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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Legislative branch: bicameral Tynwald
Legislative Council: consists of a 10-member body composed of the Lord
Bishop of Sodor and Man, a nonvoting attorney general, and 8 others
named by the House of Keys
House of Keys: elections last held NA 1991 (next to be held NA 1996);
results - percent of vote NA; seats - (24 total) independents 24

Judicial branch: Court of Tynwald

Political parties and leaders: there is no party system and members
sit as independents

Member of: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (British crown dependency)

US diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the
center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee;
in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the
flag, a two-sided emblem is used

@Man, Isle Of:Economy

Overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors
of the economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to
high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the
island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in
high-income industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the
mainstays of the economy, have declined in their shares of GDP.
Banking now contributes about 45% to GDP. Trade is mostly with the UK.
The Isle of Man enjoys free access to European Union markets.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $780 million (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $10,800 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $130.4 million
expenditures: $114.4 million, including capital expenditures of $18.1
million (1985 est.)

Exports: $NA
commodities: tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, beef, lamb
partners: UK

Imports: $NA
commodities: timber, fertilizers, fish
partners: UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 61,000 kW
production: 190 million kWh
consumption per capita: 2,965 kWh (1992)

Industries: financial services, light manufacturing, tourism

Agriculture: cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Manx pound (#M) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Manx pounds (#M) per US$1 - 0.6350 (January 1995),
0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990); the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Man, Isle Of:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 60 km (36 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 640 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Castletown, Douglas, Peel, Ramsey

Merchant marine:
total: 68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,810,355 GRT/3,183,773
DWT
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 10, chemical tanker 4, container 9,
liquefied gas tanker 8, oil tanker 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9,
vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; UK owns 9 ships, Switzerland 2,
Denmark 1, Netherlands 1

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

@Man, Isle Of:Communications

Telephone system: 24,435 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 4
televisions: NA

@Man, Isle Of:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

MARSHALL ISLANDS

@Marshall Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific
Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 181.3 sq km
land area: 181.3 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC
note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Eniwetak, and Kwajalein

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims US territory of Wake Island

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border
typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed
minerals

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 60%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water
natural hazards: occasional typhoons
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law
of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

Note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands;
Bikini and Eniwetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the
famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test
range

@Marshall Islands:People

Population: 56,157 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 51% (female 13,950; male 14,547)
15-64 years: 47% (female 12,801; male 13,470)
65 years and over: 2% (female 740; male 649) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.86% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 46.03 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.48 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.49 years
male: 61.94 years
female: 65.11 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.89 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)
adjective: Marshallese

Ethnic divisions: Micronesian

Religions: Christian (mostly Protestant)

Languages: English (universally spoken and is the official language),
two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family,
Japanese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 93%
male: 100%
female: 88%

Labor force: 4,800 (1986)
by occupation: NA

@Marshall Islands:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands
conventional short form: Marshall Islands
former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands)

Digraph: RM

Type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the
Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

Capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall
Islands, 1 May (1979)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Amata KABUA (since
1979); election last held 6 January 1992 (next to be held NA); results
- President Amata KABUA was reelected
cabinet: Cabinet; president selects from the parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament (Nitijela): elections last held 18 November 1991 (next to
be held November 1995); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (33
total) independents 33

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties; President KABUA is
chief political (and traditional) leader

Member of: AsDB, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wilfred I. KENDALL
chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236
consulate(s) general: Honolulu and Los Angeles

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador David C. FIELDS
embassy: address NA, Majuro
mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall
Islands 96960-1379
telephone: [692] 247-4011
FAX: [692] 247-4012

Flag: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner
- orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays
and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

@Marshall Islands:Economy

Overview: Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy.
Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most
important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and
breadfruit. A few cattle ranches supply the domestic meat market.
Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and
copra. The tourist industry is the primary source of foreign exchange
and employs about 10% of the labor force. The islands have few natural
resources, and imports far exceed exports. The US Government provides
about 70% of the budget.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $75 million (1992
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6% (1992)

National product per capita: $1,500 (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $106 million
expenditures: $128.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993)

Exports: $3.9 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: coconut oil, fish, live animals, trichus shells
partners: US, Japan, Australia

Imports: $62.9 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, beverages and
tobacco, fuels
partners: US, Japan, Australia

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 42,000 kW
production: 80 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,840 kWh (1990)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and
pearls; offshore banking (embryonic)

