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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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@Juan De Nova Island:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Juan De Nova Island:Transportation

Railroads:
total: NA km; short line going to a jetty

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports:
total: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1

@Juan De Nova Island:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France

________________________________________________________________________

KAZAKHSTAN

@Kazakhstan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian
States

Area:
total area: 2,717,300 sq km
land area: 2,669,800 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 12,012 km, China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km,
Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea
(1,894 km)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the
plains in western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia

Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, coal, iron ore,
manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc,
bauxite, gold, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: NEGL%
meadows and pastures: 57%
forest and woodland: 4%
other: 24%

Irrigated land: 23,080 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with
its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the
country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial
pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which
flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is
drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides
and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and
blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil
pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salinization from
faulty irrigation practices
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Ship Pollution;
signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Desertification

Note: landlocked

@Kazakhstan:People

Population: 17,376,615 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (female 2,589,509; male 2,664,952)
15-64 years: 63% (female 5,531,519; male 5,371,563)
65 years and over: 7% (female 820,900; male 398,172) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.62% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 19.26 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.93 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.25 years
male: 63.61 years
female: 73.13 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.43 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic divisions: Kazakh (Qazaq) 41.9%, Russian 37%, Ukrainian 5.2%,
German 4.7%, Uzbek 2.1%, Tatar 2%, other 7.1% (1991 official data)

Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaqz) official language spoken by over 40% of
population, Russian (language of interethnic communication) spoken by
two-thirds of population and used in everyday business

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 96%

Labor force: 7.356 million
by occupation: industry and construction 31%, agriculture and forestry
26%, other 43% (1992)

@Kazakhstan:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form: Kazakhstan
local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
local short form: none
former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: KZ

Type: republic

Capital: Almaty

Administrative divisions: 19 oblystar (singular - oblys) and 1 city
(qalalar, singular - qala)*; Almaty Qalasy*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola
Oblysy, Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral),
Kokshetau Oblysy, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan
Oblysy (Shymkent), Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda
Oblysy, Pavlodar Oblysy, Semey Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy
(Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy
(Petropavl), Taldyqorghan Oblysy, Torghay Oblysy, Zhambyl Oblysy,
Zhezqazghan Oblysy
note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name
differs from oblys name

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1991)

Constitution: adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV (since NA April 1990);
Vice President Yerik ASANBAYEV (since 1 December 1991); election last
held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Nursultan A.
NAZARBAYEV ran unopposed; note - NAZARBAYEV has extended his term to
the year 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995
head of government: Prime Minister Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN (since 12
October 1994); First Deputy Prime Ministers Nigmatzhan ISINGARIN
(since 12 October 1994) and Vitalia METTE (since March 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Council: elections last held 7 March 1994 (next to be held NA
1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (177 total)
Union Peoples' Unity of Kazakhstan 33, Confederation of Trade Unions
of the Republic of Kazakhstan 11, Peoples' Congress of Kazakhstan
Party 9, Socialist Party of Kazakhstan 8, Peasant Union of the
Republic Kazakhstan 4, Social Movement LAD 4, Organization of Veterans
1, Union of Youth of Kazakhstan 1, Democratic Committee for Human
Rights 1, Association of Lawyers of Kazakhstan 1, International Public
Committee "Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan" 1, Congress of Entrepreneurs of
Kazakhstan 1, Deputies of the 12th Supreme Soviet 40, independents 62
note: the Supreme Council disbanded 12 March 1995 following a
Constitutional Court ruling that the March 1994 elections were invalid

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: People's Unity Party (PUP; was Union of
People's Unity), Kuanysh SULTANOV, chairman; People's Congress of
Kazakhstan (PCK), Olzhas SULEYMENOV, chairman; Socialist Party of
Kazakhstan (SPK; former Communist Party), Yermukhamet YERTYSHBAYEV,
co-chairman; Republican Party (Azat), Kamal ORMANTAYEV, chairman;
Democratic Progress (Russian) Party, Alexandra DOKUCHAYEVA, chairman;
Confederation of Trade Unions of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Peasant
Union of the Republic Kazakhstan (KPU); Social Movement LAD, V.
MIKHAYLOV, chairman; Union of Youth of Kazakhstan; Democratic
Committee for Human Rights; Association of Lawyers of Kazakhstan;
International Public Committee "Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan"; Congress of
Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan; Deputies of the 12th Supreme Soviet;
People's Cooperative Party, Umirzak SARSENOV, chairman; Organization
of Veterans

