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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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65 years and over: 3% (female 225,205; male 214,495) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 44.82 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.99 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 86.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.45 years
male: 52.47 years
female: 56.48 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic divisions: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo),
Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry -
Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian,
Creole, Comoran

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 80%
male: 88%
female: 73%

Labor force:
total workers: 4.9 million
workers not receiving money wages: 4.7 million (96% of total labor
force); note - 4.3 million workers are in subsistence agriculture
wage earners: 175,000 (3.6% of total work force)
wage earners by occupation: agriculture 45,500, domestic service
29,750, industry 26,250, commerce 24,500, construction 19,250, service
15,750, transportation 10,500, other 3,500 (1985 est.)

@Madagascar:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar
local short form: Madagascar
former: Malagasy Republic

Digraph: MA

Type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Antananarivo, Antsiranana,
Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional
Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Albert ZAFY (since 9 March 1993); election
last held on 10 February 1993 (next to be held 1998); results - Albert
ZAFY (UNDD), 67%; Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA), 33%
head of government: Prime Minister Francisque RAVONY (since 9 August
1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate (Senat): two-thirds of upper house seats are to be filled from
popularly elected regional assemblies; the remaining third is to be
filled by presidential appointment; decentralization and formation of
regional assemblies is not expected before 1997
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held on 16
June 1993 (next to be held June 1997); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (138 total) CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11,
Famima 10, RPSD 7, various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional
Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders: Committee of Living Forces (CFV), an
alliance of National Union for Development and Democracy (UNDD),
Support Group for Democracy and Development in Madagascar (CSDDM),
Action and Reflection Group for the Development of Madagascar (GRAD),
Congress Party for Madagascar Independence - Renewal
(AKFM-Fanavaozana), and some 12 other parties, trade unions, and
religious groups; Militant Party for the Development of Madagascar
(PMDM/MFM), formerly the Movement for Proletarian Power, Manandafy
RAKOTONIRINA; Confederation of Civil Societies for Development (CSCD),
Guy Willy RAZANAMASY; Association of United Malagasys (Famima); Rally
for Social Democracy (RPSD), Pierre TSIRANANA

Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Christian
Churches (FFKM); Federalist Movement

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis P. BARRETT
embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18
FAX: [261] (2) 345-39

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a
vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

@Madagascar:Economy

Overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world,
suffering from chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education
facilities, a 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of
forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing
and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 30%
of GDP and contributing more than 70% of total export earnings.
Industry is largely confined to the processing of agricultural
products and textile manufacturing; in 1991 it accounted for only 13%
of GDP. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year development plan
that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990,
increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports.
Subsequently, growth in output has been held back because of
protracted antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political
reform. Since 1993, corruption and political instability have caused
the economy and infrastructure to decay further. Since April 1994, the
government commitment to economic reforms has been erratic. Enormous
obstacles stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable
growth potential.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $10.6 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.8% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $790 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $250 million
expenditures: $265 million, including capital expenditures of $180
million (1991 est.)

Exports: $240 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves 11%, shellfish, sugar,
petroleum products
partners: France, US, Germany, Japan, Russia

Imports: $510 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%,
petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%
partners: France, Germany, Japan, UK, Italy, Netherlands

External debt: $4.3 billion (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.8% (1993 est.); accounts for 13%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 220,000 kW
production: 560 million kWh
consumption per capita: 40 kWh (1993)

Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories,
breweries, tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer goods
industries (textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant,
paper, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 31% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla,
sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas,
peanuts; cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild
varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $136 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $3.125 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $491 million

Currency: 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 3,718.0 (November
1994), 1,913.8 (1993), 1,864.0 (1992), 1,835.4 (1991), 1,454.6
(December 1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Madagascar:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,020 km
narrow gauge: 1,020 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 40,000 km
paved: 4,694 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 811 km; other earth
34,495 km (est.)

