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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 97%

Labor force: 14,400 (1990)
by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

@American Samoa:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form: American Samoa

Abbreviation: AS

Digraph: AQ

Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered
by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and
International Affairs

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January
1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993)
head of government: Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993);
Lieutenant Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993); election
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results
- A. P. LUTALI (Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)
House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to
be held NA November 1994); results - representatives popularly elected
from 17 house districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1
nonvoting delegate from Swains Island)
Senate: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA
November 1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12
senate districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA
US House of Representatives: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next
to be held NA November 1994); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA
reelected as delegate

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: NA

Member of: ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly
side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan
symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa:Economy

Overview: Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which
American Samoa conducts 80%-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and
tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with
canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government
are by far the two largest employers. Other economic activities
include a slowly developing tourist industry. Transfers from the US
Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $128 million (1991
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $2,600 (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget:
revenues: $97 million (includes $43,000,000 in local revenue and
$54,000,000 in grant revenue);
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: canned tuna 93%
partners: US 99.6%

Imports: $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products
7%, machinery and parts 6%
partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 30,000 kW
production: 90 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,505 kWh (1993)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
vessels), meat canning, handicrafts

Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams,
copra, pineapples, papayas, dairy farming

Economic aid:
recipient: $21,042,650 in operational funds and $1,227,000 in
construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US
Department of Interior (1991)

Currency: 1 United States dollar = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 350 km
paved: 150 km
unpaved: 200 km

Ports: Aanu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago,
Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 4
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 3
note: small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu

@American Samoa:Communications

Telephone system: 8,399 telephones; good telex, telegraph, and
facsimile services
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) and 1 COMSAT earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 1
televisions: NA

@American Samoa:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

________________________________________________________________________

ANDORRA

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 450 sq km
land area: 450 sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: total 125 km, France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 56%
forest and woodland: 22%
other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows
contributes to soil erosion
natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches
international agreements: NA

Note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 65,780 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 5,503; male 5,985)
15-64 years: 70% (female 21,873; male 24,334)
65 years and over: 12% (female 4,020; male 4,065) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.92 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.52 years
male: 75.65 years
female: 81.66 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic divisions: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

@Andorra:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra

Digraph: AN

Type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its
heads of state a co-principality; the two princes are the president of
France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally
by officials called veguers

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular -
parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes,
Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chiefs of state: French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS (since
NA); note - COURTOIS is to become French ambassador to Libreville and
his replacement has not been announced; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince
Mgr. Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer
Episcopal Francesc BADIA Bata (since NA); two permanent delegates
(French Prefect Pierre STEINMETZ for the department of
Pyrenees-Orientales, since NA, and Spanish Vicar General Nemesi
MARQUES Oste for the Seo de Urgel diocese, since NA)
head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE (since 21
December 1994) elected by Parliament, following resignation of Oscar
RIBAS Reig
cabinet: Executive Council; designated by the executive council
president

Legislative branch: unicameral
General Council of the Valleys: (Consell General de las Valls);
elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); yielded no
clear winner; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28
total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for
civil cases, the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel
(Spain) for civil cases, Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)
for criminal cases

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group (AND), Oscar
RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS; Liberal Union (UL), Francesc CERQUEDA;
New Democracy (ND), Jaume BARTOMEU; Andorran National Coalition (CNA),
Antoni CERQUEDA; National Democratic Initiative (IDN), Vincenc MATEU;
Liberal Union (UL), Marc FORNE
note: there are two other small parties

Member of: ECE, IFRCS (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, UN, UNESCO

Diplomatic representation in US: Andorra has no mission in the US

US diplomatic representation: Andorra is included within the Barcelona
(Spain) Consular District, and the US Consul General visits Andorra
periodically

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and
Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

@Andorra:Economy

Overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's economy, accounts for
roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually,
attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter
resorts. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also
contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is
limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be
imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.
Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union; it is unclear what effect
the European Single Market will have on the advantages Andorra obtains
from its duty-free status.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $760 million (1992
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $14,000 (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues: $138 million
expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993)

Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners: France, Spain

Imports: $NA
commodities: consumer goods, food
partners: France, Spain

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 35,000 kW
production: 140 million kWh
consumption per capita: 2,570 kWh (1992)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
banking

Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat,
barley, oats, and some vegetables

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100
centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.2943 (January 1995),
5,5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 132.61 (January 1995),
133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Andorra:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 96 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: none

Airports: none

@Andorra:Communications

Telephone system: 17,700 telephones; digital microwave network
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Andorra:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