Other political or pressure groups: Independent Trade Union Center
(Birlesu; an association of independent trade union and business
associations), Leonid SOLOMIN, president

Member of: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
NACC, OIC (observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tuleutai S. SULEYMENOV
chancery: (temporary) 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC
20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-4504 through 4507
FAX: [1] (202) 333-4509

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador William H. COURTNEY
embassy: 99/97 Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480012

mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (3272) 63-24-26
FAX: [7] (3272) 63-38-83

Flag: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun
with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the
hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow

@Kazakhstan:Economy

Overview: Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet states
in territory, possesses enormous untapped fossil-fuel reserves as well
as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has
considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands
accommodating both livestock and grain production. Kazakhstan's
industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these
natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building
sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural
machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR and the
collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry
products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since
1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. The
government has pursued a moderate program of economic reform and
privatization which is gradually lifting state controls over economic
activity and shifting assets into the private sector. Nevertheless,
government control over key sectors of the economy remains strong.
Sustained economic hardships and continued pressures from industrial
elites will make it difficult for the government to sustain its
policies of monetary and fiscal discipline which had brought down
inflation by the end of 1994. Continued lack of pipeline
transportation for expanded oil exports has closed off a likely source
of economic recovery.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $55.2 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -25% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,200 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 24% per month (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.1% includes only officially registered
unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $3.1 billion (1994)
commodities: oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain,
wool, meat, coal
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Imports: $3.5 billion (1994)
commodities: machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas
partners: Russia and other former Soviet republics, China

External debt: less than $1 billion debt to Russia

Industrial production: growth rate -28% (1994)

Electricity:
capacity: 17,380,000 kW
production: 65.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,750 kWh (1994)

Industries: accounts for 26% of net national product; extractive
industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc,
copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur), iron and
steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery,
electric motors, construction materials

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP; employs about 26% of the labor
force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton, wool

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North
America from Southwest Asia

Economic aid:
recipient: approximately $1 billion in foreign loans and credits
allocated in 1994; disbursements projected at $700 billion through
1995

Currency: national currency the tenge introduced on 15 November 1993

Exchange rates: tenges per US$1 - 54 (yearend 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Kazakhstan:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 14,460 km in common carrier service; does not include
industrial lines
broad gauge: 14,460 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
total: 189,000 km
paved and graveled: 108,100 km
unpaved: earth 80,900 km (1990)

Inland waterways: Syrdariya River, Ertis River

Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas
3,480 km (1992)

Ports: Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen
(Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)

Airports:
total: 352
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 7
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 9
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 9
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 25
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 65
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 190

@Kazakhstan:Communications

Telephone system: 2.2 million telephones; telephone service is poor;
about 17 telephones/100 persons in urban areas and 7.6 telephones/100
persons in rural areas; Almaty has 184,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: land line and microwave radio relay
international: international traffic with other former USSR republics
and China carried by landline and microwave, and with other countries
by satellite and through 8 international telecommunications circuits
at the Moscow international gateway switch; INTELSAT earth station;
new satellite earth station established at Almaty with Turkish
financial help (December 1992) with 2500 channel band width

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: 4.088 million (with multiple speakers for program diffusion
6,082,000)

Television:
broadcast stations: Orbita (TV receive only) earth station
televisions: 4.75 million

@Kazakhstan:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Republic National Guard, Republic Security Forces
(internal and border troops)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 4,513,089; males fit for
military service 3,605,584; males reach military age (18) annually
154,280 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 69.3 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (forecast for
1993); note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using
the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

KENYA

@Kenya:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia
and Tanzania

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 582,650 sq km
land area: 569,250 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries: total 3,446 km, Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km,
Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
coincide with international boundary; possible claim by Somalia based
on unification of ethnic Somalis

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift
Valley; fertile plateau in west

Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies,
fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 7%
forest and woodland: 4%
other: 85%

Irrigated land: 520 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes;
degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and
fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Desertification

Note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful
agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya;
unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of
scientific and economic value

@Kenya:People

Population: 28,817,227 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 6,841,235; male 6,957,908)
15-64 years: 50% (female 7,277,061; male 7,085,925)
65 years and over: 2% (female 359,659; male 295,439) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 41.66 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.04 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -19.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 73.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.41 years
male: 50.72 years
female: 54.16 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.76 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic divisions: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba
11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, Asian, European, and Arab 1%, other 15%

Religions: Protestant (including Anglican) 38%, Roman Catholic 28%,
indigenous beliefs 26%, other 8%

Languages: English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous
languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 71%
male: 81%
female: 62%

Labor force:
by occupation: agriculture 75%-80% (1993 est.), non-agriculture
20%-25% (1993 est.)