Inland waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small
portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Ports: Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Port Saint-Louis, Toamasina, Toliaria

Merchant marine:
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,261 GRT/28,193 DWT
ships by type: cargo 5, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil
tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2

Airports:
total: 138
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 21
with paved runways under 914 m: 42
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 64

@Madagascar:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; above average system
local: NA
intercity: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter links
international: submarine cable to Bahrain; 1 earth station for Indian
Ocean INTELSAT

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 36)
televisions: NA

@Madagascar:Defense Forces

Branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces,
Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - includes Navy and Air Force),
Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 3,027,156; males fit for
military service 1,800,127; males reach military age (20) annually
130,071 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $35 million, 1.3% of
GDP (1991)

________________________________________________________________________

MALAWI

@Malawi:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 118,480 sq km
land area: 94,080 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: total 2,881 km, Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km,
Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to
November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills,
some mountains

Natural resources: limestone, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal,
and bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 50%
other: 5%

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from
agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning
grounds endangers fish population
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection;
signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked

@Malawi:People

Population: 9,808,384 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 2,361,309; male 2,384,679)
15-64 years: 49% (female 2,479,108; male 2,335,729)
65 years and over: 3% (female 139,632; male 107,927) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.63% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 49.81 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 23.53 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: the return of refugees to Mozambique is much reduced compared
with 1994

Infant mortality rate: 140.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.01 years
male: 38.28 years
female: 39.76 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.36 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian

Ethnic divisions: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga,
Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

Religions: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, traditional
indigenous beliefs

Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages
important regionally

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987)
total population: 48%
male: 65%
female: 34%

Labor force: 428,000 wage earners
by occupation: agriculture 43%, manufacturing 16%, personal services
15%, commerce 9%, construction 7%, miscellaneous services 4%, other
permanently employed 6% (1986)

@Malawi:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
former: Nyasaland

Digraph: MI

Type: multiparty democracy following a referendum on 14 June 1993;
formerly a one-party republic

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa,
Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga
(Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata
Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

Constitution: 6 July 1966; republished as amended January 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since
21 May 1994), leader of the United Democratic Front
cabinet: Cabinet; named by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held
1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (177 total) UDF
84, AFORD 33, MCP 55, others 5

Judicial branch: High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: United Democratic Front (UDF), Bakili MULUZI
opposition groups: Malawi Congress Party (MCP), Gwanda CHAKUAMBA
Phiri, secretary general (top party position); Alliance for Democracy
(AFORD), Chakufwa CHIHANA; Socialist League of Malawi (Lesoma), Kapote
MWAKUSULA, secretary general; Malawi Democratic Union (MDU), Harry
BWANAUSI; Congress for the Second Republic (CSR), Kanyama CHIUME;
Malawi Socialist Labor Party (MSLP), Stanford SAMBANEMANJA

Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Patrick
NYASULU (since 14 October 1994)
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter R. CHAVEAS
embassy: address NA, in new capital city development area in Lilongwe
mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: [265] 783 166
FAX: [265] 780 471

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with
a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the
flag of Afghanistan, which is longer and has the national coat of arms
superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands

@Malawi:Economy

Overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed
countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90%
of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40%
of GDP and 90% of export revenues. After two years of weak
performance, economic growth improved significantly in 1988-91 as a
result of good weather and a broadly based economic adjustment effort
by the government. Drought cut overall output sharply in 1992, but the
lost ground was recovered in 1993. The economy depends on substantial
inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and
individual donor nations. The new government faces strong challenges,
e.g., to spur exports, to improve educational and health facilities,
and to deal with environmental problems of deforestation and erosion.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 9.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $750 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $416 million
expenditures: $498 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: $311 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts, wood products
partners: US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, Germany

Imports: $308 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities: food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer
goods, transportation equipment
partners: South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe

External debt: $1.8 billion (December 1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% accounts for about 15% of GDP
(1992 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 190,000 kW
production: 820 million kWh
consumption per capita: 77 kWh (1993)

Industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling,
cement, consumer goods

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - tobacco, sugarcane,
cotton, tea, and corn; subsistence crops - potatoes, cassava, sorghum,
pulses; livestock - cattle, goats

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $215 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $2.15 billion