________________________________________________________________________

ANGOLA

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Namibia and Zaire

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1,246,700 sq km
land area: 1,246,700 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,198 km, Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire
2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 20 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool,
dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper,
feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 23%
forest and woodland: 43%
other: 32%

Irrigated land: NA km2

Environment:
current issues: population pressures contributing to overuse of
pastures and subsequent soil erosion; desertification; deforestation
of tropical rain forest attributable to the international demand for
tropical timber and domestic use as a fuel; deforestation contributing
to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution
and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
the plateau
international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

@Angola:People

Population: 10,069,501 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (female 2,208,307; male 2,274,533)
15-64 years: 53% (female 2,641,259; male 2,685,543)
65 years and over: 2% (female 136,573; male 123,286) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 45.05 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.1 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 142.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.28 years
male: 44.18 years
female: 48.49 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.42 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
(mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
(est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28%

Labor force: 2.783 million economically active
by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

@Angola:Government

Note: Civil war has been the norm since independence from Portugal on
11 November 1975; a cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991 until October
1992 when the insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of
Angola (UNITA) refused to accept its defeat in internationally
monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout much of the
countryside. The two sides signed another peace accord on 20 November
1994; the cease-fire is generally holding but most provisions of the
accord remain to be implemented.

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola

Digraph: AO

Type: transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a
strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza
Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda
Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law;
recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use
of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September
1979)
head of government: Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2
December 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional): first nationwide, multiparty
elections were held 29-30 September 1992 with disputed results

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of
Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and
has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, is a legal party
despite its history of armed resistance to the government; five minor
parties have small numbers of seats in the National Assembly

Other political or pressure groups: Cabindan State Liberation Front
(FLEC), N'ZITA Tiago, leader of largest faction (FLEC-FAC)
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Goncalves Martins PATRICIO
embassy: 1819 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, Suite 400
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edmund T. DE JARNETTE
embassy: 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
mailing address: C.P. 6484, Luanda; American Embassy, Luanda,
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-2550 (pouch)
telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418
FAX: [244] (2) 347-884

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a
centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola:Economy

Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
80%-90% of the population but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil
production is vital to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP.
Despite the signing of a peace accord in November 1994 between the
Angola government and the UNITA insurgents, sporadic fighting
continues and many farmers remain reluctant to return to their fields.
As a result, much of the country's food requirements must still be
imported. Angola has rich natural resources - notably gold, diamonds,
and arable land, in addition to large oil deposits - but will need to
observe the cease-fire, implement the peace agreement, and reform
government policies if it is to achieve its potential.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $6.1 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -1% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $620 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% average per month (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% with considerable underemployment (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $928 million
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
partners: US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment),
food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines,
substantial military deliveries
partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

External debt: $11.7 billion (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP,
including petroleum output

Electricity:
capacity: 620,000 kW
production: 1.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 189 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum; mining - diamonds, iron ore, phosphates,
feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; fish processing; food
processing; brewing; tobacco; sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal
products

Agriculture: cash crops - bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
cotton, cane, manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables,
plantains; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry
2% of total agricultural output

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine
destined for Western Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1.105 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3
billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), $750 million

Currency: 1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: new kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 900,000 (official rate 25
April 1995), 1,900,000 (black market rate 6 April 1995), 600,000
(official rate 10 January 1995), 90,000 (official rate 1 June 1994),
180,000 (black market rate 1 June 1994); 7,000 (official rate 16
December 1993), 50,000 (black market rate 16 December 1993); 3,884
(July 1993); 550 (April 1992); 90 (November 1991); 60 (October 1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Angola:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 3,189 km; note - limited trackage in use because of landmines
still in place from the civil war; majority of the Benguela Railroad
also closed because of civil war
narrow gauge: 2,879 km 1.067-m gauge; 310 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
total: 73,828 km
paved: bituminous-surface 8,577 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, improved earth 29,350 km; unimproved
earth 35,901 km

Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malogo, Namibe, Porto Amboim,
Soyo

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,776 GRT/99,863 DWT
ships by type: cargo 11, oil tanker 1

Airports:
total: 289
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 4
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6
with paved runways under 914 m: 93
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 33
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 126

@Angola:Communications

Telephone system: 40,300 telephones; 4.1 telephones/1,000 persons;
high frequency radio used extensively for military links; telephone
service limited mostly to government and business use
local: NA
intercity: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
troposcatter routes
international: 2 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 6
televisions: NA

@Angola:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police
Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,315,717; males fit for
military service 1,166,082; males reach military age (18) annually
100,273 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 31% of
GDP (1993)