@Kenya:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa

Digraph: KE

Type: republic

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued
with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1992

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic
law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982
making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap
MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice President George SAITOTI (since 10
May 1989); election last held on 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA
1997); results - President Daniel T. arap MOI was reelected with 37%
of the vote; Kenneth Matiba (FORD-ASILI) 26%; Mwai Kibaki (SP) 19%,
Oginga Odinga (FORD-Kenya) 17%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Bunge): elections last held on 29 December 1992
(next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(188 total) KANU 100, FORD-Kenya 31, FORD-Asili 31, DP 23, smaller
parties 3; president nominates 12 additional members
note: first multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law in
1991

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Political parties and leaders: ruling party is Kenya African National
Union (KANU), President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI; opposition parties
include Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD-Kenya), Michael
WAMALWA; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD-Asili), Kenneth
MATIBA; Democratic Party of Kenya (DP), Mwai KIBAKI

Other political or pressure groups: labor unions; Roman Catholic
Church

Member of: ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMIL, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Benjamin Edgar KIPKORIR
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Aurelia BRAZEAL
embassy: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
mailing address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (2) 334141
FAX: [254] (2) 340838

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the
red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed
spears is superimposed at the center

@Kenya:Economy

Overview: Kenya in recent years has had one of the highest natural
rates of growth in population, but the statistics have been
complicated by the large-scale movement of nomadic groups and of
Somalis back and forth across the border. Population growth has been
accompanied by deforestation, deterioration in the road system, the
water supply, and other parts of the infrastructure. In industry and
services, Nairobi's reluctance to embrace IMF-supported reforms had
held back investment and growth in 1991-93. Nairobi's push on economic
reform in 1994, however, helped support a 3.3% increase in output.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $33.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.3% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,170 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 35% urban (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.4 billion
expenditures: $2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $740
million (1990 est.)

Exports: $1.45 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: tea 25%, coffee 18%, petroleum products 11% (1990)
partners: EC 47%, Africa 23%, Asia 11%, US 4%, Middle East 3% (1991)

Imports: $1.85 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 29%, petroleum and
petroleum products 15%, iron and steel 7%, raw materials, food and
consumer goods (1989)
partners: EC 46%, Asia 23%, Middle East 20%, US 5% (1991)

External debt: $7 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.9% (1991 est.); accounts for 14%
of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 810,000 kW
production: 3.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 117 kWh (1993)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries,
textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), processing agricultural products,
oil refining, cement, tourism

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 27% of GDP and 65%
of exports; cash crops - coffee, tea; food products - corn, wheat,
sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork, poultry,
eggs

Illicit drugs: widespread harvesting of small, wild plots of marijuana
and qat; most locally consumed; transit country for Southwest Asian
heroin moving to West Africa and onward to Europe and North America;
Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $839 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $7.49 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $83 million

Currency: 1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 44.478 (January
1995), 56.051 (1994), 58.001 (1993), 32.217 (1992), 27.508 (1991),
22.915 (1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Kenya:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,650 km
narrow gauge: 2,650 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 64,590 km
paved: 7,000 km
unpaved: gravel 4,150 km; improved earth 53,440 km

Inland waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of
Kenya

Pipelines: petroleum products 483 km

Ports: Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,883 GRT/6,255 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, oil tanker 1

Airports:
total: 246
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 22
with paved runways under 914 m: 83
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 119

@Kenya:Communications

Telephone system: over 260,000 telephones; in top group of African
systems
local: NA
intercity: consists primarily of microwave radio relay links
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 6
televisions: NA

@Kenya:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service Unit of
the Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,358,344; males fit for
military service 3,932,506 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $136 million, 1.9% of
GDP (FY93/94)

________________________________________________________________________

KINGMAN REEF

(territory of the US)

@Kingman Reef:Geography

Location: Oceania, reef in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to American Samoa

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 1 sq km
land area: 1 sq km
comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

Terrain: low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about 1
meter

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of
about 1 meter makes this a maritime hazard
international agreements: NA