Agriculture: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, pigs, chickens

Economic aid:
recipient: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US
is to provide approximately $40 million in aid annually

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Marshall Islands:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
note: paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise
stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Ports: Majuro

Merchant marine:
total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,205,275 GRT/4,263,247
DWT
ships by type: bulk carrier 23, cargo 1, combination ore/oil 1, oil
tanker 12

Airports:
total: 16
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6

@Marshall Islands:Communications

Telephone system: 570 telephones (Majuro) and 186 telephones (Ebeye);
telex services
local: NA
intercity: islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for
government purposes)
international: 2 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth stations; US
Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Marshall Islands:Defense Forces

Branches: no regular military forces; Police

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

MARTINIQUE

(overseas department of France)

@Martinique:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad
and Tobago

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 1,100 sq km
land area: 1,060 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than six times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 290 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to
October)

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 8%
meadows and pastures: 30%
forest and woodland: 26%
other: 26%

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity (an
average of one major natural disaster every five years)
international agreements: NA

@Martinique:People

Population: 394,787 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (female 44,960; male 46,512)
15-64 years: 67% (female 134,439; male 130,642)
65 years and over: 10% (female 22,058; male 16,176) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 16.92 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.82 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.67 years
male: 75.94 years
female: 81.53 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Martiniquais (singular and plural)
adjective: Martiniquais

Ethnic divisions: African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture 90%,
Caucasian 5%, East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%

Languages: French, Creole patois

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 93%
male: 92%
female: 93%

Labor force: 100,000
by occupation: service industry 31.7%, construction and public works
29.4%, agriculture 13.1%, industry 7.3%, fisheries 2.2%, other 16.3%

@Martinique:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Department of Martinique
conventional short form: Martinique
local long form: Departement de la Martinique
local short form: Martinique

Digraph: MB

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government: Prefect Michel MORIN (since NA); President of the
General Council Claude LISE (since 22 March 1992); President of the
Regional Council Emile CAPGRAS (since 22 March 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral
Regional Assembly
General Council: elections last held 25 September and 8 October 1988
(next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(44 total) number of seats by party NA; note - a leftist coalition
obtained a one-seat margin
Regional Assembly: elections last held on 22 March 1992 (next to be
held by March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(41 total) RPR-UDF 16, MIM 9, PPM 9, PCM 5, independents 2
French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) UDF 1,
PPM 1
French National Assembly: elections last held NA June 1993 (next to be
held NA June 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (4
total) RPR 3, FSM 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Stephen
BAGOE; Union for a Martinique of Progress (UMP); Martinique
Progressive Party (PPM), Aime CESAIRE; Socialist Federation of
Martinique (FSM), Michel YOYO; Martinique Communist Party (PCM);
Martinique Patriots (PM); Union for French Democracy (UDF), Jean
MARAN; Martinique Independence Movement (MIM), Alfred MARIE-JEANNE;
Republican Party (PR), Jean BAILLY

Other political or pressure groups: Proletarian Action Group (GAP);
Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution Group (GRS); Caribbean
Revolutionary Alliance (ARC); Central Union for Martinique Workers
(CSTM), Marc PULVAR; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and
Peasants; Parti Martiniquais Socialiste (PMS); Association for the
Protection of Martinique's Heritage (ecologist)

Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of France)

US diplomatic representation: the post closed in August 1993 (overseas
department of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used

@Martinique:Economy

Overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and
light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 10% of GDP and the
small industrial sector for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with
most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana
exports are increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat,
vegetable, and grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a
chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from
France. Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as
a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is
employed in the service sector and in administration. Banana workers
launched protests late in 1992 because of falling banana prices and
fears of greater competition in the European market from other
producers.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.9 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $10,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 32.1% (1990)

Budget:
revenues: $610 million
expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1991)

Exports: $247 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples
partners: France 57%, Guadeloupe 31%, French Guiana (1991)

Imports: $1.75 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: petroleum products, crude oil, foodstuffs, construction
materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods
partners: France 62%, UK, Italy, Germany, Japan, US (1991)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 113,100 kW
production: 700 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,677 kWh (1993)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 10% of
GDP; principal crops - pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers,
vegetables, sugarcane for rum; dependent on imported food,
particularly meat and vegetables