Currency: 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1 - 7.8358 (August 1994),
4.4028 (1993), 3.6033 (1992), 2.8033 (1991), 2.7289 (1990), 2.7595
(1989)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Malawi:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 789 km
narrow gauge: 789 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 13,135 km
paved: 2,364 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, stabilized earth 251 km; earth,
improved earth 10,520 km

Inland waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkotakota

Airports:
total: 47
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4
with paved runways under 914 m: 25
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 15

@Malawi:Communications

Telephone system: 42,250 telephones
local: NA
intercity: fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and
radio communications stations
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean ) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Malawi:Defense Forces

Branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police
(includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit), paramilitary Malawi Young
Pioneers

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,069,302; males fit for
military service 1,056,372 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $13 million, 0.7% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

MALAYSIA

@Malaysia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the
island of Borneo bordering the Java Sea and the South China Sea, south
of Vietnam

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 329,750 sq km
land area: 328,550 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: total 2,669 km, Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km,
Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; specified
boundary in the South China Sea
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei;
State of Sabah claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase
the Malaysian salient that divides Brunei into two parts; two islands
in dispute with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast
(October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural
gas, bauxite

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 10%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 63%
other: 24%

Irrigated land: 3,420 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions;
water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation
natural hazards: flooding
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed,
but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South
China Sea

@Malaysia:People

Population: 19,723,587 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (female 3,559,434; male 3,690,310)
15-64 years: 59% (female 5,871,131; male 5,844,568)
65 years and over: 4% (female 423,539; male 334,605) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.24% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 27.95 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.56 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.48 years
male: 66.55 years
female: 72.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.47 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic divisions: Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%, Indian
9%

Religions:
Peninsular Malaysia: Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu
(Indians)
Sabah: Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45%
Sarawak: tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim
20%, Christian 16%, other 5%

Languages:
Peninsular Malaysia: Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects,
Tamil
Sabah: English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Chinese (Mandarin and
Hakka dialects predominate)
Sarawak: English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages *** No
data for this item ***

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 78%
male: 86%
female: 70%

Labor force: 7.627 million (1993)

@Malaysia:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
former: Malayan Union

Digraph: MY

Type: constitutional monarchy
note: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by
the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular
Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where
governors are appointed by Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers
of state governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah -
self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with
foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers
delegated to federal government; Sarawak - self-governing state, holds
27 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense,
internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri)
and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular -
wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri
Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak,
Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of
the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26
April 1994); Deputy Paramount Ruler SALAHUDDIN ibni Hisammuddin Alam
Shah (since 26 April 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16
July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December
1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the Paramount Ruler from members of
parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlimen)
Senate (Dewan Negara): consists of 58 members, 32 appointed by the
paramount ruler and 26 elected by the state legislatures (2 from each
state) for six-year terms; elections last held NA (next to be held
NA); results - NA
House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat): consists of 180 members,
elected for five-year terms; elections last held 21 October 1990 (next
to be held by December 1995); results - National Front 52%, other 48%;
seats - (180 total) National Front 127, DAP 20, PAS 7, independents 4,
other 22; note - within the National Front, UMNO won 71 seats and MCA
won 18 seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
Peninsular Malaysia: National Front, a confederation of 13 political
parties dominated by United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO
Baru), MAHATHIR bin Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING
Liong Sik; Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, LIM Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian
Congress (MIC), S. Samy VELLU
Sabah: National Front, SALLEH Said Keruak, Sabah Chief Minister,
Sakaran DANDAI, head of Sabah State; United Sabah National Organizaton
(USNO), leader NA
Sarawak: coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka
Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Amar Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud;
Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar James WONG Soon Kai;
Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk Amar James WONG; Parti Bansa
Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo MOGGIE; major opposition parties are
Democratic Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic
Party (PAS), Fadzil NOOR

Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM,
OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIL, UNOMOZ,
UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdul MAJID bin Mohamed
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 483-7661
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador John S. WOLF
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur; APO AP
96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 2489011
FAX: [60] (3) 2422207

Flag: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with
white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star;
the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design
was based on the flag of the US