Note: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the
public

@Kingman Reef:People

Population: uninhabited

@Kingman Reef:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Kingman Reef

Digraph: KQ

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy,
however it is awash the majority of the time, so it is not usable and
is uninhabited

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

@Kingman Reef:Economy

Overview: no economic activity

@Kingman Reef:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and
1938

@Kingman Reef:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

KIRIBATI

@Kiribati:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, straddling
the equator and the International Date Line, about one-half of the way
from Hawaii to Australia

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total area: 717 sq km
land area: 717 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC
note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,143 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 51%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 3%
other: 46%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to
March; occasional tornadoes
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified -
Climate Change

Note: 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in
Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the
Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia and Nauru

@Kiribati:People

Population: 79,386 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.95% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 31.25 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 12.31 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 98.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.16 years
male: 52.56 years
female: 55.78 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.73 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)
adjective: I-Kiribati

Ethnic divisions: Micronesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)

Languages: English (official), Gilbertese

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 7,870 economically active, not including subsistence
farmers (1985 est.)

@Kiribati:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati
conventional short form: Kiribati
former: Gilbert Islands

Digraph: KR

Type: republic

Capital: Tarawa

Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands
note: in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts,
Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21
island councils (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru,
Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei,
Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa,
Teraina; note - one council for each of the inhabited islands)

Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Constitution: 12 July 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President (Beretitenti)
Teburoro TITO (since 1 October 1994); Vice President
(Kauoman-ni-Beretitenti) Tewareka TENTOA (since 12 October 1994);
election last held on 30 September 1994 (next to be held by NA 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president from an elected
parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni Maungatabu): elections last held on 22
July 1994 (next to be held by NA 1999); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (40 total; 39 elected) Maneaban Te Mauri 13,
National Progressive Party 7, independents 19

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Party, Teatao
TEANNAKI; Christian Democratic Party, Teburoro TITO; New Movement
Party, leader NA; Liberal Party, Tewareka TENTOA; Maneaba Party,
Roniti TEIWAKI; Maneaban Te Mauri, leader NA
note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in
Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups
because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party
structures

Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, IFRCS
(associate), IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, ITU,
SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: Kiribati has no mission in the US

US diplomatic representation: the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to
Kiribati

Flag: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a
yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal
wavy white stripes to represent the ocean

@Kiribati:Economy

Overview: A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has
few national resources. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were
exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and fish now
represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has
fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP declined about 5% in 1987,
as the fish catch fell sharply to only one-fourth the level of 1986
and copra production was hampered by repeated rains. Output rebounded
strongly in 1988, with real GDP growing by 10%. The upturn in economic
growth came from an increase in copra production and a good fish
catch. GDP then fell by 2.2% in 1989 and by 2.9% in 1990, but has
risen by about 3% annually in 1991-93. Foreign financial aid, largely
from the UK and Japan, is a critical supplement to GDP, amounting to
25%-50% of GDP in recent years.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $62 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.9% (1993 est.)

National product per capita: $800 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2%; underemployment 70% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $29.6 million
expenditures: $32.8 million, including capital expenditures of $14
million (1993 est.)

Exports: $4.2 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: copra 50%, seaweed 16%, fish 15%
partners: Denmark, Fiji, US

Imports: $33.1 million (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous
manufactured goods, fuel
partners: Australia 40%, Japan 18%, Fiji 17%, NZ 6%, US 4% (1991)

External debt: $2 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.7% (1992 est.); accounts for less
than 4% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 5,000 kW
production: 13 million kWh
consumption per capita: 131 kWh (1993)

Industries: fishing, handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP (including fishing); copra and
fish contribute about 65% to exports; subsistence farming
predominates; food crops - taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes,
vegetables; not self-sufficient in food

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $273 million

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3058 (January
1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2835 (1991),
1.2799 (1990)

Fiscal year: NA

@Kiribati:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 640 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Inland waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line
Islands

Ports: Banaba, Betio, English Harbor, Kanton

Merchant marine:
total: 1 passenger-cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,291
GRT/1,295 DWT

Airports:
total: 21
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 5
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 11

@Kiribati:Communications

Telephone system: 1,400 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Kiribati:Defense Forces

Branches: Police Force (carries out law enforcement functions and
paramilitary duties; there are small police posts on all islands); no
military force is maintained

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

________________________________________________________________________

KOREA, NORTH

@Korea, North:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean peninsula
bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and Russia

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 120,540 sq km
land area: 120,410 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Mississippi

Land boundaries: total 1,673 km, China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km,
Russia 19 km