________________________________________________________________________

ANGUILLA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 91 sq km
land area: 91 sq km
comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
meadows and pastures: NA%
forest and woodland: NA%
other: NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet
increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
to October)
international agreements: NA

@Anguilla:People

Population: 7,099 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (female 1,129; male 1,115)
15-64 years: 60% (female 2,101; male 2,126)
65 years and over: 8% (female 362; male 266) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.66% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.09 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.03 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.1 years
male: 71.32 years
female: 76.91 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.05 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic divisions: black African

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: age 12 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 95%
male: 95%
female: 95%

Labor force: 4,400 (1992)
by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%,
transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

@Anguilla:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Anguilla

Digraph: AV

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Orders 1 April 1982; amended
1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Alan W. SHAVE (since 14 August 1992)
head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)

cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the governor from the elected
members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
House of Assembly: elections last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held
March 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total,
7 elected) ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA);
Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party
(ADP), Victor BANKS

Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and
light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular
design centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use
since 30 May 1990

@Anguilla:Economy

Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends
heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances
from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom
in tourism and construction. Development plans center around the
improvement of the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist
facilities, and also light industry.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $49 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 7.5% (1992)

National product per capita: $7,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $13.8 million
expenditures: $15.2 million, including capital expenditures of $2.4
million (1992 est.)

Exports: $556,000 (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: lobster and salt
partners: NA

Imports: $33.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 2,000 kW
production: 6 million kWh
consumption per capita: 862 kWh (1992)

Industries: tourism, boat building, salt

Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs,
cattle, poultry, fishing (including lobster)

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $38 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 105 km (1992 est.)
paved: 65 km
unpaved: gravel and earth 40 km

Ports: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2

@Anguilla:Communications

Telephone system: 890 telephones; modern internal telephone system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: radio relay microwave link to island of Saint Martin

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 0
televisions: NA

@Anguilla:Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

________________________________________________________________________

ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total area: 14 million sq km (est.)
land area: 14 million sq km (est.)
comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
note: second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Land boundaries: none, but see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International Disputes

International disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic
Treaty Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by
Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross
Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other
nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and
have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do so);
no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west
and 150 degrees west

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along
the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
ranges up to 4,897 meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts
of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute
11% of the area of the continent

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
current issues: in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield,
which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation,
had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975
when measurements were first taken
natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along
the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak
international agreements: NA

Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during
summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than
is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly
uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally
staffed research stations
Summer (January) population: over 4,115 total; Argentina 207,
Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA,
Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210,
Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39,
Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA,
US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90)
Winter (July) population: over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia
71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace
5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa
12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90)
Year-round stations: 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1,
Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2,
South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3,
former USSR 6 (1990-91)
Summer only stations: over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile
5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South
Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5
(1989-90); note - the disintegration of the former USSR has placed the
status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may
be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic
difficulties

@Antarctica:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antarctica

Digraph: AY

Type:
Antarctic Treaty Summary: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December
1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal
framework for the management of Antarctica. Administration is carried
out through consultative member meetings - the 18th Antarctic Treaty
Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April 1993. Currently, there are
42 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and 16 acceding.
Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim
portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and
19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made
no claims have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize
the claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an
acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while
no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory.
Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New
Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are -
Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989),
Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989),
Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain
(1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding
(nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are -
Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba
(1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea
(1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and
Ukraine (1992).
Article 1: area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military
activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military
personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any
other peaceful purpose
Article 2: freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall
continue
Article 3: free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation
with the UN and other international agencies
Article 4: does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial
claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in
force
Article 5: prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive
wastes
Article 6: includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of
60 degrees 00 minutes south
Article 7: treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations,
and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the
introduction of military personnel must be given
Article 8: allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by
their own states
Article 9: frequent consultative meetings take place among member
nations
Article 10: treaty states will discourage activities by any country in
Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty
Article 11: disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned
or, ultimately, by the ICJ
Articles 12, 13, 14: deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending
the treaty among involved nations
Other agreements: more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty
consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed
Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964);
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention
on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a
mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently
rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the
Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification; this agreement
provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five
specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental
impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also
prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except
scientific research; 14 parties have ratified Protocol as of April
1995

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: The
taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous
plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific
areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the
Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce,
Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities.
Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires
expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the
Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information contact Permit
Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation,
Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703-306-1031).