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $10.1 billion

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.2943 (January 1995),
5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Martinique:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,680 km
paved: 1,300 km
unpaved: gravel, earth 380 km

Ports: Fort-de-France, La Trinite

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Martinique:Communications

Telephone system: 68,900 telephones; domestic facilities are adequate
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: interisland microwave radio relay links to Guadeloupe,
Dominica, and Saint Lucia; 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 10
televisions: NA

@Martinique:Defense Forces

Branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

MAURITANIA

@Mauritania:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Senegal and Western Sahara

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1,030,700 sq km
land area: 1,030,400 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries: total 5,074 km, Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km,
Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundary with Senegal in dispute

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 38%
forest and woodland: 5%
other: 56%

Irrigated land: 120 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion
aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; very
limited natural fresh water resources away from the Senegal which is
the only perennial river
natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows
primarily in March and April; periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: most of the population concentrated along the Senegal River in
the southern part of the country

@Mauritania:People

Population: 2,263,202 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 544,674; male 551,099)
15-64 years: 49% (female 574,282; male 542,762)
65 years and over: 3% (female 28,955; male 21,430) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.17% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 47.32 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 15.66 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 83.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.54 years
male: 45.66 years
female: 51.54 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.92 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mauritanian(s)
adjective: Mauritanian

Ethnic divisions: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof
(official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1988)
total population: 35%
male: 46%
female: 25%

Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980)
by occupation: agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce
14%, government 10%

@Mauritania:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritania
conventional short form: Mauritania
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form: Muritaniyah

Digraph: MR

Type: republic

Capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular - region);
Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech
Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
note: there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Constitution: 12 July 1991

Legal system: three-tier system: Islamic (Shari'a) courts, special
courts, state security courts (in the process of being eliminated)

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Col. Maaouya Ould
Sid'Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984); election last held NA January
1992 (next to be held NA January 1998); results - President Col.
Maaouya Ould Sid 'Ahmed TAYA elected
cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature
Senate (Majlis al-Shuyukh): elections last held 15 April 1994 (nex to
be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats (56
total, with 17 up for election every two years) PRDS 16, UFD/NE 1
National Assembly (Majlis al-Watani): elections last held 6 and 13
March 1992 (next to be held NA March 1997); results - percent of vote
by party NA; seats - (79 total) UFD/NE 67, PMR 1, RDU 1, independents
10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: legalized by constitution passed 12
July 1991, however, politics continue to be tribally based; emerging
parties include Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS), led by
President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA; Union of Democratic
Forces-New Era (UFD/NE), headed by Ahmed Ould DADDAH; Assembly for
Democracy and Unity (RDU), Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA; Popular Social and
Democratic Union (UPSD), Mohamed Mahmoud Ould MAH; Mauritanian Party
for Renewal (PMR), Hameida BOUCHRAYA; National Avant-Garde Party
(PAN), Khattry Ould JIDDOU; Mauritanian Party of the Democratic Center
(PCDM), Bamba Ould SIDI BADI

Other political or pressure groups: Mauritanian Workers Union (UTM)

Member of: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU,
CAEU, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ismail Ould IYAHI (since 22 September
1994)
chancery: 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5700

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dorothy Myers SAMPAS
embassy: address NA, Nouakchott
mailing address: B. P. 222, Nouakchott
telephone: [222] (2) 526-60, 526-63
FAX: [222] (2) 515-92

Flag: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal
crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star,
and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

@Mauritania:Economy

Overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture
and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and
many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent
droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of
iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. The decline
in world demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in
production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing
areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this
key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near
Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, drought and economic
mismanagement have resulted in a substantial buildup of foreign debt.
The government has begun the second stage of an economic reform
program in consultation with the World Bank, the IMF, and major donor
countries. Short-term growth prospects are gloomy because of the heavy
debt service burden, rapid population growth, and vulnerability to
climatic conditions.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $2.4 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $1,110 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $280 million
expenditures: $346 million, including capital expenditures of $61
million (1989 est.)