Coastline: 2,495 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
military boundary line: 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive
economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and
aircraft without permission are banned

International disputes: short section of boundary with China is
indefinite; Demarcation Line with South Korea

Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys;
coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 74%
other: 7%

Irrigated land: 14,000 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: localized air pollution attributable to inadequate
industrial controls; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable
water
natural hazards: late spring droughts often followed by severe
flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea

Note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia;
mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible, and sparsely
populated

@Korea, North:People

Population: 23,486,550 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (female 3,402,672; male 3,540,313)
15-64 years: 66% (female 7,840,465; male 7,741,155)
65 years and over: 4% (female 622,250; male 339,695) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.78% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 23.31 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.05 years
male: 66.96 years
female: 73.29 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.34 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean

Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous

Religions: Buddhism and Confucianism, some Christianity and syncretic
Chondogyo
note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent;
government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of
religious freedom

Languages: Korean

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write Korean (1990 est.)
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99%

Labor force: 9.615 million
by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%
note: shortage of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)

@Korea, North:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea
conventional short form: North Korea
local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk
local short form: none
note: the North Koreans generally use the term "Choson" to refer to
their country

Abbreviation: DPRK

Digraph: KN

Type: Communist state; Stalinist dictatorship

Capital: P'yongyang

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3
special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang
Province), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo
(South Hamgyong Province), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province),
Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City),
Kangwon-do (Kangwon Province), Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City),
P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan Province), P'yongan-namdo (South
P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si* (P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do
(Yanggang Province)

Independence: 9 September 1948
note: 15 August 1945, date of independence from the Japanese and
celebrated in North Korea as National Liberation Day

National holiday: DPRK Foundation Day, 9 September (1948)

Constitution: adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972,
revised again in April 1992

Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese
influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: KIM Chong-il, is the son of and designated successor
to former President KIM Il-song (who died 8 July 1994); formal
succession has not yet taken place (January 1995); election last held
24 May 1990 (next to be held by NA); results - President KIM Il-song
was reelected without opposition
head of government: Premier KANG Song-san (since December 1992)
cabinet: State Administration Council; appointed by the Supreme
People's Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui): elections last held
on 7-9 April 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (687 total) the KWP approves a single list of
candidates who are elected without opposition; minor parties hold a
few seats

Judicial branch: Central Court

Political parties and leaders: major party - Korean Workers' Party
(KWP), KIM Chong-il, secretary, Central Committee; Korean Social
Democratic Party, KIM Pyong-sik, chairman; Chondoist Chongu Party, YU
Mi-yong, chairwoman

Member of: ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO, IFAD, IFRCS, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: none

US diplomatic representation: none

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and
blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red
band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star

@Korea, North:Economy

Overview: More than 90% of this command economy is socialized;
agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces
95% of manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is
unusually tight even for a Communist country because of the small size
and homogeneity of the society and the strict rule of KIM Il-song in
the past and now his son, KIM Chong-il. Economic growth during the
period 1984-88 averaged 2%-3%, but output declined by 3%-5% annually
during 1989-92 because of systemic problems and disruptions in
socialist-style economic relations with the former USSR and China. In
1992, output dropped sharply, by perhaps 7%-9%, as the economy felt
the cumulative effect of the reduction in outside support. The
leadership insisted on maintaining its high level of military outlays
from a shrinking economic pie. Moreover, a serious drawdown in
inventories and critical shortages in the energy sector have led to
increasing interruptions in industrial production. Abundant mineral
resources and hydropower have formed the basis of industrial
development since World War II. Output of the extractive industries
includes coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and
precious metals. Manufacturing is centered on heavy industry,
including military industry, with light industry lagging far behind.
Despite the use of improved seed varieties, expansion of irrigation,
and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea has not yet become
self-sufficient in food production. Indeed, a shortage of arable
lands, several years of poor harvests, and a cumbersome distribution
system have resulted in chronic food shortages. The collapse of
Communism in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in 1989-91 has
disrupted important technological links. North Korea remains far
behind South Korea in economic development and living standards. GDP
is stagnant.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $21.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 0% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $920 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $19.3 billion
expenditures: $19.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: $1.02 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural and
fishery products, manufactures (including armaments)
partners: China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Germany, Hong Kong

Imports: $1.64 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: petroleum, grain, coking coal, machinery and equipment,
consumer goods
partners: China, Russia, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, Singapore