@Malaysia:Economy

Overview: The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private enterprise and a
soundly managed public sector, has posted a remarkable record of 9%
average annual growth in 1988-94. The official growth target for 1995
is 8.5%. This growth has resulted in a substantial reduction in
poverty and a marked rise in real wages. Manufactured goods exports
expanded rapidly, and foreign investors continued to commit large sums
in the economy. The government is aware of the inflationary potential
of this rapid development and is closely monitoring fiscal and
monetary policies.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $166.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 8.7% (1994)

National product per capita: $8,650 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 2.9% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $18.7 billion
expenditures: $19.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.8
billion (1994)

Exports: $56.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and petroleum products,
palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber, textiles
partners: Singapore 22%, US 20%, Japan 13%, UK 4%, Germany 4%,
Thailand 4% (1993)

Imports: $55.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, petroleum
products
partners: Japan 27%, US 17%, Singapore 15%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4%, UK
3%, South Korea 3% (1993)

External debt: $35.5 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 12% (1994); accounts for 38% of GDP
(1993 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 6,700,000 kW
production: 31 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,528 kWh (1993)

Industries:
Peninsular Malaysia: rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing,
light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting,
logging and processing timber
Sabah: logging, petroleum production
Sarawak: agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining,
logging

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)
Peninsular Malaysia: natural rubber, palm oil, rice
Sabah: mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice
Sarawak: rubber, timber, pepper; deficit of rice in all areas

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the
US, Western Europe, and the Third World despite severe penalties for
drug trafficking; increasing indigenous abuse of methamphetamine

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $4.7 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million

Currency: 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.5542 (January 1995), 2.6242
(1994), 2.5741 (1993), 2.5474 (1992), 2.7501 (1991), 1.7048 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Malaysia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 1,801 km (Peninsular Malaysia 1,665 km; Sabah 136 km; Sarawak 0
km)
narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (Peninsular Malaysia 1,665 km;
Sabah 136 km)

Highways:
total: 29,028 km (Peninsular Malaysia 23,602 km, Sabah 3,782 km,
Sarawak 1,644 km)
paved: NA (Peninsular Malaysia 19,354 km mostly bituminous treated)
unpaved: NA (Peninsular Malaysia 4,248 km)

Inland waterways:
Peninsular Malaysia: 3,209 km
Sabah: 1,569 km
Sarawak: 2,518 km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Ports: Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuching, Kudat, Lahad Datu, Labuan,
Lumut, Miri, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Dickson, Port Kelang,
Sandakan, Sibu, Tanjong Berhala, Tanjong Kidurong, Tawau

Merchant marine:
total: 213 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,410,823 GRT/3,635,966
DWT
ships by type: bulk 34, cargo 73, chemical tanker 11, container 27,
liquefied gas tanker 9, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 50,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 3

Airports:
total: 115
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6
with paved runways under 914 m: 82
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7

@Malaysia:Communications

Telephone system: 994,860 telephones (1984); international service
good
local: NA
intercity: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia
mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio
relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; 2 domestic
satellite links
international: submarine cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM
submarine cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth
stations - 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 33
televisions: NA

@Malaysia:Defense Forces

Branches: Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air
Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border
Scouts

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,041,003; males fit for
military service 3,058,445; males reach military age (21) annually
183,760 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 2.9% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

MALDIVES

@Maldives:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean,
south-southwest of India

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 300 sq km
land area: 300 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 35-310 nm as defined by geographic
coordinates; segment of zone coincides with maritime boundary with
India
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to
March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 3%
forest and woodland: 3%
other: 84%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water
supplies
natural hazards: low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea
level rise
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Law of the Sea

Note: 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls; archipelago of
strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

@Maldives:People

Population: 261,310 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (female 60,038; male 63,042)
15-64 years: 50% (female 63,526; male 67,020)
65 years and over: 3% (female 3,537; male 4,147) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 42.8 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.49 years
male: 63.99 years
female: 67.07 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.17 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Maldivian(s)
adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic divisions: Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, African

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic),
English spoken by most government officials

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population: 91%
male: 91%
female: 92%

Labor force: 66,000 (est.)
by occupation: fishing industry 25%

@Maldives:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Maldives
conventional short form: Maldives