Exports: $401 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: iron ore, fish and fish products
partners: Japan 27%, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

Imports: $378 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital
goods
partners: Algeria 15%, China 6%, US 3%, France, Germany, Spain, Italy

External debt: $1.9 billion (1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for almost 30% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 110,000 kW
production: 135 million kWh
consumption per capita: 61 kWh (1993)

Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP (including fishing); largely
subsistence farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in
Senegal river valley; crops - dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish
products number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $168 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $277 million; Arab Development Bank
(1991), $20 million

Currency: 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

Exchange rates: ouguiyas (UM) per US$1 - 125.910 (January 1995),
123.575 (1994), 120.806 (1993),87.027 (1992), 81.946 (1991), 80.609
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mauritania:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 690 km (single track); note - owned and operated by government
mining company
standard gauge: 690 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 7,525 km
paved: 1,685 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, otherwise improved 1,040 km;
unimproved earth 4,800 km (roads, trails, tracks)

Inland waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports: Bogue, Kaedi, Nouadhibou, Nouakchott, Rosso

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 28
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 6
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 10

@Mauritania:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; poor system of cable and open-wire
lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radio communications
stations (improvements being made)
local: NA
intercity: mostly cable and open wire lines
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) and 2 ARABSAT earth
stations, with six planned

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Mauritania:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard,
National Police, Presidential Guard

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 483,916; males fit for military
service 236,323

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $36 million, 2.7% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

MAURITIUS

@Mauritius:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Map references: World

Area:
total area: 1,860 sq km
land area: 1,850 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 10.5 times the size of
Washington, DC
note: includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint
Brandon), and Rodrigues

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims UK-administered Chagos Archipelago,
which includes the island of Diego Garcia in UK-administered British
Indian Ocean Territory; claims French-administered Tromelin Island

Climate: tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter
(May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains
encircling central plateau

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use:
arable land: 54%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 4%
forest and woodland: 31%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 170 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution
natural hazards: cyclones (November to April); almost completely
surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection

@Mauritius:People

Population: 1,127,068 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (female 152,892; male 158,891)
15-64 years: 66% (female 376,049; male 372,910)
65 years and over: 6% (female 39,088; male 27,238) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.89% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 18.91 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.38 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.84 years
male: 66.9 years
female: 74.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mauritian(s)
adjective: Mauritian

Ethnic divisions: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%,
Franco-Mauritian 2%

Religions: Hindu 52%, Christian 28.3% (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant
2.3%), Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1%

Languages: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka,
Bojpoori

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 80%
male: 85%
female: 75%

Labor force: 335,000
by occupation: government services 29%, agriculture and fishing 27%,
manufacturing 22%, other 22%

@Mauritius:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Mauritius
conventional short form: Mauritius

Digraph: MP

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Louis

Administrative divisions: 9 districts and 3 dependencies*; Agalega
Islands*, Black River, Cargados Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port, Moka,
Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart,
Rodrigues*, Savanne

Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

Constitution: 12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of
English common law in certain areas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Cassam UTEEM (since 1 July 1992); Vice
President Rabindranath GHURBURRON (since 1 July 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12 June
1982); Deputy Prime Minister Prem NABABSING (since 26 September 1990)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on
recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly: elections last held on 15 September 1991 (next
to be held by 15 September 1996); results - MSM/MMM 53%, MLP/PMSD 38%;
seats - (66 total) MSM/MMM alliance 59 (MSM 29, MMM 26, OPR 2, MTD 2),
MLP/PMSD 4 (MLP 3, PMSD 1); note - the Supreme Court denied the
assignment of 3 seats to the MSM

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
government coalition: Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A. JUGNAUTH;
Mauritian Militant Resurgence (RMM), Prem NABABSING (less 10
legislators under the leadership of Paul BERENGER, now voting with the
opposition); Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), X. DUVAL;
Organization of the People of Rodrigues (OPR), Louis Serge CLAIR;
Democratic Labor Movement (MTD), Anil BAICHOO
opposition: Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), Navin RAMGOOLMAN;
MMM-Berenger Faction, Paul BERENGER; Socialist Workers Front, Sylvio
MICHEL

Other political or pressure groups: various labor unions

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anund Priyay NEEWOOR
chancery: Suite 441, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-1491, 1492
FAX: [1] (202) 966-0983

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie M. ALEXANDER
embassy: 4th Floor, Rogers House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [230] 208-9763 through 9767
FAX: [230] 208-9534

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and
green

@Mauritius:Economy

Overview: Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has developed from a
low income, agriculturally based economy to middle income diversified
economy with growing industrial and tourist sectors. For most of the
period annual growth has been of the order of 5% to 6%. This
remarkable achievement has been reflected in increased life
expectancy, lowered infant mortality, and a much improved
infrastructure. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land
area and accounts for 40% of export earnings. The government's
development strategy centers on industrialization (with a view to
modernization and to exports), agricultural diversification, and
tourism. Economic performance in 1991-93 continued strong with solid
real growth and low unemployment.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $9.3 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.7% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $8,600 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.4% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.4% (1991 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $653 million
expenditures: $567 million, including capital expenditures of $143
million (FY92/93 est.)