External debt: $8 billion (1992 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -7% to -9% (1992 est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 9,500,000 kW
production: 50 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,053 kWh (1993)

Industries: machine building, military products, electric power,
chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GDP and 36% of work force;
principal crops - rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock
and livestock products - cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient
in grain

Economic aid:
recipient: Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s, but
very little now

Currency: 1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.15 (May 1994), 2.13
(May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December
1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Korea, North:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 4,915 km
standard gauge: 4,250 km 1.435-m gauge (3,397 km electrified; 159 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 665 km 0.762-m gauge (1989)

Highways:
total: 30,000 km
paved: 1,861 km
unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 28,139 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only

Pipelines: crude oil 37 km

Ports: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung), Kimch'aek, Kosong, Najin,
Namp'o, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi), Ungsang, Wonsan

Merchant marine:
total: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 727,631 GRT/1,149,291 DWT

ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 70, combination bulk 1, oil tanker 3,
passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1
note: North Korea owns an additional 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling approximately 32,405 DWT that operate under Honduran registry

Airports:
total: 49
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 5
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 12
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 6

@Korea, North:Communications

Telephone system: telephone system is believed to be available only to
government officials and not to private individuals
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 earth station near P'yongyang, uses an Indian Ocean
INTELSAT satellite; other international connections through Moscow and
Beijing

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 18, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: 3.5 million

Television:
broadcast stations: 11
televisions: 350,000 (1989)

@Korea, North:Defense Forces

Branches: Korean People's Army (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Civil
Security Forces

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,753,400; males fit for
military service 4,094,854; males reach military age (18) annually
193,480 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - about $5 billion,
20%-25% of GDP (1991 est.); note - the officially announced but
suspect figure is $2.2 billion (1994), about 12% of total spending

________________________________________________________________________

KOREA, SOUTH

@Korea, South:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean peninsula
bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea, south of North Korea

Map references: Asia

Area:
total area: 98,480 sq km
land area: 98,190 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Indiana

Land boundaries: total 238 km, North Korea 238 km

Coastline: 2,413 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 12 nm; 3 nm in the Korea Strait

International disputes: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt
Rocks claimed by Japan

Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and
south

Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 1%
forest and woodland: 67%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: 13,530 sq km (1989)

Environment:
current issues: air pollution in large cities; water pollution from
the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; driftnet fishing
natural hazards: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods;
earthquakes in southwest
international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

@Korea, South:People

Population: 45,553,882 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (female 5,280,998; male 5,640,789)
15-64 years: 71% (female 15,877,182; male 16,291,183)
65 years and over: 5% (female 1,554,512; male 909,218) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.04% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.63 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.18 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.89 years
male: 67.69 years
female: 74.29 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.66 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese)

Religions: Christianity 48.6%, Buddhism 47.4%, Confucianism 3%,
pervasive folk religion (shamanism), Chondogyo (Religion of the
Heavenly Way) 0.2%

Languages: Korean, English widely taught in high school

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 96%
male: 99%
female: 94%

Labor force: 20 million
by occupation: services and other 52%, mining and manufacturing 27%,
agriculture, fishing, forestry 21% (1991)

@Korea, South:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Korea
conventional short form: South Korea
local long form: Taehan-min'guk
local short form: none
note: the South Koreans generally use the term "Hanguk" to refer to
their country

Abbreviation: ROK

Digraph: KS

Type: republic

Capital: Seoul

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 6
special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Cheju-do,
Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto, Ch'ungch'ong-namdo,
Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do, Kwangju-jikhalsi*, Kyonggi-do,
Kyongsang-bukto, Kyongsang-namdo, Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*,
Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi*

Independence: 15 August 1948

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1948)

Constitution: 25 February 1988

Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law
systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President KIM Yong-sam (since 25 February 1993);
election last held on 18 December 1992 (next to be held NA December
1997); results - KIM Yong-sam (DLP) 41.9%, KIM Tae-chung (DP) 33.8%,
CHONG Chu-yong (UPP) 16.3%, other 8%
head of government: Prime Minister YI Hong-ku (since 17 December
1994); Deputy Prime Minister HONG Chae-yong (since 4 October 1994) and
Deputy Prime Minister KIM Tok (since 23 December 1994)
cabinet: State Council; appointed by the president on the prime
minister's recommendation