Digraph: MV

Type: republic

Capital: Male

Administrative divisions: 19 districts (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu,
Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu,
Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Constitution: 4 June 1968

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common
law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM
(since 11 November 1978); election last held 1 October 1993 (next to
be held 1998); results - President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM was reelected
with 92.76% of the vote
cabinet: Ministry of Atolls; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
Citizens' Council (Majlis): elections last held 2 December 1994 (next
to be held NA December 1999); results - percent of vote NA; seats -
(48 total, 40 elected, 8 appointed by the president) independents 40

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: although political parties are not
banned, none exist; country governed by the Didi clan for the past
eight centuries

Member of: AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: Maldives has no embassy in the US,
but does have a UN mission in New York; Permanent Representative to
the UN Ahmed ZAKI

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to
Maldives and makes periodic visits there
consular agency: Midhath Hilmy, Male
telephone: 322581

Flag: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a
vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the
hoist side of the flag

@Maldives:Economy

Overview: Fishing is the largest industry, employing 25% of the work
force and accounting for over 60% of exports. Over 90% of government
tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. During
the 1980s tourism became one of the most important and highest growth
sectors of the economy. In 1993, tourism accounted for 17% of GDP and
more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. The
Maldivian government initiated an economic reform program in 1989
initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the
private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow
more foreign investment. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to
play a minor role in the economy, constrained by the limited
availability of cultivatable land and the shortage of domestic labor.
Most staple foods must be imported. In 1993, industry which consisted
mainly of garment production, boat building, and handicrafts accounted
for about 6% of GDP.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $360 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 5.4% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $1,500 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1993)

Unemployment rate: NEGL%

Budget:
revenues: $95 million (excluding foreign transfers)
expenditures: $143 million, including capital expenditures of $71
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $38.5 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: fish, clothing
partners: US, UK, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Germany

Imports: $177.8 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum
products
partners: Singapore, Germany, Sri Lanka, India, Japan

External debt: $130 million (1993 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 24% (1990); accounts for 6% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 5,000 kW
production: 30 million kWh
consumption per capita: 123 kWh (1993)

Industries: fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat
building, some coconut processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope),
handicrafts

Agriculture: fishing, coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $125 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million

Currency: 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laari

Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 11.770 (January 1995), 11.586
(1994), 10.957 (1993), 10.569 (1992), 10.253 (1991), 9.509 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Maldives:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA
paved: NA
unpaved: NA (Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city)

Ports: Gan, Male

Merchant marine:
total: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 50,384 GRT/77,771 DWT
ships by type: cargo 14, container 1, oil tanker 1

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

@Maldives:Communications

Telephone system: 2,804 telephones; minimal domestic and international
facilities
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@Maldives:Defense Forces

Branches: National Security Service (paramilitary police force)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 57,172; males fit for military
service 31,911 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

MALI

@Mali:Geography

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1.24 million sq km
land area: 1.22 million sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 7,243 km, Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km,
Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821
km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: the disputed international boundary between
Burkina and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice
(ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December
1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are
proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with
Niger

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy,
humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand;
savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium,
bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but
not exploited

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 7%
other: 66%

Irrigated land: 50 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification;
inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry
seasons; recurring droughts
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: landlocked

@Mali:People

Population: 9,375,132 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 2,240,565; male 2,242,373)
15-64 years: 49% (female 2,416,952; male 2,165,043)
65 years and over: 3% (female 162,234; male 147,965) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.89% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 51.88 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 19.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 104.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.37 years
male: 44.7 years
female: 48.09 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.33 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian

Ethnic divisions: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%,
Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Literacy: age 6 and over can read and write (1988)
total population: 19%
male: 27%
female: 12%

Labor force: 2.666 million (1986 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1%
(1981)

@Mali:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan

Digraph: ML

Type: republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao,
Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22
September (1960)

Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was
formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992);
election last held in April 1992 (next to be held April 1997); Alpha
KONARE was elected in runoff race against Montaga TALL
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since
March 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held on 8 March 1992 (next to be
held February 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(116 total) Adema 76, CNID 9, US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the
Development of the Republic of West Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3,
UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Association for Democracy (Adema),
Ibrahim Baubacar KEITA; National Congress for Democratic Initiative
(CNID), Mountaga TALL; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally
(US/RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA; Popular Movement for the Development
of the Republic of West Africa; Rally for Democracy and Progress
(RDP), Almamy SYLLA; Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), Moussa
Balla COULIBALY; Rally for Democracy and Labor (RDT); Union of
Democratic Forces for Progress (UFDP), Dembo DIALLO; Party for
Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa TRAORE; Malian Union for
Democracy and Development (UMDD)

Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ibrahim Siragatou CISSE
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: (vacant) (Ambassador William H. DAMERON III retired
March 1995)
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX: [223] 22 37 12

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and
red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Mali:Economy

Overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65%
of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely
confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the
population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in
agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on
processing farm commodities. The economy is beginning to turn around
after contracting through 1992-93, largely because of enhanced exports
and import substitute production in the wake of the 50% devaluation of
January 1994. Post-devaluation inflation appears to have peaked at 35%
in 1994 and the government appears to be keeping on track with its IMF
structural adjustment program.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $5.4 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $600 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $376 million
expenditures: $697 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: $415 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: cotton, livestock, gold
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports: $842 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction
materials, petroleum, textiles
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe

External debt: $2.6 billion (1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -1.4% (1992 est.); accounts for
13.0% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 90,000 kW
production: 310 million kWh
consumption per capita: 33 kWh (1993)

Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing,
construction, phosphate and gold mining

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming;
cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other
crops - millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock - cattle,
sheep, goats

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $349 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $3.02 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $190 million

Currency: 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 529.43 (January 1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Mali:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 642 km; note - linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes
narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 15,700 km
paved: 1,670 km
unpaved: gravel, improved earth 3,670 km; unimproved earth 10,360 km

Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Ports: Koulikoro

Airports:
total: 33
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 10
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 12

@Mali:Communications

Telephone system: 11,000 telephones; domestic system poor but
improving; provides only minimal service
local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay, wire, and radio communications
stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Mali:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National
Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,861,977; males fit for
military service 1,062,916 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 2.2% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

MALTA

@Malta:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Sicily (Italy)

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 320 sq km
land area: 320 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Malta and Tunisia are discussing the
commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their
countries, particularly for oil exploration

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal
cliffs

Natural resources: limestone, salt

Land use:
arable land: 38%
permanent crops: 3%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 59%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; increasing
reliance on desalination
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Desertification

Note: the country comprises an archipelago, with only the 3 largest
islands (Malta, Gozo, and Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays
provide good harbors

@Malta:People

Population: 369,609 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (female 39,199; male 41,581)
15-64 years: 67% (female 123,665; male 124,167)
65 years and over: 11% (female 23,597; male 17,400) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.75% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.22 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.43 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.02 years
male: 74.75 years
female: 79.48 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Maltese (singular and plural)
adjective: Maltese

Ethnic divisions: Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian, English

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%

Languages: Maltese (official), English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population: 84%
male: 86%
female: 82%

Labor force: 127,200
by occupation: government (excluding job corps) 37%, services 26%,
manufacturing 22%, training programs 9%, construction 4%, agriculture
2% (1990)

@Malta:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Malta
conventional short form: Malta

Digraph: MT

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administration directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1964)

Constitution: 1964 constitution substantially amended on 13 December
1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ugo MIFSUD BONNICI (since 4 April 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Dr. Edward
(Eddie) FENECH ADAMI (since 12 May 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Dr.
Guido DE MARCO (since 14 May 1987)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on advice of the prime
minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Representatives: elections last held 22 February 1992 (next
to be held by February 1997); results - NP 51.8%, MLP 46.5%; seats -
(usually 65 total) MLP 36, NP 29; note - additional seats are given to
the party with the largest popular vote to ensure a legislative
majority; current total: 69 (MLP 33, NP 36 after adjustment)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Party (NP), Edward FENECH
ADAMI; Malta Labor Party (MLP), Alfred SANT