Exports: $1.32 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: textiles 44%, sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%
partners: EC and US have preferential treatment, EC 77%, US 15%

Imports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs
13%, petroleum products 8%, chemicals 7%
partners: EC, US, South Africa, Japan

External debt: $996.8 million (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (1992); accounts for 25% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 340,000 kW
production: 920 million kWh
consumption per capita: 777 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing
apparel, chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical
machinery, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated land in
sugarcane; other products - tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses,
cattle, goats, fish; net food importer, especially rice and fish

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug
trade; heroin consumption and transshipment are growing problems

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $76 million;
Western (non-US) countries (1970-89), $709 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $54 million

Currency: 1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1 - 17.755 (January
1995), 17.960 (1994), 17.648 (1993), 15.563 (1992), 15.652 (1991),
14.839 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Mauritius:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,800 km
paved: 1,640 km
unpaved: earth 160 km

Ports: Port Louis

Merchant marine:
total: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 191,703 GRT/297,347 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 8, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 1,
passenger-cargo 1

Airports:
total: 5
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Mauritius:Communications

Telephone system: over 48,000 telephones; small system with good
service
local: NA
intercity: utilizes primarily microwave radio relay
international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station; new microwave
link to Reunion; high-frequency radio links to several countries

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 4
televisions: NA

@Mauritius:Defense Forces

Branches: National Police Force (includes the paramilitary Special
Mobile Force or SMF, Special Support Units or SSU, and National Coast
Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 321,947; males fit for military
service 163,904 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $11.2 million, 0.4%
of GDP (FY92/93)

________________________________________________________________________

MAYOTTE

(territorial collectivity of France)

@Mayotte:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from northern Madagascar to northern Mozambique

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 375 sq km
land area: 375 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 185.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Comoros

Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during
northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to
November)

Terrain: generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep
ravines

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: cyclones during rainy season
international agreements: NA

Note: part of Comoro Archipelago

@Mayotte:People

Population: 97,088 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (female 23,910; male 24,120)
15-64 years: 48% (female 22,824; male 23,935)
65 years and over: 3% (female 1,165; male 1,134) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.8% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 48.44 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.46 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 77.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.27 years
male: 56.04 years
female: 60.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.71 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mahorais (singular and plural)
adjective: Mahoran

Ethnic divisions: NA

Religions: Muslim 99%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)

Languages: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

@Mayotte:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte
conventional short form: Mayotte

Digraph: MF

Type: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: Mamoutzou

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
head of government: Prefect Jean-Jacques DERACQ (since NA); President
of the General Council Younoussa BAMANA (since NA 1976)

Legislative branch: unicameral
General Council (Conseil General): elections last held NA March 1994
(next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(19 total) MPM 12, RPR 4, independents 3
French Senate: elections last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be
held NA September 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
- (1 total) MPM 1
French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
(next to be held NA 1998); results - UDF-CDS 54.3%, RPR 44.3%; seats -
(1 total) UDF-CDS 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)

Political parties and leaders: Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM),
Younoussa BAMANA; Party for the Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM),
Daroueche MAOULIDA; Mahoran Rally for the Republic (RPR), Mansour
KAMARDINE; Union for French Democracy (UDF), Maoulida AHMED; Center of
Social Democrats (CDS),

Member of: FZ

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territorial collectivity of
France)

US diplomatic representation: none (territorial collectivity of
France)

Flag: the flag of France is used

@Mayotte:Economy

Overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural
sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not
self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food
requirements, mainly from France. The economy and future development
of the island are heavily dependent on French financial assistance.
Mayotte's remote location is an obstacle to the development of
tourism.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $54 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $600 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $37.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1985 est.)