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Kukhoe): elections last held on 24 March 1992;
results - DLP 38.5%, DP 29.2%, Unification National Party (UNP) 17.3%
(name later changed to UPP), other 15%; seats - (299 total) DLP 149,
DP 97, UNP 31, other 22; the distribution of seats as of January 1994
was DLP 172, DP 96, UPP 11, other 20
note: the change in the distribution of seats reflects the fluidity of
the current situation where party members are constantly switching
from one party to another

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders:
majority party: Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), KIM Yong-sam,
president
opposition: Democratic Party (DP), YI Ki-taek, executive chairman;
United People's Party (UPP), KIM Tong-kil, chairman; several smaller
parties
note: the DLP resulted from a merger of the Democratic Justice Party
(DJP), Reunification Democratic Party (RDP), and New Democratic
Republican Party (NDRP) on 9 February 1990

Other political or pressure groups: Korean National Council of
Churches; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation
of Student Associations; National Federation of Farmers' Associations;
National Council of Labor Unions; Federation of Korean Trade Unions;
Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean Industries; Korean
Traders Association

Member of: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer),
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador PAK Kun-u
chancery: 2450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-5600
consulate(s) general: Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San
Francisco, and Seattle

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador James T. LANEY
embassy: 82 Sejong-Ro, Chongro-ku, Seoul
mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 15550, Seoul; APO AP
96205-0001
telephone: [82] (2) 397-4114
FAX: [82] (2) 738-8845
consulate(s): Pusan

Flag: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center;
there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of
Changes) in each corner of the white field

@Korea, South:Economy

Overview: The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth has
been the planned development of an export-oriented economy in a
vigorously entrepreneurial society. Real GDP increased more than 10%
annually between 1986 and 1991. This growth ultimately led to an
overheated situation characterized by a tight labor market, strong
inflationary pressures, and a rapidly rising current account deficit.
As a result, in 1992, economic policy focused on slowing the growth
rate of inflation and reducing the deficit. Annual growth slowed to
5%, still above the rate in most other countries of the world, and
recovered to 6.3% in 1993. The economy expanded by 8.3% in 1994,
driven by booming exports.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $508.3 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 8.3% (1994)

National product per capita: $11,270 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 2% (November 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $63 billion
expenditures: $63 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995
est.)

Exports: $96.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: electronic and electrical equipment, machinery, steel,
automobiles, ships, textiles, clothing, footwear, fish
partners: US 26%, Japan 17%, EU 14%

Imports: $102.3 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil,
steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains
partners: Japan 26%, US 24%, EU 15%

External debt: $44.1 billion (1993)

Industrial production: growth rate 12.1% (1994 est.); accounts for
about 45% of GNP

Electricity:
capacity: 26,940,000 kW
production: 137 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 2,847 kWh (1993)

Industries: electronics, automobile production, chemicals,
shipbuilding, steel, textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GDP and employs 21% of work force
(including fishing and forestry); principal crops - rice, root crops,
barley, vegetables, fruit; livestock and livestock products - cattle,
hogs, chickens, milk, eggs; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat;
fish catch of 2.9 million metric tons, seventh-largest in world

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.9 billion;
non-US countries (1970-89), $3 billion

Currency: 1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chun (theoretical)

Exchange rates: South Korean won (W) per US$1 - 790.48 (January 1995),
803.44 (1994), 802.67 (1993), 780.65 (1992), 733.35 (1991), 707.76
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Korea, South:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 6,763 km
standard gauge: 6,716 km 1.435-meter gauge (525 km electrified; 847 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 47 km 0.610-meter gauge

Highways:
total: 63,200 km
paved: expressways 1,550 km
unpaved: NA
undifferentiated: national highway 12,190 km; provincial, local roads
49,460 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft

Pipelines: petroleum products 455 km

Ports: Chinhae, Inch'on, Kunsan, Masan, Mokp'o, Pohang, Pusan, Ulsan,
Yosu

Merchant marine:
total: 412 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,129,796 GRT/9,985,197
DWT
ships by type: bulk 123, cargo 125, chemical tanker 17, combination
bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1, container 61, liquefied gas tanker 13,
multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 51, refrigerated cargo
9, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 9

Airports:
total: 114
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 22
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 14
with paved runways under 914 m: 63
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 4

@Korea, South:Communications

Telephone system: 13.3 million telephones; excellent domestic and
international services
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 3 INTELSAT (2 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth
stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 79, FM 46, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 256 (1 kW or greater 57)
televisions: NA