@Antarctica:Economy

Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off the
coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

@Antarctica:Transportation

Ports: none; offshore anchorage

Airports: 42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 15
national governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility
operated by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization;
helicopter pads at 36 of these locations; runways at 14 locations are
gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for
wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved runways; 15 locations have
snow-surface skiways limited to use by ski-equipped planes - 11
runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 5 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m,
8 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m, and 5 of unspecified or
variable length; airports generally subject to severe restrictions and
limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions;
airports do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the
respective governmental or non-governmental operating organization
required for landing

@Antarctica:Communications

Telephone system:
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: NA

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA

@Antarctica:Defense Forces

Note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military
nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing
of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or
equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

________________________________________________________________________

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

@Antigua And Barbuda:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total area: 440 sq km
land area: 440 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington,
DC
note: includes Redonda

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher
volcanic areas

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 7%
forest and woodland: 16%
other: 59%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited
natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of
trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
periodic droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Whaling

@Antigua And Barbuda:People

Population: 65,176 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (female 8,062; male 8,390)
15-64 years: 69% (female 22,342; male 22,334)
65 years and over: 6% (female 2,231; male 1,817) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.68% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 17.08 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.4 years
male: 71.32 years
female: 75.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic divisions: black African, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman
Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
schooling (1960)
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88%

Labor force: 30,000
by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7%
(1983)

@Antigua And Barbuda:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Digraph: AC

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the governor general on
the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
Senate: 17 member body appointed by the governor general
House of Representatives: elections last held 8 March 1994 (next to be
held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17
total) ALP 11, UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Lester
Bryant BIRD; United Progressive Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER

Other political or pressure groups: United Progressive Party (UPP),
headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition of three opposition political
parties - the United National Democratic Party (UNDP); the Antigua
Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and the Progressive Labor
Movement (PLM); Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by
William ROBINSON

Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT
(nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM
(observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211, 5166, 5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

US diplomatic representation: the post was closed 30 June 1994; the US
Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of
the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top),
light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

@Antigua And Barbuda:Economy

Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the
most important determinant of economic performance. In 1993, tourism
made a direct contribution to GDP of about 17%, and also spurred
growth in other sectors such as construction and transport. While only
accounting for roughly 5% of GDP in 1993, agricultural production
increased by 4%. Tourist arrivals remained strong in 1994.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $400 million (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: 3.4% (1993)

National product per capita: $6,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $105 million
expenditures: $161 million, including capital expenditures of $56
million (1992)

Exports: $54.7 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live
animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%,
US 0.3%

Imports: $260.9 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

External debt: $250 million (1990 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -4.9% (1993 est.); accounts for
6.5% of GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 52,100 kW
production: 95 million kWh
consumption per capita: 1,242 kWh (1993)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GDP; expanding output of cotton,
fruits, vegetables, and livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: a long-time but relatively minor transshipment point
for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and recent transshipment
point for heroin from Europe to the US; more significant as a drug
money laundering center

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments (1985-88), $10 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Antigua And Barbuda:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
exclusively for handling sugar cane)

Highways:
total: 240 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA

Ports: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 304 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,188,113 GRT/1,651,190
DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 216, chemical tanker 8, container 48,
liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 10,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 11
note: a flag of convenience registry

Airports:
total: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 2

@Antigua And Barbuda:Communications

Telephone system: 6,700 telephones; good automatic telephone system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean)
earth station; tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 2
televisions: NA

@Antigua And Barbuda:Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and
Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of
GDP (FY90/91)

________________________________________________________________________

ARCTIC OCEAN

@Arctic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total area: 14.056 million sq km
comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US;
smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic
Ocean, and Indian Ocean)
note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Coastline: 45,389 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states);
Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between Norway
and Russia

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack
that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges
may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian
Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
Fram Basin

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
and whales)

Environment:
current issues: endangered marine species include walruses and whales;
fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions
or damage
natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually
icelocked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing
from October to May
international agreements: NA

Note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to
the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between
North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of
eastern and western Russia, floating research stations operated by the
US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50
centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean:Government

Digraph: XQ

@Arctic Ocean:Economy

Overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and seals.