Exports: $4 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: ylang-ylang, vanilla
partners: France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%

Imports: $21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984)
commodities: building materials, transportation equipment, rice,
clothing, flour
partners: France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: NA kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh

Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry

Agriculture: most important sector; provides all export earnings;
crops - vanilla, ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of
food needs

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $402 million

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.2943 (January 1995),
5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mayotte:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 42 km
paved: bituminous 18 km
unpaved: 24 km

Ports: Dzaoudzi

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Mayotte:Communications

Telephone system: 450 telephones; small system administered by French
Department of Posts and Telecommunications
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: radio relay and high-frequency radio communications for
links to Comoros and international communications

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Mayotte:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

MEXICO

@Mexico:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of
Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific
Ocean, between Guatamala and the US

Map references: North America

Area:
total area: 1,972,550 sq km
land area: 1,923,040 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 4,538 km, Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US
3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims Clipperton Island (French possession)

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus,
and desert

Natural resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc,
natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 39%
forest and woodland: 24%
other: 24%

Irrigated land: 51,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in
north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast;
raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas;
deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; serious air
pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico
border
natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast, destructive
earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Gulf and
Caribbean coasts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Desertification

Note: strategic location on southern border of US

@Mexico:People

Population: 93,985,848 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (female 17,028,091; male 17,631,110)
15-64 years: 59% (female 28,429,663; male 26,866,886)
65 years and over: 4% (female 2,184,998; male 1,845,100) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.9% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 26.64 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.64 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.34 years
male: 69.74 years
female: 77.11 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.09 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (Indian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or
predominantly Amerindian 30%, Caucasian or predominantly Caucasian 9%,
other 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%

Languages: Spanish, various Mayan dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population: 88%
male: 90%
female: 85%

Labor force: 26.2 million (1990)
by occupation: services 31.7%, agriculture, forestry, hunting, and
fishing 28%, commerce 14.6%, manufacturing 11.1%, construction 8.4%,
transportation 4.7%, mining and quarrying 1.5%

@Mexico:Government

Names:
conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico

Digraph: MX

Type: federal republic operating under a centralized government

Capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California,
Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de
Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero,
Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo
Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis
Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala,
Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce
de Leon (since 1 December 1994); election last held on 21 August 1994
(next to be held NA); results - Ernesto ZEDILLO Ponce de Leon (PRI)
50.18%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 17.08%, Diego FERNANDEZ de
Cevallos (PAN) 26.69%; other 6.049%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union)

Senate (Camara de Senadores): elections last held on 21 August 1994
(next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats in
full Senate - (128 total; Senate expanded from 64 seats at the last
election) PRI 93, PRD 25, PAN 10
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held on 24
August 1994 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party
NA; seats - (500 total) PRI 300, PAN 119, PRD 71, PFCRN 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders: (recognized parties) Institutional
Revolutionary Party (PRI), Maria de los Angeles MORENO; National
Action Party (PAN), Carlos CASTILLO; Popular Socialist Party (PPS),
Indalecio SAYAGO Herrera; Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD),
Porfirio MUNOZ Ledo; Cardenist Front for the National Reconstruction
Party (PFCRN), Rafael AGUILAR Talamantes; Authentic Party of the
Mexican Revolution (PARM), Rosa Maria MARTINEZ Denagri; Democratic
Forum Party (PFD), Pablo Emilio MADERO; Mexican Green Ecologist Party
(PVEM), Jorge GONZALEZ Torres

Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM); Confederation of Industrial
Chambers (CONCAMIN); Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce
(CONCANACO); National Peasant Confederation (CNC); Revolutionary
Workers Party (PRT); Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and
Peasants (CROC); Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM);
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX);
National Chamber of Transformation Industries (CANACINTRA);
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations (COECE);
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services (FESEBES)

Member of: AG (observer), APEC, BCIE, CARICOM (observer), CCC, CDB,
CG, EBRD, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECD, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jesus SILVA HERZOG Flores
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso,
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Antonio, San
Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Albuquerque, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas),
Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Eagle
Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Loredo, McAllen (Texas), Midland
(Texas), Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia,
Phoenix, Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San
Jose, Santa Ana, Seattle

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. JONES
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico,
Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX 78044-3087
telephone: [52] (5) 211-0042
FAX: [52] (5) 511-9980, 208-3373
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana
consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in
its beak) is centered in the white band

