280,000 telephones; 10.5 telephones/1,000 persons
local: NA
intercity: good system composed of wire lines, cables, and microwave
radio relay links; principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat;
secondary centers are Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan
international: 5 submarine cables; 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) and 1
ARABSAT earth station; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and
Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria;
microwave radio relay network linking Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya,
Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 26 (repeaters 26)
televisions: NA

@Morocco:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air
Force, Royal Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,307,076; males fit for
military service 4,637,453; males reach military age (18) annually
323,921 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, 3.8% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

MOZAMBIQUE

@Mozambique:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between
South Africa and Tanzania

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 801,590 sq km
land area: 784,090 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total 4,571 km, Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km,
Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in
northwest, mountains in west

Natural resources: coal, titanium

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 56%
forest and woodland: 20%
other: 20%

Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: civil strife and recurrent drought in the hinterlands
have resulted in increased migration to urban and coastal areas with
adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of
surface and coastal waters
natural hazards: severe droughts and floods occur in central and
southern provinces; devastating cyclones
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer
Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Law of the Sea

@Mozambique:People

Population: 18,115,250 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (female 4,069,117; male 4,078,429)
15-64 years: 53% (female 4,882,292; male 4,630,193)
65 years and over: 2% (female 260,057; male 195,162) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.87% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 44.6 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 15.94 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: by the end of 1994, an estimated 1.6 million Mozambican
refugees, who fled to Malawi, Zimbabwa, and South Africa in earlier
years from the civil war, had returned; an estimated 100,000 refugees
remain to be repatriated from those countries

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.95 years
male: 47.04 years
female: 50.92 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.19 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic divisions: indigenous tribal groups, Europeans about 10,000,
Euro-Africans 35,000, Indians 15,000

Religions: indigenous beliefs 60%, Christian 30%, Muslim 10%

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