@Arctic Ocean:Transportation

Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the
Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Eurasia) are
important seasonal waterways

@Arctic Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international: no submarine cables

________________________________________________________________________

ARGENTINA

@Argentina:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Chile and Uruguay

Map references: South America

Area:
total area: 2,766,890 sq km
land area: 2,736,690 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries: total 9,665 km, Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km,
Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is
in dispute; short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite;
claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims
British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
territorial claim in Antarctica

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 52%
forest and woodland: 22%
other: 13%

Irrigated land: 17,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood controls and
improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation;
desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cites;
water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to
increased pesticide and fertilizer use
natural hazards: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling;
signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine
Life Conservation

Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil);
strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and
South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage)

@Argentina:People

Population: 34,292,742 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (female 4,706,793; male 4,903,589)
15-64 years: 62% (female 10,680,074; male 10,689,728)
65 years and over: 10% (female 1,922,552; male 1,390,006) (July 1995
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.11% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 19.51 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.62 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.51 years
male: 68.22 years
female: 74.97 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.65 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine

Ethnic divisions: white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups
15%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 95%
male: 96%
female: 95%

Labor force: 10.9 million
by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)

@Argentina:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina

Digraph: AR

Type: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires;
Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*;
Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones;
Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe;
Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico
Sur; Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica or
Argentina's claims to the Falkland Islands

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM
(since 8 July 1989); Vice President (position vacant); election last
held 14 May 1995 (next to be held NA May 1999); results - Carlos Saul
MENEM was reelected
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
Senate: elections last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late
1991 set the stage for indirect elections by provincial senators for
one-third of 48 seats in the national senate in May 1992; seats (48
total) - PJ 29, UCR 11, others 7, vacant 1
Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 3 October 1993 ( next to be
held October 1995); elections are held every two years and half of the
total membership is elected each time for four year terms; seats -
(257 total) PJ 122, UCR 83, MODIN 7, UCD 5, other 40

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party (PJ), Carlos Saul
MENEM, Peronist umbrella political organization; Radical Civic Union
(UCR),Raul ALFONSIN, moderately left-of-center party; Union of the
Democratic Center (UCD), Jorge AGUADO, conservative party; Dignity and
Independence Political Party (MODIN), Aldo RICO, right-wing party;
Grand Front (Frente Grande), Carlos ALVAREZ, center-left coalition;
several provincial parties

Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor movement;
General Confederation of Labor (CGT; Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
organization); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers'
association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association);
business organizations; students; the Roman Catholic Church; the Armed
Forces

Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MERCOSUR, MINURSO,
MTCR, NSG (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMOZ,
UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6400 through 6403
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK
embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
mailing address: Unit 4334; APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (1) 777-4533, 4534
FAX: [54] (1) 777-0197

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and
light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
human face known as the Sun of May

@Argentina:Economy

Overview: Argentina, rich in natural resources, benefits also from a
highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector,
and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of
mismanagement and statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was
plagued with huge external debts and recurring bouts of
hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession, President
MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program
that shows signs of putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable
growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar
since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20
years. Argentines have responded to the relative price stability by
repatriating flight capital and investing in domestic industry. The
economy registered an impressive 6% advance in 1994, fueled largely by
inflows of foreign capital and strong domestic consumption spending.
The government's major short term objective is encouraging exports,
e.g., by reducing domestic costs of production. At the start of 1995,
the government had to deal with the spillover from international
financial movements associated with the devaluation of the Mexican
peso. In addition, unemployment had become a serious issue for the
government. Despite average annual 7% growth in 1991-94, unemployment
surprisingly has doubled - due mostly to layoffs in government bureaus
and in privatized industrial firms and utilities and, to a lesser
degree, to illegal immigration. Much remains to be done in the 1990s
in dismantling the old statist barriers to growth, extending the
recent economic gains, and bringing down the rate of unemployment.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $270.8 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $7,990 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $48.46 billion
expenditures: $46.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5
billion (1994 est.)

Exports: $15.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures
partners: US 12%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands

Imports: $21.4 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and
lubricants, agricultural products
partners: US 22%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

External debt: $73 billion (April 1994)

Industrial production: growth rate 12.5% accounts for 31% of GDP (1994
est.)

Electricity:
capacity: 17,330,000 kW
production: 54.8 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,610 kWh (1993)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing); produces
abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's
top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn,
sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine
headed for the US and Europe

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $4.4 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million

Currency: 1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1 - 0.99870 (December 1994), 0.99901
(1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064 (1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Argentina:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 34,572 km
broad gauge: NA km 1.676-m gauge
standard gauge: NA km 1.435-m
narrow gauge: 400 km 0.750-m gauge; NA km 1.000-m gauge (209 km
electrified)

Highways:
total: 208,350 km
paved: 57,000 km
unpaved: gravel 39,500 km; improved/unimproved earth 111,850 km

Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
gas 9,918 km

Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion del
Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
total: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 434,525 GRT/667,501 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 21, chemical tanker 1, container 4, oil
tanker 8, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 1

Airports:
total: 1,602
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 5

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