@Mexico:Economy

Overview: Mexico, under the guidance of new President Ernesto ZEDILLO,
entered 1995 in the midst of a severe financial crisis. Mexico's
membership in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the
United States and Canada, its solid record of economic reforms, and
its strong growth in the second and third quarters of 1994 - at an
annual rate of 3.8% and 4.5% respectively - seemed to augur bright
prospects for 1995. However, an overvalued exchange rate and widening
current account deficits created an imbalance that ultimately proved
unsustainable. To finance the trade gap, Mexico City had become
increasingly reliant on volatile portfolio investment. A series of
political shocks in 1994 - an uprising in the southern state of
Chiapas, the assassination of a presidential candidate, several high
profile kidnappings, the killing of a second high-level political
figure, and renewed threats from the Chiapas rebels - combined with
rising international interest rates and concerns of a devaluation to
undermine investor confidence and prompt massive outflows of capital.
The dwindling of foreign exchange reserves, which the central bank had
been using to defend the currency, forced the new administration to
change the exchange rate policy and allow the currency to float freely
in the last days of 1994. The adjustment roiled Mexican financial
markets, leading to a 30% to 40% weakening of the peso relative to the
dollar. ZEDILLO announced an emergency economic program that included
federal budget cuts and plans for more privatizations, but it failed
to restore investor confidence quickly. While the devaluation is
likely to help Mexican exporters, whose products are now cheaper, it
also raises the specter of an inflationary spiral if domestic
producers increase their prices and workers demand wage hikes.
Although strong economic fundamentals bode well for Mexico's
longer-term outlook, prospects for solid growth and low inflation have
deteriorated considerably, at least through 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $728.7 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $7,900 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.1% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $96.99 billion (1994 est.)
expenditures: $96.51 billion (1994 est.), including capital
expenditures of $NA (1994 est.)

Exports: $60.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.), includes in-bond
industries
commodities: crude oil, oil products, coffee, silver, engines, motor
vehicles, cotton, consumer electronics
partners: US 82%, Japan 1.4%, EC 5% (1993 est.)

Imports: $79.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.), includes in-bond
industries
commodities: metal-working machines, steel mill products, agricultural
machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts
for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
partners: US 74%, Japan 4.7%, EC 11% (1993 est.)

External debt: $128 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 28,780,000 kW
production: 122 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,239 kWh (1993)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel,
petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer
durables, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP; large number of small farms at
subsistence level; major food crops - corn, wheat, rice, beans; cash
crops - cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis
continues in spite of government eradication program; major supplier
of heroin and marijuana to the US market; continues as the primary
transshipment country for US-bound cocaine and marijuana from South
America; increasingly involved in the production and distribution of
methamphetamine

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.1 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $7.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $110 million

Currency: 1 New Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1 - 6.736
(average in March 1995), 5.5133 (January 1995), 3.3751 (1994), 3.1156
(1993), 3,094.9 (1992), 3,018.4 (1991), 2,812.6 (1990)
note: the new peso replaced the old peso on 1 January 1993; 1 new peso
= 1,000 old pesos

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mexico:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 24,500 km
standard gauge: 24,410 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 93 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 242,300 km
paved: 84,800 km (including 3,166 km of expressways)
unpaved: gravel and earth 157,500 km

Inland waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural
gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1,400 km

Ports: Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, La Paz,
Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso, Salina Cruz, Tampico,
Topolobampo, Tuxpan, Veracruz

Merchant marine:
total: 59 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 949,271 GRT/1,340,595 DWT

ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, container 7,
liquefied gas tanker 7, oil tanker 30, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 4

Airports:
total: 2,055
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 82
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 75
with paved runways under 914 m: 1,262
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 60
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 539

@Mexico:Communications

Telephone system: 6,410,000 telephones; highly developed system with
extensive microwave radio relay links; privatized in December 1990
local: adequate phone service for business and government, but, at a
density of less than 7 telephones/100 persons, the population is
poorly served
intercity: includes 120 domestic satellite terminals and an extensive
network of microwave radio relay links
international: 5 INTELSAT (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth
stations; connected into Central America Microwave System; launched
Solidarity I satellite in November 1993

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 679, FM 0, shortwave 22
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 238
televisions: NA

@Mexico:Defense Forces

Branches: National Defense (includes Army and Air Force), Navy
(includes Marines)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 23,354,445; males fit for
military service 17,029,788; males reach military age (18) annually
1,054,513 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF

@Micronesia, Federated States Of:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the North Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 702 sq km
land area: 702 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than four times the size of
Washington, DC
note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Truk (Chuuk), Yap, and Kosrae

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 6,112 km

Maritime claims:

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