Member of: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user),
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Albert Borg Olivier DE PUGET
chancery: 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3611, 3612
FAX: [1] (202) 387-5470
consulate(s): New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph R. PAOLINO, Jr.
embassy: 2nd Floor, Development House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana,
Malta
mailing address: P. O. Box 535, Valletta
telephone: [356] 235960
FAX: [356] 243229

Flag: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the
upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged
in red

@Malta:Economy

Overview: Significant resources are limestone, a favorable geographic
location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20%
of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no
domestic energy sources. Consequently, the economy is highly dependent
on foreign trade and services. Manufacturing and tourism are the
largest contributors to the economy. Manufacturing accounts for about
24% of GDP, with the electronics and textile industries major
contributors and with the state-owned Malta drydocks employing about
4,300 people. In 1994, over 1,000,000 tourists visited the island. Per
capita GDP of $10,760 places Malta in the range of the less affluent
EU countries.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $3.9 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 4.4% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $10,760 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (March 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $1.4 billion
expenditures: $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $215
million (FY94/95 est.)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, clothing and footware,
printed matter
partners: Italy 32%, Germany 16%, UK 8%

Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods
partners: Italy 27%, Germany 14%, UK 13%, US 9%

External debt: $603 million (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.4% (1992); accounts for 27% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 250,000 kW
production: 1.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,749 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, electronics, ship repairyard, construction, food
manufacturing, textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco

Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GDP and 2% of the work force (1992);
overall, 20% self-sufficient; main products - potatoes, cauliflower,
grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green peppers,
hogs, poultry, eggs; generally adequate supplies of vegetables,
poultry, milk, pork products; seasonal or periodic shortages in grain,
animal fodder, fruits, other basic foodstuffs

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to
Western Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $336 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $48 million

Currency: 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.3656 (January 1995),
0.3776 (1994), 0.3821 (1993), 0.3178 (1992), 0.3226 (1991), 0.3172
(1990)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Malta:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,291 km
paved: asphalt 1,179 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone 77 km; earth 35 km

Ports: Marsaxlokk, Valletta

Merchant marine:
total: 964 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,518,359
GRT/26,604,739 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 3, bulk 272, cargo 300, chemical tanker
30, combination bulk 26, combination ore/oil 16, container 33,
liquefied gas tanker 3, multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker
191, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 3, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated
cargo 14, roll-on/roll-off cargo 26, short-sea passenger 20,
specialized tanker 5, vehicle carrier 11
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 49 countries; the 10
major fleet flags are: Greece 351 ships, Russia 66, Croatia 63,
Switzerland 31, Montenegro 29, Italy 27, Germany 23, Monaco 20, UK 20,
and Georgia 10

Airports:
total: 1
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1

@Malta:Communications

Telephone system: 153,000 telephones; automatic system satisfies
normal requirements
local: NA
intercity: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands
international: 1 submarine cable and 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth
station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Malta:Defense Forces

Branches: Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 98,525; males fit for military
service 78,305 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $21.4 million, about
0.9% of GDP (FY92/93)

________________________________________________________________________

MAN, ISLE OF

(British crown dependency)

@Man, Isle Of:Geography

Location: Western Europe, island in the Irish Sea, between Great
Britain and Ireland

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 588 sq km
land area: 588 sq km
comparative area: nearly 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 113 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the
time

Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Natural resources: lead, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA% (extensive arable land and forests)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: NA

Note: one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is
a bird sanctuary

@Man, Isle Of:People

Population: 72,751 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 6,462; male 6,833)
15-64 years: 64% (female 23,219; male 23,348)
65 years and over: 18% (female 7,759; male 5,130) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.73 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.36 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.53 years
male: 73.78 years
female: 79.48 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Manxman, Manxwoman
adjective: Manx

Ethnic divisions: Manx (Norse-Celtic descent), Briton

Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian,
Society of Friends

Languages: English, Manx Gaelic

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 25,864 (1981)
by occupation: NA

@Man, Isle Of:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Isle of Man

Digraph: IM

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: Douglas

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

Legal system: English law and local statute

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Air Marshal Sir Laurence
JONES (since NA 1990)
head of government: President of the Legislative Council Sir Charles
KERRUISH (since NA 1990)
cabinet: Council of Ministers

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