@Korea, South:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, National Maritime
Police (Coast Guard)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 13,580,832; males fit for
military service 8,701,742; males reach military age (18) annually
405,290 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $14 billion, 3.3% of
GNP (1995 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

KUWAIT

@Kuwait:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and
Saudi Arabia

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total area: 17,820 sq km
land area: 17,820 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: total 464 km, Iraq 242 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km

Coastline: 499 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: in November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the
UN-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been spelled out in
Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993), and 883 (1993);
this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and Warbah
islands; ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim islands disputed by
Saudi Arabia

Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 8%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 92%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; some of world's
largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities provide much of
the water; air and water pollution; desertification
natural hazards: sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April,
they bring inordinate amounts of rain which can damage roads and
houses; sandstorms and duststorms occur throughout the year, but are
most common between March and August
international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Endangered Species, Marine Dumping

Note: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

@Kuwait:People

Population: 1,817,397 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (female 302,908; male 319,659)
15-64 years: 64% (female 467,163; male 697,849)
65 years and over: 2% (female 13,476; male 16,342) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 7.46% (1995 est.)
note: this rate reflects the continued post-Gulf crisis return of
nationals and expatriates

Birth rate: 21.07 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 2.2 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 55.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.64 years
male: 73.33 years
female: 78.06 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.93 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kuwaiti(s)
adjective: Kuwaiti

Ethnic divisions: Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian
4%, other 7%

Religions: Muslim 85% (Shi'a 30%, Sunni 45%, other 10%), Christian,
Hindu, Parsi, and other 15%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely spoken

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
total population: 74%
male: 78%
female: 69%

Labor force: 566,000 (1986)
by occupation: services 45.0%, construction 20.0%, trade 12.0%,
manufacturing 8.6%, finance and real estate 2.6%, agriculture 1.9%,
power and water 1.7%, mining and quarrying 1.4%
note: 70% of labor force non-Kuwaiti (1986)

@Kuwait:Government

Names:
conventional long form: State of Kuwait
conventional short form: Kuwait
local long form: Dawlat al Kuwayt
local short form: Al Kuwayt

Digraph: KU

Type: nominal constitutional monarchy

Capital: Kuwait

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al 'Ahmadi, Al Jahrah, Al Kuwayt, Hawalli, Al Farwaniyah

Independence: 19 June 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 25 February (1948)

Constitution: approved and promulgated 11 November 1962

Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in
personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their male
descendants at age 21
note: only 10% of all citizens are eligible to vote; in 1996,
naturalized citizens who do not meet the pre-1920 qualification but
have been naturalized for thirty years will be eligible to vote

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir Shaykh JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 31
December 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister and Crown Prince SAAD al-Abdallah
al-Salim Al Sabah (since 8 February 1978); Deputy Prime Minister SABAH
al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 17 October 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the Prime Minister and
approved by the Amir

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Majlis al-umma): dissolved 3 July 1986; new
elections were held on 5 October 1992 with a second election in the
14th and 16th constituencies held February 1993

Judicial branch: High Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: small, clandestine leftist and
Shi'a fundamentalist groups are active; several groups critical of
government policies are publicly active

Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BDEAC, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO,
G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim Al SABAH
chancery: 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-0702
FAX: [1] (202) 966-0517

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER
embassy: Bneid al-Gar (opposite the Kuwait International Hotel),
Kuwait City
mailing address: P.O. Box 77 SAFAT, 13001 SAFAT, Kuwait; Unit 69000,
Kuwait; APO AE 09880-9000
telephone: [965] 2424151 through 2424159
FAX: [965] 2442855

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with
a black trapezoid based on the hoist side

@Kuwait:Economy

Overview: Kuwait is a small and relatively open economy with proved
crude oil reserves of about 94 billion barrels - 10% of world
reserves. Kuwait has rebuilt its war-ravaged petroleum sector; its
crude oil production reached at least 2.0 million barrels per day by
the end of 1993. The government ran a sizable fiscal deficit in 1993.
Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP and 90% of export and
government revenues. Kuwait lacks water and has practically no arable
land, thus preventing development of agriculture. With the exception
of fish, it depends almost wholly on food imports. About 75% of
potable water must be distilled or imported. Because of its high per
capita income, comparable with Western European incomes, Kuwait
provides its citizens with extensive health, educational, and
retirement benefits. Per capita military expenditures are among the
highest in the world. The economy improved moderately in 1994, with
the growth in industry and finance, and should see further gains in
1995, especially if oil prices go up. The World Bank has urged Kuwait

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